Ohio’s Early ChildhoodCore Knowledge & Competencies
Table of Contents Introduction 1 Content Areas 3 Core Knowledge Framework 5 Alignment 6 Uses of Core Knowledge 7 Acknowledgements 8 Child Growth & Development 12 Family & Community Relations 18 Health, Safety & Nutrition 24 Child Observation & Assessment 30 Professional Development 34 Learning Environments & Experiences 40 Appendix A: Glossary 44 Appendix B: Research References 47 Appendix C: For More Information 49 Appendix D: Linkages with Primary Resources 51
Young children are amazing! Inside the vulnerable, wobbly head A Note About WordingIntroduction of the youngest newborn is a stunning amount of sophisticated brain activity! Thanks to modern science, we are just beginning In writing this document, some key decisions were made about to understand just how perfectly equipped and innately capable language that would be used. Ohio’s Early Childhood Core children are from the start to learn, to function, to adapt, and Knowledge and Competencies was developed by people in a wide to make sense of the world in which they are born. variety of disciplines and roles within the early childhood profession and defines and describes what we, as early childhood professionals, But modern science has also shown that the amazing capabilities know and do and why. It is intended to be a statement from us, the of each child are not enough by themselves to ensure a successful early childhood professional community in Ohio, and it is our passage into a healthy, happy adulthood. Decades of research have sincere desire that each of you who share in this work will see made it abundantly clear – the adults who care for and educate yourself in these pages and feel that you are well-represented here. young children will shape: Early childhood professional is the term chosen for those whose • hildren’s understanding of themselves, others and the world c work is represented in Core Knowledge. It is intended to encompass around them; not only those who have the responsibility for the direct care and • he pathways of children’s physical, social, cognitive, and t education of young children but all those whose primary work emotional development; and responsibilities are related to the well-being of children birth through age eight. These professionals, though they are found in a • even the very structure of the young child’s brain! wide variety of roles and settings, share a common goal of ensuring young children’s healthy development, optimal care, and success Parents, of course, are their children’s first and most influential and joy in learning. 1 caregivers and teachers. During the course of their early years, however, most of the children in Ohio will also have their Professional practice is the term chosen to describe the early development and experiences shaped by at least one early childhood childhood professional’s work. It is a phrase intended to include all professional – someone dedicated to the well-being of young of the customary activities and responsibilities – the “practices” – children, birth to age eight, and their families. In this document, of work focused on young children and their families. you will discover the breadth and depth of knowledge and skills that are needed to fully foster young children’s inborn capabilities. Recommended practices is the term chosen to describe professional practices that are generally considered to be the most highly Core Knowledge recommended by the field, based on current research and the collective wisdom of expert practitioners at this time. It is The Ohio Core Knowledge and Competencies for Early Childhood understood that, as new evidence arises, the practices that are Professionals is based on the understanding that there are critical recommended in the care and education of young children areas of knowledge and skills that are necessary for early childhood may change. professionals to have if young children are to thrive under their care. Core Knowledge strives to clearly communicate the nature A glossary can be found in Appendix A that defines many more of of these critical areas of professional practice and be useful to the terms used throughout Core Knowledge and within specific anyone who is interested in the competency of early childhood content areas. Words that are defined in the glossary are marked professionals, whether it be those working or considering work with an asterisk*. in the field, those families who depend upon early childhood services, or those who make decisions and policies about early childhood professionals.
What and WhyIntroduction Core Knowledge and Competencies define what all adults who work with young children need to know, understand and be able to do in The writing teams were strongly committed to a set of eight order to ensure that children have the best possible environments, guiding principles. The writing teams labored to create a Core experiences and relationships in which to grow and learn. Core Knowledge and Competencies document that would: Knowledge is based upon all that we currently know about young children’s development, care and learning through research as well 1. dentify the key concepts that apply to anyone working with i as the combined wisdom of leaders in our field. young children; 2. pply to early childhood professionals who work with young a Having a clearly defined Core Knowledge and Competencies has children and their families to provide care and/or education in many benefits: many different settings and roles; • ork with young children gains stature as a profession when W 3. epresent knowledge and observable skills needed for all levels r everyone understands that it requires specialized knowledge, of professionals, from beginners just entering the field through skills and dispositions gained through education and ongoing those at an expert level; professional development. 4. pply to the development, care and learning of children from a • ore Knowledge represents the scope of professional practice and C birth through age eight; can provide a well-rounded framework for the preparation of newcomers to the field and the continued professional growth 5. ecognize that children with special needs are included r of those already working with young children and their families. in the population of children that all early childhood 2 professionals serve; • astly, a Core Knowledge document that covers a range from entry L level to master level is a helpful tool as individuals assess their 6. be culturally sensitive and respectful; own knowledge and skill level and chart a course for their own 7. e based on what is currently known, from research and expert b development. wisdom, about young children and the practices that best support them in their development and learning; and Guiding Principles 8. be reader-friendly and useful in a variety of ways. The process of creating Core Knowledge for Ohio’s early childhood community involved the wisdom, creativity, and passion of a committed group of the state’s early childhood professionals. The Ohio Early Care and Education Professional Development Network invited professionals from across the state to join one of six writing teams, a team for each of the six identified Core Knowledge content areas. The resulting teams, each with ten members, represented many roles and settings in which early childhood professionals work. (Please see the Acknowledgements on page 8 for a list of all of the writing team members.)
Definitions Over-arching ConsiderationsContent Areas Six broad content areas were identified as key categories of specialized Some aspects of professional practice cut across all six content knowledge that shape early childhood professional practice. Here areas. In identifying the Core Knowledge and Competencies within we give general definitions of each. They are in no particular order each content area, each writing team considered the implications of: and should be seen as equally important areas of professional • the inclusion of children with special needs*; knowledge and competency that are interrelated and dynamic. • he differences among children and families that are due to such t Child Growth and Development: influences as culture*, family* structure, or religion; and Early childhood professionals base their practice on an understanding of all of the ways that children change over time, including expected • he responsibility of the professional for guiding young t patterns of development as well as the many ways that individual children’s behavior. children can differ. Family Community Relations: Early childhood professionals understand how important it is that they know the family, culture and community context in which each child lives. They also appreciate that developing strong, positive connections to families and community resources benefit children. Health, Safety and Nutrition: Early childhood professionals realize the importance of children’s 3 physical well-being as a basic and necessary foundation for their growth, development and learning, and they understand the many ways of fostering it. Child Observation and Assessment: Early childhood professionals are able to continually improve each child’s care and learning experiences because they understand that every child follows a unique path of growth and development; therefore, they will gather and apply information about each child’s progress as part of their regular practice. Professional Development: Early childhood professionals see themselves as members of a larger professional community and accept the responsibilities that go along with being a positive reflection on the profession and a positive contributor to the profession. Learning Experiences and Environments: Early childhood professionals appreciate their role as designer and builder of the world in which each child lives while in an early childhood program. They also understand the interplay between children’s experiences, environments and relationships and their well-being, development and learning.
DispositionsContent Areas Every profession has a set of attitudes, beliefs and perspectives • xpresses her/his own emotions in healthy and constructive ways e that distinguish its members as a group. Together they are called • alues and nurtures imagination, creativity and play, both in children v professional “dispositions.” The early childhood profession, too, and in herself/himself has dispositions that are highly valued among its members. • emonstrates responsible professional and personal habits in working d Although dispositions are an important part of professional and interacting with others practice, they are different than professional knowledge and • as a collaborative attitude h competencies. Dispositions describe how a person sees all aspects of the work of the early childhood profession rather than what is known and done. They are more often absorbed by newcomers and nurtured by seasoned veterans within the professional community than formally taught. Because dispositions apply to all members of the early childhood profession and are evident in every aspect of their work, we’ve chosen to list them separately. The model early childhood professional is one who: • delights in and is curious about children and how they grow and learn • ppreciates and supports the unique and vital role of parents in their a 4 children’s lives • s eager to learn new knowledge and skills that will support young i children’s development and learning • odels the attitudes and behaviors that she/he values in children m • alues and celebrates the diversity found among children and their v families and in the world around them • s willing to ask for help, to learn from others, and to accept i constructive criticism • eflects on the personal beliefs and values that influence her/his r own attitudes and practices • ccepts responsibility for her/his own actions a • hows respect for children, families, and colleagues by maintaining s confidentiality • ommunicates clearly, respectfully and effectively with children c and adults • esponds to challenges and changes with flexibility, perseverance r and cooperation
Sections LevelsCore Knowledge Framework Each of the six content areas has three sections: In order to represent the development of professional practice over time, competencies are given for three levels of professional Rationale: development. All early childhood professionals would be expected This section states the reasons that the content area is crucial in the to possess Level 1 competencies. As they continue learning and early childhood professional’s day-to-day practice. The statements advancing their knowledge and skills, they would be expected to identify the effect of professional competency on children and add the competencies in Level 2 and, eventually, Level 3. families and are based on current research and standards of practice. A list of the references used in creating each area’s The three levels of Core Knowledge competencies are coordinated rationale section is provided in Appendix B. with Ohio’s Career Pathways Model for Early Childhood Knowledge Base: Professionals. The Career Pathways Model provides a systematic This section defines the concepts and facts that a professional must way of placing professionals along a continuum of professional learn in order to become competent in each area of practice. This achievement based on their formal education, inservice training, knowledge provides the cognitive foundation for the skills and experience, and credentials and certifications. Although the Career behaviors defined in the competencies section. Pathways Model delineates six levels, Core Knowledge describes competencies at three general levels of development. Here is how the Competencies: Core Knowledge competencies coordinate with the Career Pathways This section is the bulk of the Core Knowledge document. In it, levels of professional achievement: specific observable behaviors and skills are identified that describe the range of practice of a capable early childhood professional. 5 Core Career Pathways In Appendix C, a list of additional resources is provided for each content area if more information on that topic is desired. Level 1 ...applies to... Early Childhood Professional Levels 1 and 2 Level 2 ...applies to... Early Childhood Professional Levels 3 and 4 Level 3 ...applies to... Early Childhood Professional Levels 5 and 6 For more information about the Career Pathways Model, please visit the website of the Ohio Child Care Resource Referral Association: http://www.occrra.org.
Core Knowledge is an important addition to a growing collection of Core Knowledge also aligns with key documents of nationalAlignment key Ohio documents already in existence that are related to early organizations in the early childhood profession. In writing Core childhood. The writing teams were committed to creating Core Knowledge, we believed it was important that we show clear links Knowledge that supports, aligns with, and complements these between Core Knowledge and three important source documents documents. The following section clarifies the similarities and from leading organizations in the field, the National Association differences between these key documents. for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the Council for Exceptional Children/Division of Early Childhood. The following Ohio’s Early Childhood Core Knowledge and Competencies documents are closely related to Core Knowledge and were used as Focus: early childhood (birth – age eight) professionals resources in its development: Content: professional knowledge and skills • NAEYC Standards for Early Childhood Professional Preparation Format: 6 areas of professional practice; 3 levels of competency Programs: identifies standards for higher education programs that prepare early childhood professionals and states the knowledge Ohio’s Infant Toddler Guidelines and skills that students should have after reaching different levels Focus: children birth to 36 months of educational achievement Content: developmental characteristics • NAEYC Early Childhood Program Standards and Accreditation Criteria: Format: 6 developmental domains; 3 age ranges articulates standards of excellence for ten different aspects of early childhood programs Ohio’s Early Learning Content Standards • DEC Recommended Practices in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Focus: preschool children Special Education: identifies recommended practices in seven 6 Content: essential skills and concepts for young different aspects of serving children with special needs children to have learned by entry into kindergarten Format: curricular areas: English language 4 A table is provided in Appendix D that shows which Core arts, mathematics, science and social studies Knowledge areas link with which standards/recommended practices from these three source documents. Ohio’s Standards for the Teaching Profession Focus: licensed classroom educators, preK-grade 12 Content: professional knowledge and skills Format: 7 “standards” or aspects of professional practice; 3 levels of performance Ohio’s Early Learning Program Guidelines Focus: framework for preschool and child care programs Content: goals outcomes for early learning programs Format: 4 sections, each with goals, intended outcomes and indicators
Core Knowledge can be useful to many people in many ways, including:Uses of Core Knowledge Audience Use Early Childhood Professionals • Self-assessment; identify knowledge or competencies to acquire • Create a plan for developing as a professional Program Administrators • Clarify knowledge and skills required of staff positions • Identify training and staff development needs and staff development plan • ssess current staff to identify gaps and target areas of higher competency in recruiting A new staff • Tie level of competency to pay scale Developers and Providers of Training • Organize and identify training using Core Knowledge areas and levels • ssess current availability of training across all content areas and all levels of competency A • Use as framework for developing comprehensive system of training Higher Education • Use framework to facilitate articulation between institutions • Assess current program content to guide course development • Prepare early childhood professionals for roles and settings in addition to classroom settings 7 State and Local Agencies • evelop policy, initiatives and funding decisions that will increase the level of competency D of early childhood professionals • Identify common goals to improve inter-agency coordination Early Childhood Advocates • ducate parents, policymakers and general public about the areas of professional practice E in early childhood and the need for competent professionals • Reinforce the concept and language of professionalism for the field of early childhood Parents • Assess potential or current caregivers and teachers of their children Others • ake informed decision about entering the field of early childhood M • ppreciate the degree of knowledge and skill required for professional competency in A early childhood • upport public and private investments, incentives and initiatives that encourage and S facilitate professional competency
The Writing TeamsAcknowledgements The task of creating Ohio’s Core Knowledge and Competencies Six writing teams were formed in January, 2006 and by July their was accomplished by a talented, passionate, knowledgeable and tremendous investment of time, thought, and energy had resulted committed group of early childhood professionals from a wide in a resource that will benefit Ohio’s early childhood professionals variety of disciplines and early childhood settings with a broad and the children and families they serve in so many ways. range of expertise. Child Growth Development Team Lead: Family Community Relations Maggie Summers Ohio State University Child Care Team Lead: Team Members: Billie Navojosky Positive Education Program Melody Beach-Sexton Ohio Department of Health/BEIS Team Members: Pam Chibucos Owens Community College Lisa Frasure Logan Hocking Schools Debra Filiman-Demyen Mahoning County ESC Kathleen Harris Kent State University Don Fuzer Barberton City Schools Head Start Michelle Jones Starting Point Barbara Oehlberg Consultant Sharon Marcum Ohio Department of Health/BEIS Joyce Porter Community Action Wayne/Medina Leslie Moss Ohio University/Kids on Campus Carole Schultz Lourdes College Mary Murray Bowling Green State University Kelly Slade Action for Children Alice Marie Ohlin Akron Summit Community Action Head Start Laurie Zeeff Van Wert County MR/DD Julie Piazza Berea Children’s Home Family Services Megan Williams Action for Children 8 Team Facilitator: James Scott Ohio Department of Education/Head Start Team Facilitator: State Collaboration Project Donna Ruhland Ohio Child Care Resource Referral Association Health, Safety Nutrition Child Observation Assessment Team Lead: Team Lead: Kim Johnson Mahoning County ESC Peg Conley Consultant Team Members: Team Members: Pam Daudistel Ohio Department of Job Family Services/BCCD Rita Brinkman Sidney City Schools Preschool Lori Deacon Ohio Department of Health/BCFHS Quiping Cao Ohio University-Lancaster Marie Economos Ohio State University Extension Judee Gorcynski Children’s Advantage Annette Haban Bartz Children’s Hospital-Columbus Lea Ann Hall Ohio State University Child Care Program Kathy Hills Ohio Department of Job Family Services/BCCD Sarah Jackson MEOSERRC Deb Scott-Asakura Ohio Department of Health/BEIS Connie Lasita Ohio Department of Job Family Services Julie Stone Ohio Head Start Association Mary Miller Central Community House Barbara Trube Ohio University-Chillicothe Rebecca Neikirk PPIC Head Start Pamela Wolfe Council on Rural Services Programs Marie Pashi Cincinnati-Hamilton County CAA Kristie Pretti-Frontzcak Kent State University Team Facilitator: Cecelia Schweizer Counseling Psychologist Julie Witten 4C Team Facilitator: Bethany Moore Ohio Department of Health/BEIS
Professional Development Learning Environments ExperiencesTeam Lead: Team Leads:ReJean Schulte Cuyahoga Community College Jerri Helmreich SPARK Ohio Yemi Onibokun Central State UniversityTeam Members:Zoe Brown Booz Allen Hamilton Team Members:Geri Grove Early Childhood Resource Center Patricia Bing WSEM CDC Head StartTeri Kofod North Central State College Mary Alice Boyd Mahoning County ESCRoxanne Lange Child Care Connection Katie Harris Ohio Child Care Resource Referral AssociationLinda Lohse-Smith COAD Christy Johnson YWCA CantonSandra Owen Cincinnati State Technical and Community College Sally Kilmer Bowling Green State UniversityPamela Perrino The Raymond John Wean Foundation Deb Kimble Clark State College/ECECYu-Ling Yeh Akron Summit Community Action Agency Jackie Messinger Action for Children Holly Scheibe Action for ChildrenTeam Facilitator: Willa Ann Smith Akron Summit Community Action AgencyTerrie Hare Ohio Department of Job Family Services Team Facilitator: Alicia Leatherman Ohio Child Care Resource Referral Association 9 Additional Thanks A special thanks to the co-chairs of the Ohio Professional Development We would like to acknowledge the work done by Maria Sargent, Network, Alicia Leatherman, Terrie Hare and James Scott, whose Ph.D., of Ashland University, who provided initial work and energy, vision and commitment fueled the project. Thank you, too, for insight for the project as well as conducting final revisions to committing and managing the funding that made the idea a reality. the document. We would like to acknowledge our funders: the Ohio Department Additionally, we would also like to send thanks and appreciation to of Job and Family Services/Bureau of Child Care and Development, the other states who have undertaken the development of similar the Ohio Department of Education/Head Start Collaboration documents. We were guided, inspired, and helped tremendously by Project, and Build Ohio. Without your help, this project would their work. Especially valuable to us were similar Core Knowledge not have been possible. documents from Iowa, West Virginia, New York, and the joint effort of Kansas and Missouri. Thank you to Susan Rohrbough and Sarah LeMoine for sharing the invaluable resources of the National Child Care Information Center A final word of thanks to our technical writer, Kathy Reschke, (NCCIC), funded by the federal Child Care Bureau, and for your ChildWise Resources, for bringing the work of all of the writing encouragement, guidance, expertise and wisdom. teams together into a final cohesive whole.
Rationale Knowledge BaseChild Growth Development Research indicates that children’s growth and development is In order for children to thrive in early childhood programs, optimized when early childhood professionals know and apply the professionals who provide services to young children and their fundamental principles of human development. Understanding families must strive to know and understand: the significant theories, general concepts, and processes of human • the principles of child growth and development, including: growth and development enables the early childhood professional • he interdependence of developmental domains* t to design care and education that positively impact the current and (social, emotional, cognitive, language, sensory, creative, future life of the child. By integrating current knowledge about physical and adaptive) children’s growth and development into their daily practice, early childhood professionals provide relevant, meaningful interactions • evelopmental sequences, stages and milestones d and experiences for young children in an emotionally and physically • the varying rates of development in individual children safe, healthy environment. The early childhood professional also • hat development results from interaction between the child and t recognizes that an understanding of developmental patterns and the child’s early relationships and experiences, which include individual differences, as well as the influences of family and family, language, culture and environment culture, is critical to implementing developmentally appropriate* • ow attachment* significantly impacts all areas of development h practices in programs for young children. By demonstrating respect • he cumulative and delayed effects of early experiences and their t for young children as unique human beings, each child’s individual potential for both positive and negative effects on child growth potential may be nurtured and enhanced. and development • ow self-regulation* affects all areas of development and behavior h 12 • hat caring, consistent relationships with adults provide external t supports that serve as the basis for developing self-regulation • he importance of effective language and communication between t children and adults, and among children, for healthy growth and development • ow children’s pro-social behavior* is supported by adults who h model positive behavior and view challenging behavior* as a learning opportunity • ppropriate strategies for responding to the differing developmental a needs of children, including those with developmental delays • ow play provides the opportunity for young children to grow and h develop, incorporating different modes of learning and different ways of representing knowledge and demonstrating skills • hat the early childhood profession has a constantly evolving t knowledge base of research and theory that guides appropriate practice. * efinition for this term can be found in the glossary in Appendix A. Each defined D term is only marked the first time it is used in this content area.
Competencies - Developmental ProcessChild Growth Development Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 ecognizes and respects individual differences R 2.1 pplies direct observation and knowledge of A 3.1 mplements intentional strategies to meet I in children’s growth, development and learning children’s development as a framework to the changing needs, interests and abilities of and adjusts practices and expectations for provide appropriate experiences for children. individual children and groups of children. individual children accordingly. 2.2 Identifies children’s differing developmental 3.2 nalyzes, evaluates and applies current A 1.2 dentifies basic developmental sequences, stages I needs and implements responsive strategies. theory, research, and policy on child growth and milestones of young children. and development to general practice and 2.3 Recognizes the need to make referrals for 1.3 nderstands children’s developmental levels in U the development of a personal teaching evaluation to determine skills and abilities, relation to age appropriate norms and uses this philosophy. based on ongoing observation and assessment, information to meet the general needs of understands the referral process, and becomes 3.3 nalyzes and evaluates practice on an A children showing typical development. an active member of the assessment team as on-going basis and implements changes to 1.4 ecognizes and accepts that family*, R needed. enhance children’s growth and development. community* and culture* influence the development of children and adjusts practice 2.4 Articulates current theory, research, and policy 3.4 rovides mentoring support to colleagues to P and interaction patterns for individual children on child growth and development as evidenced by enhance their understanding of child growth and/or families accordingly. the ability to relate personal practices and beliefs and development by sharing knowledge, to professional standards. assisting with colleague growth and 1.5 nderstands that challenging behavior has U developing mutually supportive professional environmental and developmental causes and relationships. 13 uses this information to modify environment, activities and expectations to improve behavioral outcomes. 1.6 nderstands that children develop skills and U abilities and learn best through their natural medium of play and uses this medium to enhance development, behavior and learning outcomes for all children.
Competencies - Nurturing RelationshipsChild Growth Development Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 ngages in safe, responsive relationships with E 2.1 stablishes nurturing relationships with E 3.1 ntegrates the understanding of the dynamic I each child to provide a sense of security and children that respect individuality in learning relationship among aspects of development promote optimal development. style, developmental profile and cultural and learning to shape program planning, 1.2 espects families as the primary teachers of R background. teaching roles and strategies. their children by valuing their opinions and 2.2 Provides support and guidance in consistent, 3.2 ollaborates with consultants and families C nurturing their involvement in the educational non-threatening and positive ways that in planning learning experiences for process. reinforce children’s feelings of confidence children’s individual needs. 1.3 bserves and understands attachment and O and competence. 3.3 stablishes partnerships with families, E separation* behaviors as evidenced by the 2.3 Models problem-solving skills in the context involving them in all aspects of the program, ability to respond and assist both child of children’s interactions and play. including advocating for their own children and family members in a supportive and comforting manner. both within the program and in the public 2.4 Interacts with children in ways that facilitate sector. 1.4 odels positive, pro-social behavior in all M the development of expressive language and settings including child, family and thought in all children, especially those with professional interactions. developmental, language or other issues that may hinder communication. 1.5 alks with children frequently to develop T relationships and promote children’s 2.5 Provides information to families about the 14 understanding of their world through a variety general principles of child growth and of approaches including special consideration development relative to their needs and ensures of children with cultural differences and that this information meets the developmental, special needs that might hinder development of language and reading ability levels required this skill. for full understanding. 1.6 ommunicates respectfully and responsibly C with families and colleagues.
Competencies - Appropriate EnvironmentsChild Growth Development Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 ecognizes the importance of consistency in R 2.1 rovides consistency in environments, P 3.1 ncorporates children’s individual, unique I environments*, expectations and responses expectations and responses to children as and special needs (illness, disability, family to children. evidenced by the usage of standard best stress, etc.) into planning for environments 1.2 ecognizes and respects the importance of R practices at all times. and experiences. exploration and play in children’s growth 2.2 Enhances and adapts environments and 3.2 reates environments with appropriate C and development and uses this medium experiences based on the needs of individual supports that empower children to consistently across the day. children, including children with special communicate, negotiate and problem- 1.3 rovides a variety of activities and experiences P developmental, learning and/or solve and directly teaches and/or supports that foster the development of the whole child. emotional needs. development of these social skills. 1.4 ecognizes and supports appropriate and R 2.3 Provides a responsive environment where 3.3 reates environments and experiences C culturally responsive environments for children children initiate and extend their learning that affirm and respect cultural and by weaving awareness and sensitivity of through play. linguistic diversity by making sure materials, diversity through total learning experience. activities and graphics represent all cultures represented within the room and the surrounding community. 15
Rationale Knowledge BaseFamily Community Relations Families* are diverse in structure and nature. They include people In order for children to thrive in early childhood programs, who are related by birth, by marriage, by legal ties, or simply by professionals who provide services to young children and their affection and concern. Children’s lives are embedded in their families must strive to know and understand: families and communities*; therefore early childhood professionals • hat families are children’s primary educators and must be t must value children and families in the context of their culture*, supported in that role home and community. Research indicates that successful early childhood care and education depends on partnerships with • hat families contribute significantly to children’s learning t families and communities that are built upon ongoing, interactive and development communication and a commitment to confidentiality. Children • he necessity of developing a collaborative partnership with t thrive when early childhood professionals utilize knowledge each family and understanding of family and community characteristics. Children’s successful development is supported when early childhood • strategies to initiate and maintain family involvement professionals: are aware of community resources*; know how to • variety of communication skills to engage and promote a make collaborative community connections; and build meaningful, reciprocal interaction reciprocal, respectful relationships that empower* families. • roblem solving skills and conflict resolution strategies to p assist families • he impact of diverse family support systems on children, t 18 families and communities • he unique contribution of culture and community on the t family system* • community resources and services and how to utilize them • ow to make collaborative connections to benefit children h and families * efinition for this term can be found in the glossary in Appendix A. Each defined D term is only marked the first time it is used in this content area.
Competencies - Valuing FamiliesFamily Community Relations Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 cknowledges families as their children’s first A 2.1 ngages in careful, reflective observation of E 3.1 ncorporates the families’ knowledge of their I and most influential caregivers and teachers. family roles as evidenced by usage of children in programming. observations in daily planning and 1.2 ecognizes families’ contributions in identifying R 3.2 mpowers* families to be equal partners in E environment development. their children’s varied strengths and actively the decision-making process by listening to uses this information to construct appropriate 2.2 Accepts the values of families in a family opinions, valuing information provided, programs for individual children. non-judgmental way. and attempting to reconcile any differences in opinions between professionals and 1.3 ecognizes different parenting styles and R family members. their impact on children’s learning and development. 1.4 ecognizes the influence that family members R have on children’s behaviors. Competencies - Positive Family-Professional Relationships 19 Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 stablishes rapport with families through E 2.1 rovides a family communication system where P 3.1 evelops and implements relationship- D regular communication. families can find information on educational based practices (such as parent mentors, materials, daily activities, schedules, etc., parents as parent coaches, parents as board 1.2 Maintains and follows rules of confidentiality*. through a variety of means and makes this members, etc.) that foster respectful/reciprocal 1.3 ssesses the primary language of the child A information accessible to all family members interactions with families. and family. regardless of technology, reading and language 3.2 valuates the readability and inclusiveness of E 1.4 ommunicates with families in a sensitive and C differences. communication to families and uses this appropriate manner. 2.2 Encourages feedback from parents and information to develop appropriate 1.5 nows and understands problem-solving and K incorporates it into practice. communication strategies for individual conflict resolution strategies. families. 2.3 Works to present communication in the primary language of the parents utilizing 3.3 nticipates and negotiates potential conflicts A various sources and technology. involving families and educational settings, using outside supports such as interpreters as 2.4 Maintains a collaborative relationship with appropriate. families using a variety of communication tools and communication levels. 2.5 Implements effective problem-solving and/ or conflict resolution strategies as needed, using outside supports such as interpreters as appropriate.
Competencies - Supporting Family ConnectionsFamily Community Relations Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 cknowledges the value of family and A 2.1 ecognizes the value of families networking R 3.1 stablishes partnerships between families, E community partnerships within children’s with each other and provides support to make early childhood programs, and communities. learning environment. such networks possible and accessible to 3.2 ncourages and plans activities to help E all families. 1.2 dentifies the community resources and I families network with each other and provides services* available to support children and 2.2 Connects children and families to community support to make such networks possible and families. resources and services. accessible to all families. 3.3 ollaborates with families and communities C to identify and research possible solutions for unmet needs. 3.4 ssumes a leadership role in working with A service providers and families by providing information on best practices, educational research and other pertinent topics in forms most easily accessible and valued by that individual. 20 Competencies - Community Collaborations Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 articipates on teams for the development of P 2.1 ollaborates with service providers working C 3.1 articipates in outreach activities that support P individualized service plans (the Individualized with children and families. community improvement or advocacy projects Family Service Plan, or IFSP, for under three (advisory boards, committees, etc.). 2.2 Utilizes community resources in learning years of age; the Individualized Education Plan, experiences and uses community sites (fire 3.2 dvocates for needed services and resources A or IEP, for over three years of age). stations, parks, libraries, etc.) as field trip that the community is lacking. 1.2 ollows individualized plans developed by F opportunities and/or brings resources to 3.3 ducates the community about quality early E service providers and families. children, as appropriate. care and education services by providing 2.3 Supports community activities by being a reading materials, classroom visitations, public visible partner in all appropriate activities service announcements and general advocacy or initiatives in the surrounding geographic whenever possible. location. 3.4 rticulates knowledge of current recommended A practices in early care and education to families and the community through a variety of means and to a widely divergent audience including family members, local businesses, and civic administration personnel.
Competencies - Impact of Culture, Community and Family Systems Family Community Relations Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 ecognizes the levels of community including R 2.1 odifies curriculum to be culturally sensitive M 3.1 ritically examines own cultural experience C home, center, and neighborhoods. and uses this information across all and its impact on engagement with families practices with children and families. and communities and removes any barriers 1.2 ecognizes the ever-changing nature of families R or biases that might hinder development of (i.e., socioeconomic status, culture, religion, 2.2 Utilizes families and communities as cultural mutually respectful relationships. and family structure). resources in the learning environment. 21
Rationale HealthHealth, Safety Nutrition Healthy and safe experiences in children’s early years lay a necessary • hildren’s need for a healthy environment and how it impacts c foundation for development and growth in all areas. Children are the growth and development of children birth through eight, more able to fully develop socially, emotionally, cognitively and including children with special needs* physically when their health and nutritional needs are met and • he importance of applying a broad definition of health that t when they are safe from physical and emotional harm. When early includes the child and family’s physical, mental, social and childhood professionals know, understand and apply recommended emotional health in policy and procedure practices in health*, safety* and nutrition*, children can thrive. Early childhood professionals, working in partnership with families* • that each child has unique health care needs and communities*, have a key opportunity and responsibility to • hat families as the primary caregivers play a central role in t provide environments* and experiences for all young children that child health and developmental services set them on a pathway toward lifelong health and well-being. • hat all health curricula* should be designed to motivate and t support children to improve health, prevent disease, and avoid Knowledge Base risky behaviors In order for children to thrive in early childhood programs, • he role of the early childhood professional in preventing the t professionals who provide services to young children and their spread of disease, promoting wellness, and caring for the ill child families must strive to know and understand: • hat sound practices in health, safety and nutrition have a t Safety 24 lifelong impact • hildren’s need for a physically and emotionally safe environment c • ow to integrate good health, safety and nutrition practices h and how it impacts the growth and development of young throughout the curriculum* children, including children with special needs • hat research in the areas of health, safety and nutrition generates t • that safety risks change with each child’s developmental stage theory that informs best practice • he importance of active and age-appropriate supervision t • hen and how to access reliable and current health, safety and w of children nutrition information and resources • hat children can and should play an active role in keeping self t • hat early childhood professionals, families, and communities t and others safe are partners in assuring optimal health, safety and nutrition for children • routine care and maintenance of materials and equipment • enefits and methods of communicating, teaching, and modeling b • undamentals of first aid and CPR (cardiopulmonary f sound health, safety, and nutrition practices to children, parents resuscitation) and families • otential threats to children associated with natural or human p • ational, state and local health, safety and nutrition guidelines n initiated disasters or emergencies and regulations applicable to written program policies • basic emergency procedures and safe practices and regulations and procedures • he limitations of their own knowledge regarding health, safety t * efinition for this term can be found in the glossary in Appendix A. Each defined D and nutrition and when and how to initiate appropriate referrals term is only marked the first time it is used in this content area.
NutritionHealth, Safety Nutrition • hildren’s need for good nutrition and hydration and how it c impacts the growth and development of young children, including children with special needs • hat food plays many roles for children: social, emotional and t cultural as well as physical development • ow to provide pleasant, relaxed, and developmentally appropriate h meal and snack experiences • ypical age progression of feeding, from liquid to semi-solid to t solid to table food, appropriate portion sizes for all ages, and children’s hunger and fullness cues • hich foods may present hazards for individual children according w to their ages, needs and abilities (e.g. choking hazards, allergies, and feeding constraints due to health conditions) and correct procedures for handling food-related emergencies • safe and sanitary food handling practices 25
Competencies - HealthHealth, Safety Nutrition Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 • Level 2 Level 3 1.1 ecognizes the symptoms of common R 2.1 mplements policies and procedures for care I 3.1 rticulates, analyzes, evaluates and applies A childhood illness. of ill children and seeks out additional current theory and research on health 1.2 aintains clean and sanitized* learning M information and support for all unusual practices. materials and environments. cases or situations where appropriate practices 3.2 evelops, enforces, and evaluates policy D are unclear. 1.3 ractices effective hand washing procedures to P and procedures for care of ill children and reduce the spread of diseases. 2.2 Accesses community health resources and children with special health care needs. professionals for consultation, emergencies, 1.4 ncourages and models good health practices E 3.3 esigns and implements curriculum D diagnoses, treatments and more information and effective use of hand washing procedures. activities emphasizing healthy bodies, healthy (including Ohio Child Care Health Consultants). lifestyles and healthy environments and 1.5 pplies effective sanitation procedures during A 2.3 Assures appropriate implementation of medical adapts information as needed for various diapering, toileting, cleaning toys, washing and physical care plans. cultural and religious differences. dishes and materials. 3.4 ollaborates with health care professionals C 1.6 ractices standard precautions in handling P blood or bodily fluids to ensure safety of adults Level 3 in the community to ensure that the health needs of children are met. and children. 3.5 dvocates for health resources within the A 1.7 xplains reasons for health-related rules E 26 community by providing health information to children. to families, articulating best practices and 1.8 ssesses each child’s health status daily and A actively promoting continued development of objectively documents and responds when resources and opportunities for families in the necessary. surrounding community. 1.9 olds current and valid training in H 3.6 ontinuously monitors the effectiveness C communicable disease prevention and and safety of medication administration cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). policies and procedures and documents 1.10 ecognizes the signs and symptoms of R appropriately. communicable* disease and responds 3.7 entors other early childhood professionals M according to the Ohio Department of Health’s in sound health practices. Communicable Disease chart. 1.11 ollows current medication administration F policies and procedures according to local, state or national regulations and documents appropriately. 1.12 Provides appropriate care for ill children. Level 2
Competencies - SafetyHealth, Safety Nutrition Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 nderstands and complies with local, state, U 2.1 ngages children in appropriate emergency E 3.1 rticulates, analyzes, evaluates and applies A and federal emergency preparedness* and preparedness activities and ensures the current theory and research on safety program’s general emergency procedures. understanding and/or safety of children with practices. special needs who may not fully understand 1.2 esponds to accidents and injuries according to R 3.2 evelops, trains on and revises, in collaboration D the appropriate procedures. appropriate first aid training while assuring the with community resources, emergency comfort and care of other children. 2.2 Regularly practices and appropriately preparedness procedures. documents emergency and safety procedures 1.3 omplies with appropriate local, state and C 3.3 evelops and provides training for staff and D such as fire, disaster and tornado drills. national regulations and guidelines for ratios families on a “bully prevention” policy. and group sizes. 2.3 Responds appropriately to bullying and makes 3.4 elects, purchases, and provides training S every attempt to foster social development and 1.4 hooses and utilizes safe and appropriate C on safe, developmentally and culturally skills that will keep bullying from developing learning materials and media. appropriate materials and media. in the first place. 1.5 Recognizes types and stages of bullying*. 3.5 ssumes responsibility for training and A 2.4 Maintains and promotes safety in the learning policy development regarding safety and 1.6 ecognizes and protects against hazards in R environment for all children regardless of hazardous materials and monitors the the environment. developmental level or disability. success of the training and implementation 1.7 xplains reasons for safety precautions E 2.5 Observes and adjusts supervision to meet of policies over time. 27 to children. different ages, abilities, interests, environments 3.6 ssures staff are appropriately trained in A 1.8 upervises all activities, indoors and outdoors, S and activities. documentation and reporting requirements to anticipate and prevent dangerous situations 2.6 Educates parents about general child safety and procedures and monitors the success of and accidents. using materials appropriate for individual the training and implementation of policies 1.9 ncourages and models simple safety E learning styles, culture and reading levels. over time. precautions. 3.7 onducts continuous evaluation of safety C 1.10 ncourages and models the safe use of E practices, environment and data from learning materials and media. reports to reduce and prevent safety risks. 1.11 afely stores and uses hazardous materials, S 3.8 entors other early childhood professionals M medication, emergency supplies and in sound safety practices. equipment. 1.12 ollows procedures for documentation and F reporting of injuries, incidents and suspected abuse. 1.13 eleases children only to approved individuals R as designated by the parent or guardian. 1.14 olds current and valid training in first H aid, CPR, and child abuse prevention and recognition. 1.15 aintains a safe sleep* environment and M position based on the child’s age and developmental stage.
Competencies - NutritionHealth, Safety Nutrition Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 nderstands and follows diet modifications U 2.1 onsults with families about children’s health C 3.1 rticulates, analyzes, evaluates and applies A for children with identified health or cultural or cultural issues that may require modification current theory and research on nutrition issues pertaining to food or feeding. to diet. practices. 1.2 reates pleasant, relaxed, safe and C 2.2 Provides learning experiences that teach 3.2 articipates and provides information on P developmentally appropriate meals and snacks. children about good nutrition. an as needed basis in MFEs*, IEPs*, IFSPs* 1.3 Teaches and models healthy eating habits. and transition plans, medical and physical 2.3 Provides opportunities to introduce new care plan. 1.4 ncourages children to learn and develop self- E tastes, textures and cultural food experiences to help skills during meal time and food activities. children. 3.3 evelops and executes family and parent D nutrition education and screens the 1.5 ractices safe and sanitary food handling P 2.4 Assures appropriate implementation of medical information for appropriateness for families procedures when purchasing, storing, preparing and physical care plans. with varied cultural and religious guidelines and serving meals and snacks. 2.5 Identifies resources within the community that concerning food. 1.6 onitors eating habits to ensure a healthy M provide nutrition information and screens the 3.4 rovides professional development around P diet including the need for children to eat and information for appropriateness for families nutrition to staff. drink frequently. with varied cultural and religious guidelines 1.7 esponds appropriately to hunger and fullness R concerning food. 3.5 reates opportunities for food related C cues. education for staff and parents. 28 1.8 ecognizes health hazards in meals and snacks R 3.6 entors other early childhood professionals M (i.e. choking and allergies) and takes steps to in sound nutrition practices. prevent dangerous situations. 3.7 ssesses nutrition practices for the purpose A 1.9 ollows current policies and procedures as F of program improvement. related to food and nutrition such as USDA 3.8 stablishes and implements policies and E dietary guidelines and CACFP (Child and Adult procedures that foster appropriate Care Food Program) meal patterns. nutrition practices. 1.10 nsures that food is not used as punishment E 3.9 dvocates and collaborates within the A and only used as a reward when all other community to promote nutrition and reinforcers are inappropriate or ineffective. awareness of cultural and religious diversity 1.11 ecognizes and responds to limitations of R involving food. personal knowledge regarding nutrition and knows when to seek professional guidance. 1.12 ommunicates with parents regarding menus, C child’s eating patterns and amounts, mealtime skills and behaviors as appropriate per age and situation. 1.13 ccesses current, reliable nutrition and A resources and information.
Rationale Knowledge BaseChild Observation Assessment Observation* and assessment* of children in early childhood In order for children to thrive in early childhood programs, programs is integral to a variety of decisions that affect each child professionals who provide services to young children and their and his or her family*. When early childhood professionals know families must strive to know and understand: and use methods of observation and assessment that are unbiased • hild growth and development, including sequences of c with regard to culture* or language, adaptive to individual children’s typical development abilities, and sensitive to children’s needs, the resulting information is reliable*, valid* and useful. Regular, systematic observation • ow children’s home language, culture*, strengths, needs, h and the use of multiple ways of collecting information aid early preferences, genetics and physical/social environment influences childhood professionals in learning more about children’s unique their performance qualities, developing appropriate goals and plans, making referrals • oals, benefits and appropriate uses of selected assessment g as appropriate and implementing and evaluating effective curriculum*. instruments and methods . Early childhood professionals must know when and how to communicate observation and assessment results to parents and • mportance of maintaining confidentiality* of child and family i to other professionals so that children’s growth and development records and assessment information are supported. • vailability of community services* and how to access a community resources* • ultiple assessment and observation instruments and methods m used to determine children’s strengths and challenges (i.e. 30 running records, anecdotal information, portfolios, work samples, norm-referenced* instruments, screenings*, etc.) • he mportance of objective, culturally sensitive, non-biased documentation t i • he relationship between planning for observation and assessment t and curriculum planning and instruction * efinition for this term can be found in the glossary in Appendix A. Each defined D term is only marked the first time it is used in this content area.
Competencies - Foundations and PrinciplesChild Observation Assessment Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 ecognizes and accepts the range of children’s R 2.1 odifies observations and assessment practices M 3.1 valuates results considering the environmental E development and skills. to accommodate* the range of children’s factors and individual differences that will development, skills and learning needs. influence children’s performance. 1.2 ecognizes environmental* factors that place R children at risk for developmental concerns. 2.2 Implements the appropriate formal and/or 3.2 rticulates the characteristics, strengths, A informal observation or assessment technique. limitations, and appropriate uses of 1.3 ists the reasons for conducting observation L formal/informal observation and and assessment. 2.3 Implements observation and assessment assessment instruments. practices that adhere to established standards 1.4 dentifies the differences between informal* I including those related to confidentiality. and formal* assessment. 2.4 Recognizes how and when to access 1.5 ecognizes that there is more than one way R appropriate community resources and problem to gather information about a child. solves continued action when appropriate 1.6 dentifies the need for confidentiality. I resources and supports cannot easily be 1.7 ecognizes that observation and assessment R obtained. practices are guided by established standards. 1.8 s aware of ethical principles that guide I observation and assessment processes. 31 Competencies - Gathering and Documenting Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 ecognizes appropriate methods of R 2.1 rganizes information about developmental O 3.1 lans diverse observation and assessment P documenting developmental progress. and educational progress that is collected from strategies that are culturally and linguistically multiple, age appropriate sources and uses this sensitive*, and that meet individual 1.2 ssists in collecting information about A information to construct more responsive child’s needs. developmental progress from multiple sources programs. and using a variety of means. 3.2 valuates the use of a variety of observation E 2.2 Implements appropriate formal and informal and assessment strategies, both formal and 1.3 aintains confidentiality of observation and M methods of documenting developmental informal, to collect information and adjusts assessment information. progress of individual children. or substitutes when assessments are not ap- 1.4 ecognizes ways to develop a relationship R propriate. 2.3 Incorporates observation and assessment with a child before observation and assessment strategies throughout the child’s day within 3.3 rovides guidance in selection, implemen- P procedures are implemented. their everyday settings. tation and documentation of assessment methods. 2.4 Integrates contributions from families and other professionals into formal and informal observation and assessment procedures.
Competencies - Summarizing and InterpretingChild Observation Assessment Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 ecognizes the importance of observation and R 2.1 nterprets and analyzes assessment data to I 3.1 valuates the multiple factors such as E assessment data in curriculum planning for identify children’s areas of strengths and those culture, language, environment and learning individual children and groups of children. needing improvement and uses this information styles that may influence the observation and to develop more responsive and appropriate assessment data and provides additional 1.2 ecognizes the importance of analyzing and R programs for individual children. supporting information when data from interpreting assessment data in a non-biased multiple sources is conflicting in nature. way. 2.2 Incorporates results of formal and informal observations and assessments to make 3.2 lans and implements necessary strategies P 1.3 ecognizes the importance of maintaining R decisions that benefit children’s growth, for individual needs of all children. confidentiality of the results of observations development and learning. and assessments for non-family members. 3.3 rovides guidance and support for staff P 2.3 Implements observation and assessment results members regarding theories, research, to plan for individual children and groups practices and issues relevant to results from of children. observation and assessment. 2.4 Aligns results of observations and assessments 3.4 orks cooperatively and collaboratively with W with other parts of the curriculum, including the teaching team, family and other involved content standards and local, state and specialists regarding assessment results. federal regulations. 32 3.5 hen appropriate, refers children to other W community resources for further evaluation and remains an active team member and information source. Competencies - Sharing and Reporting Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 ecognizes the importance of confidentiality R 2.1 xplains the purpose and benefits of ongoing E 3.1 evelops reports to be shared with families, D in reporting child observation and observation and assessment to staff and fami- appropriate staff, administrators, and other assessment results. lies being sensitive to the differences in opinion involved professionals or agencies using the and the emotions that such assessment may communication avenues appropriate for each 1.2 dentifies appropriate reporting methods for I produce in family members. individual to ensure full understanding. child observation and assessment results. 2.2 Uses strength-based* language to communicate 3.2 acilitates the sharing and reporting of F results in written and oral formats. observation and assessment results used to 2.3 Communicates results to families in an determine the next steps for an individual appropriate, objective*, understandable and child in collaboration with families and supportive manner. other professionals or agencies that may 2.4 Communicates results with appropriate staff be involved. and administrators. 2.5 Plans with families for communicating results to other involved professionals.
Rationale Knowledge BaseProfessional Development Research supports that early childhood professionals play a In order for children to thrive in early childhood programs, critical role in the well-being and development of every child in professionals who provide services to young children and their their care. The interactions and environments* that early childhood families must strive to know and understand: professionals provide for children lay the foundation for learning • hat professional preparation and training is the foundation for t and success in school and life. When early childhood professionals knowing how to create experiences and interactions that help are equipped with specialized education and training, and continue children reach their potential to learn and develop as professionals, they are better able to provide care and education that supports every aspect of children’s growth • he importance of effectively communicating research, theory, t and learning. Each early childhood professional is a member and professional guidelines as the basis for practice of a larger community* of professional practice. When each • ow to make decisions about program planning based on the h professional adopts the responsibilities of the profession regarding most current recommended practices, professional standards*, ethical behavior, advocacy* for young children and families*, and and research available effective communication of the importance of high quality early childhood programs, not only do young children and their families • he value of continually seeking to increase one’s own knowledge t benefit but the profession as a whole is elevated. and skill by reflecting on, analyzing and evaluating one’s own professional practices • ow to seek out and take advantage of opportunities to develop h personally and professionally 34 • he ethical responsibilities and practices of the early childhood t professional community and their impact on children, families, co-workers, and the community • ow to advocate for effective services and legislation for children h and families and develop collaborative partnerships within the community • he value of professional relationships and the value of each t professional’s contribution in building the larger community of early childhood practice * efinition for this term can be found in the glossary in Appendix A. Each defined D term is only marked the first time it is used in this content area.
Competencies - Professionalism* in PracticeProfessional Development Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 ommunicates effectively using appropriate C 2.1 outinely creates effective written R 3.1 repares and presents ideas, a philosophy P oral and written language skills. communication such as curriculum plans, and advocacy of early childhood education parent communication, anecdotal/observation in a formal written format to the wider 1.2 ecognizes and respects individual differences R notes, etc. community adjusting the message to the among children, families, colleagues and in interests and understanding of the target the community. 2.2 Provides materials and experiences within audience (i.e. business owners, other settings to support an understanding of 1.3 emonstrates professional work habits D educators, medical personnel, etc.) individual differences. including confidentiality, respect for all 3.2 eeks out knowledge of the cultures and S people, dependability, time management, 2.3 Adopts and maintains professional behavior populations within the community and independence and teamwork. and attitudes. integrates it into his or her professional 1.4 njoys working with children and models a E 2.4 Interacts in a professional manner that reflects practice. positive attitude. the value of self and respect for others. 3.3 uides others in developing and maintaining G 1.5 resents oneself as a professional in physical P 2.5 Understands that communication includes professional work habits. appearance and use of language. speaking, signing, listening, reading, writing, 3.4 outinely engages in reflection on teaching R body language, personal appearance and the 1.6 hows positive respect and regard for variation S practices and the behaviors of children and use of adaptive devices. in cultures including family strengths, uses the additional information to improve expectations, values and child rearing practices. 2.6 Includes family values and strengths in setting both personal practice and general advocacy 35 goals for individual children and for the or support in the wider community. 1.7 anages the demands of personal and M program and problem-solves solutions when professional commitments and seeks support 3.5 ctively models and promotes a professional A family values conflict directly with appropriate or assistance as needed. image for the early care and education field education (i.e. family not believing in special in a variety of settings. education services). 3.6 xplains and models to families and other E 2.7 Recognizes the impact of stress and develops professionals communication with young strategies to renew oneself and maintain children that is respectful, positive, professional performance. supportive and age-appropriate. 3.7 rticulates and guides others in developing A a positive regard and respect for all children and families. 3.8 rovides guidance to others who exhibit P signs of stress and assists with the location of resources and additional support as appropriate.
Competencies - Continuous Reflective Professional Development*Professional Development Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 ursues ongoing, intentional learning through P 2.1 evelops personal goals based on reflections D 3.1 acilitates professional development F professional development planning. of current practice articulated into a opportunities for others based on reflective professional development plan. approaches and adult learning styles. 1.2 eets minimum regulatory requirements for M professional development. 2.2 Works toward credential, degrees and/or 3.2 evelops and presents professional D program accreditation and seeks out and resources* to improve practices for a 1.3 uestions own practices, seeks input from Q utilizes supports (both monetary and variety of audiences including colleagues, supervisors and colleagues and integrates professional) to allow progress to improved community members and families. feedback into professional development practice to continue. planning. 3.3 valuates applies current research E 2.3 Uses local, state national professional trends presented in professional resources 1.4 tilizes professional resources and seeks U resources to evaluate improve practices and shares information with other information if the appropriate resource cannot (ODE, NAEYC, Ohio Infant Toddler colleagues, community members or families easily be located. Guidelines). as appropriate. 1.5 eeks out knowledge to improve practice S 2.4 Explores current trends research based 3.4 ngages in the development and E through a variety of means (i.e. conferences, practices in early care education through a implementation of quality standards at the reading material, professional organizations, variety of means (i.e. conferences, reading local, state and/or national level. etc.) material, professional organizations, etc.) 1.6 s aware of state and national standards I 3.5 erves in a leadership capacity in S 36 2.5 Applies quality standards and participates professional organizations or groups through that promote quality early child care and in evaluation of program related to quality direct service, professional organization education (ODE, NAEYC, Ohio Infant Toddler standards. membership, advocacy and other Guidelines). professional activities that will further the 2.6 Is actively involved in professional 1.7 articipates in opportunities for professional P development of appropriate practices across organizations. growth and development at the local, state and settings. national level and through a variety of means 2.7 Demonstrates interest in adults’ as well 3.6 erves as a catalyst for change by enlisting S (i.e. conferences, reading material, professional as children’s development as a means to others to support new teachers and organizations, etc.) improving both interaction with families as colleagues such as mentors and coaches. well as colleagues. 1.8 ngages and values supportive working E relationships that include mentoring* opportunities.
Competencies - Leadership* and Advocacy*Professional Development Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 Follows all legal and regulatory mandates. 2.1 articipates in planning and evaluating the P 3.1 nalyzes and evaluates practice on an ongoing A program utilizing recognized tools. basis and implements changes that will 1.2 ecognizes the family’s right to make decisions R strengthen the quality and the effectiveness about their child care and education. 2.2 Creates and develops relationships with the of the work. family to ensure the family’s ability to make 1.3 ontributes to staff discussions and decision C decisions about their child care and education 3.2 ducates parents on advocacy measures that E making based on current knowledge of and provides support and additional resources are in the best interest of the child, family child development. when the family is unwilling or unable to make and community and provides support and 1.4 ngages and values mentoring opportunities E appropriate decisions concerning their child’s additional resources when the family is with both colleagues and families. education. unwilling or unable to fully advocate for 1.5 ecognizes oneself as a decision maker within R their child’s well-being. 2.3 Acquires and shares additional knowledge early care and education setting. and competencies through participation in 3.3 ollaborates with colleagues and others to C 1.6 dentifies early care and education as a I staff development. improve programs and practices for young profession and is fully aware and can articulate children and their families and communities. 2.4 Serves as a mentor and resource for less this value to the general community. experienced staff by providing guidance, 3.4 erves as a mentor to others in the field by S 1.7 nderstands that local, state and national U resources and support as appropriate. providing guidance, resources, support and legislation and public policy affect young encouragement of continued professional 2.5 Participates in leadership activities with staff, education as appropriate. 37 children and families. family and colleagues. 3.5 ssumes early childhood leadership role in A 2.6 Discusses the significance of the early years and the community, and in state and national the value of early care and education programs professional organizations. with families and others in the community. 3.6 dvocates for recognition of early care and A 2.7 Uses experiences and knowledge to inform education as a profession, including the and influence others about needs of all young economic impact. children, families and the profession. 3.7 dvocates for services and legislation for all A young children, families and the profession.
Competencies - Ethical Standards Professional GuidelinesProfessional Development Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 hows awareness of, has read, and practices S 2.1 ractices and promotes the ethical P 3.1 onsistently models and informs others of C the ethical responsibilities in the code of responsibilities in the applicable code of ethical standards and principles set forth in the ethical conduct* promoted by the professional conduct. code of ethics. association most closely associated with his 2.2 Recognizes potentially unethical practices 3.2 ntegrates the ethical code into practice I or her professional role. and seeks to apply ethical code as a tool and and policies and explains to others how the 1.2 an explain the reason for the code of ethics C problem-solves appropriate actions to take ethical code can be used to solve everyday OR recognizes the core values* that underlie when the code of ethics has been transgressed. ethical dilemmas including the appropriate the code of ethics. local supports and resources that can be 2.3 Identifies ethical dilemmas* and solves the accessed as needed. 1.3 an identify the difference between a code of C identified problem and/or seeks additional ethics and personal values. assistance as appropriate. 3.3 nalyzes ethical dilemmas and determines A appropriate course of action. 1.4 ecognizes and acts on primary responsibility R 2.4 Promotes and informs others of the need to value early childhood and avoid participating to support emotional, social, physical and 3.4 ccesses community resources and A in any practices that are disrespectful, intellectual development for every child. professional services that respect personal exploitative or potentially harmful to children. dignity and the diversity of children and 2.5 Describes the roles and responsibilities of families. 1.5 iscusses the importance of collaboration* D supervisors, staff, families and volunteers and respect among all adults who work in early including respectful communication and 3.5 reates opportunities for respectful C 38 childhood settings, including confidentiality. implements these best practices as needed. dialogue with multiple perspectives cultural diversity and differences in developmental 1.6 escribes the responsibility of the profession to D 2.6 Promotes policies and practices that provide understanding of child development and provide high quality early childhood programs for well being of all children and their families. best practices. for the community. 3.6 nforms others about research and current I knowledge related to impact of high quality programs for all young children and families.
Rationale Interactions and RelationshipsLearning Environments Experiences Early childhood professionals are the “architects” of the world that • heir critical role in facilitating and guiding interpersonal t each child experiences while in an early childhood program, shaping relationships (peer to peer, adult to child, and adult to adult) their physical surroundings, the activities that they engage in, and • he importance of respecting, valuing and accepting each child t their social interactions. When early childhood professionals create and treating every child with dignity at all times physical spaces that reflect children’s developmental needs and abilities, then they are providing important support and guidance • he importance of creating a bias-free, warm and caring t for children’s development, behavior and learning. Early childhood emotional climate professionals facilitate the active learning of young children by • he importance of bringing each child’s culture and language t planning developmentally appropriate* experiences: experiences into the shared culture of the group that are age appropriate, individually appropriate, and appropriate for the social and cultural* contexts in which children live. Active • he benefits and methods of modeling and encouraging behaviors t learning for young children is best fulfilled in play where they tend that contribute to a supportive, inclusive sense of community to show higher levels of language, creativity, curiosity, problem-solving, Physical Environments empathy, cooperation, and increased attention spans. Children’s relational environment is enhanced when early childhood • he relationship between the physical environment and young t professionals are attuned to emotional and social “atmosphere” children’s behavior and learning and facilitate positive interactions between adults and children • ow to plan and prepare a learning environment that nurtures h and among children. children’s initiative, encourages active exploration of materials, 40 and supports engagement with activities and interaction with others Knowledge Base • ow to choose materials and equipment and arrange physical h spaces based on children’s developmental needs In order for children to thrive in early childhood programs, professionals who provide services to young children and their • ow to maintain a safe and positive environment through careful h families must strive to know and understand: supervision and anticipation and avoidance of problems before they occur General Learning Experiences • the principles of developmentally appropriate practice • how to embed learning in everyday routines and activities • ow children learn and how the learning process changes h from birth through age eight • he principles of integrating curriculum* across all t developmental domains* • he developmental progression of young children’s play and t strategies for supporting various types of play • hat children learn best through play and concrete experiences t that are tied to familiar aspects of their world • hat continuous reflection on the effectiveness of the t environment and experiences is needed in order to adapt • trategies to foster language development and early literacy s to children’s changing needs throughout early childhood • trategies to create an intellectually engaging environment that s fosters curiosity, thinking and problem solving * efinition for this term can be found in the glossary in Appendix A. Each defined D term is only marked the first time it is used in this content area.
Competencies - Interactions and RelationshipsLearning Environments Experiences Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 Assumes primary responsibility for specific 2.1 nteracts with children using encouraging and I 3.1 ssumes responsibility for the needs of all A children in the group while remaining aware nurturing words and actions. the children present. of momentary needs or emergencies that may 2.2 Adapts to and includes each child, individually 3.2 oderates interactions with each child M arise outside of their individual assignments. accommodating for his/her temperament, based on that child’s specific characteristics, 1.2 nteracts positively with children in responsive, I personality, strengths, interests and strengths, interests and needs. consistent ways. development. 3.3 rticulates, analyzes, evaluates and applies A 1.3 reats all children with fairness, respect T 2.3 Seeks to identify causes of challenging current theory and research on relationships and understanding. behaviors and uses guidance approaches that and supportive interaction. promote positive behaviors, problem solving 1.4 ecognizes that his or her relationships with R and self-control. 3.4 stablishes written policies for effective E co-workers, families and others impacts child guidance for both typically developing children. 2.4 Provides activities and environments that children and those with disabilities. promote appropriate behaviors and teaches 1.5 ases expectations for behavior on age and B behaviors and social skills as needed. 3.5 rticulates and demonstrates realistic A developmental level of children. expectations for children’s attention spans, 2.5 Uses behavior guidance strategies that involve 1.6 emonstrates awareness that challenging D interests, social abilities, and physical needs children in creating rules and resolving behaviors* can have a variety of causes. when planning group experiences and conflicts. teaches increased “groupness” and other 1.7 revents challenging behavior by providing P 2.6 Encourages positive social interactions and social skills as appropriate. consistent and predictable routines and provides opportunities for children to learn 41 responds to challenging behavior with positive from each other. 3.6 evelops and implements written policies for D guidance techniques. effective social/emotional interactions. 2.7 Adapts interactions to respond to each child’s 1.8 Speaks to children with calm, respectful tones. unique personality, temperament, mood, ability 3.7 pplies theory and current research to create A and culture. a community* that fosters social and 1.9 ngages in reciprocal interactions* with E emotional development. children to form safe, nurturing relationships. 2.8 Engages in responsive interactions with children, following their lead scaffolding 3.8 ddresses challenging behavior with an open A 1.10 ngages in many one-on-one, face-to-face E interactions where needed. mind, rather than labeling the child yet can interactions with children in a calm pleasant still recognize when behavior reaches the manner to foster secure attachments. 2.9 Assists children in identifying and expressing their feelings in culturally and level of concern and can seek additional 1.11 Recognizes a child’s social and emotional socially acceptable ways using whatever support or resources as appropriate. needs. communication mode is readily available 3.9 ecognizes and responds to individual R 1.12 hows individual attention to each child S and possible for that child’s unique behavioral problems related to developmental within the group using the interaction developmental needs. or emotional stress. approaches most appropriate for that 2.10 Uses a variety of positive direct and indirect 3.10 Relates guidance practices to knowledge individual child. guidance methods and avoids negative of children’s personalities, levels of 1.13 istens to children attentively to gain L methods. development and different learning needs. understanding and responds quickly to 2.11 olicits information from parents regarding S 3.11 Shares information on guidance techniques their needs. effective strategies to support children. with families using sensitivity, respect and 1.14 onveys respect for diversity among children C 2.12 Plans and provides opportunities for children awareness of diversity. and families as evidenced by attempts to to communicate, form friendships, and to accommodate beliefs, needs and differences interact with each other respectfully. noted among children. 2.13 Guides children in resolving conflicts 1.15 ncourages and supports children’s efforts, E through communication, negotiation and ideas, accomplishments and interests. problem solving using a variety of means and supports including visual cues, songs, play- based interventions and other appropriate strategies.
Competencies - Physical EnvironmentsLearning Environments Experiences Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 ecognizes when a child’s behavior is being R 2.1 rticulates how changes in the environment A 3.1 ontinuously observes and evaluates how C affected by characteristics of his or her may affect the behavior of children and space is affecting the behavior of children surroundings and adjusts expectations or makes adaptations to the environment when and the management of the classroom and mitigates the effects of these influences. necessary. adjusts the environment as needed. 1.2 rovides adequate space for routine care and P 2.2 Provides a balance of spaces for activities 3.2 rticulates, analyzes, evaluates, and applies A play that supports the age and interests of that are active and quiet, child-directed and current theory and research on design of the the children. teacher-directed, individual and group, and environment in order to support individual indoor and outdoor. and group growth. 1.3 nsures that equipment and materials are E clean, safe and free from hazards. 2.3 Uses equipment to help define activity areas 3.3 valuates the learning environment, teaching E and routine areas as well as additional picture strategies and materials to maximize the 1.4 nsures that physical aspects of the room, such E or color cues as needed. learning potential for individual children. as temperature, noise level, and lighting, are comfortable for children. 2.4 Recognizes that bright colors and multiple 3.4 ses a continuing process of assessment to U patterns and other sensory inputs can guide modification to the environment, 1.5 ses equipment that is appropriate for the size U over-stimulate children, and in some cases teaching strategies and expectations. of the children. under-stimulate them, and can adjust as 3.5 stablishes multiple lighting sources E 1.6 nderstands state rules and regulations specific U needed. to children’s environments, both indoors (natural, full spectrum and incandescent). 42 2.5 Uses real world/real life materials relevant and outdoors. 3.6 emonstrates that colors and patterns and D to children’s experiences and interests. other sensory inputs can affect stimulation 1.7 elects and makes accessible developmentally S levels for children of various ages and appropriate materials that are rotated learning needs by over or understimulating frequently. them and can adjust as needed. 1.8 ecognizes that individual space is needed for R 3.7 ntegrates a variety of surfaces for indoor I children to keep their individual belongings. and outdoor use. 1.9 abels children’s organizers (such as bins, L shelving units etc.) with pictures and words to foster children’s literacy skills, thinking skills, and independence and to provide organization to their world.
Competencies - Learning ExperiencesLearning Environments Experiences Knowledge in this area of professional practice is demonstrated when the early childhood professional: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1.1 evelops and implements a daily schedule and D 2.1 valuates a daily schedule and routine and E 3.1 stablishes extended learning opportunities E routine, as appropriate. makes the schedule clearly available to children beyond the curriculum using additional using the most appropriate cues for their age resources and materials. 1.2 ecognizes that learning occurs through play R and developmental level (i.e. pictures, etc.) and is able to develop and enhance play in 3.2 mplements strategies to support the I children lacking this skill. 2.2 Plans and implements curriculum and children’s role in planning curriculum based instructional practices based on knowledge on the interests, skill levels and potential of 1.3 hooses and/or implements a curriculum* C of individual children’s needs, interests each child. that includes all of the learning domains and and abilities as determined by assessment incorporates knowledge of individual children 3.3 rticulates, analyzes, evaluates, and applies A information. and their interests. current theory and research on design of 2.3 Incorporates developmentally and individually curriculum in order to support individual 1.4 upports and encourages children’s S appropriate materials, activities and strategies and group growth. participation in a variety of activities and in in an integrated curriculum*. differing degrees of participation dependent 3.4 lans, implements and uses a variety of P on their comfort levels and or special 2.4 Engages children in adult/child interactions by open-ended materials*, activities and learning needs. using open-ended questions or other language strategies in an integrated curriculum*. expansion activities appropriate for their 1.5 requently engages children in verbal word F 3.5 valuates the learning environment, teaching E individual learning needs. play and uses this play to develop language strategies and materials to maximize the 43 skills in children showing difficulty in this 2.5 Allows for peer play among all age groups and learning potential for individual children. developmental area. develops and supports play interactions as 3.6 ses a continuing process of assessment to U necessary. 1.6 ommunicates with parents, using sensitivity C guide modification of the curriculum and and respect, about children’s activities, 2.6 Encourages parent input in planning and environment. accomplishments, and developmental participating in activities in both the school 3.7 ntegrates various language strategies I milestones. setting and through activities sent to the through visual, written, verbal, graphic child’s home. organizers*, etc. 2.7 Uses child’s home language in daily activities. 3.8 dentifies and communicates the skills I 2.8 Emphasizes the process of creating instead of fostered in various learning areas and the end product. activities to other adults, including parents. 2.9 Incorporates active play in all activities and 3.9 rticulates the importance of play in a A routines throughout the day, regardless of child’s development and provides strategies children’s age and adjusts activity levels for and techniques that will assist families children who easily become over-stimulated and other colleagues in developing play in or lack voluntary or controlled physical children lacking this skill. movement. 3.10 Links curriculum to program philosophy. 2.10 Develops activities that enhance learning 3.11 Articulates the major theories of children’s through play. development and learning and applies these 2.11 upports the development of play skills if lack S theories to diverse settings. of this ability is hindering play-based learning interactions within the child’s environment.
Although many of these words may have other definitions, for the purposes of this listing the definition is given that best fits theAppendix A: Glossary meaning of the word or phrase when used in this document. Accommodation – Making or becoming suitable; adjusting to Community – The town, city or population group where an early circumstances by using the range over which such adjustment childhood program is located; may also refer to a group of people is possible. who share a common culture, language, purpose, etc. (Ex. “early childhood community,” “classroom community”). Advocacy - Long-range thinking that establishes unified, collaborative actions to make effective, lasting and targeted Community resources – Assets and resources available to children change in the field of endeavor. and families within a particular community, especially those that can help a family cope with a difficult situation or meet a specific need. Assessment – The process of gathering information through the use of multiple tools and resources for the purpose of making decisions. Confidentiality – Ensuring that information is accessible only to those authorized to have access. This includes any information, Attachment - The process of affection, bonding and connectedness whether oral, written, or computerized, that is directly applicable between an infant and significant care providers or parents that to an individual requesting or receiving services from an agency. builds a sense of trust and security within the child and profoundly These include handwritten notes, tapes, films, disks, etc. as well affects all areas of development. as oral communication based on such information. Bloodborne pathogens - Pathogenic microorganisms that are Continuous Professional Development - On-going self assessment present in human blood and can cause disease in humans. These of professional performance; the establishment of goals to maintain pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV) career standards and participate in advocacy actions; and the 44 and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). execution of a plan to make improvements. Bullying - Physical or psychological intimidation that occurs Core Values - Critical attitudes and beliefs that shape one’s repeatedly over time and creates an ongoing pattern of harassment philosophy and guide one’s behavior, especially when dealing with and abuse. work-related ethical issues. Challenging behavior - Actions or responses that: indicate the child Culturally Sensitive - The ability to work sensitively and respectfully is not exercising self-regulation or is stressed, afraid and insecure; with children and their families, honoring the diversity of their interfere with children’s learning, development and success at play; cultures, spoken languages, and racial and ethnic groups. are harmful to the child, other children or adults; and/or put a child at risk for later social problems or school failure. Culture – All of the socially transmitted behavior patterns, values, beliefs and knowledge that are typical of a population or community Children with special needs – Children with disabilities, of people at a given time. developmental delays, or chronic health or behavioral needs that have been identified through a formal assessment process. Curriculum - Planned, sequenced program of study and daily structured activity based on what is age appropriate, skill levels of Code of Ethics - Defines the core values of the field and provides children, and what is deemed important by the standards of Ohio. guidance for what professionals should do when they encounter conflicting obligations or responsibilities in their work. Developmental domains – Term used by professionals to describe areas or categories of skills and concepts that children develop or Collaborative - All members of a group working toward a learn over time. Domains typically include the following areas of common goal. development: social, emotional, cognitive, language and literacy, Communicable - A condition that can be spread or transmitted physical (large motor, fine motor, perceptual/sensory), and creative. from one individual to another.
Developmentally appropriate – Programs, activities, and Health - A state of wellness; complete physical, mental, social, andAppendix A: Glossary environments that are designed on the basis of: knowledge of how emotional well-bring. The quality of one element effects the state of children develop and learn; knowledge of the strengths, needs, and the others. interests of individual children; and knowledge of the social and Hydration - The taking in of water. cultural contexts in which children live. IEP - Individualized Education Plan. Diversity - The variance among family structures, functions, characteristics, and interests. IFSP - Individualized Family Service Plan. Early Intervention - Comprehensive educational programs for Inclusion - An educational practice whereby programs enroll both young children who are at risk or who have been identified as typically developing children and children with identified disabilities. having a disability. Informal (observation/assessment) – Assessment that does not Emergency preparedness - All activities designed or undertaken use standardized or required forms or procedures or not officially to minimize the effects of a hazard upon people, to deal with the recognized or approved as regular means of gathering information. immediate emergency conditions that would be caused by the Integrated curriculum - Developing model lessons that include hazard, and to repair or restore vital utilities or facilities destroyed cross-curricular activities and assessments. or damaged by the hazard. Leadership - Ability to understand, achieve and maintain institutional Empowering - The establishment of a model whereby all families quality, as well as to build, manage and sustain organizational culture. can assert an active role in the care and education of their children. Mentor - A knowledgeable and experienced individual who provides 45 Environment – All of the physical surroundings and social and guidance to beginning and experienced professionals to develop cultural conditions that physically and/or emotionally affect skills and reflection of practice. Various strategies of the mentor children and their ability to learn, grow, develop and survive. may include observation and feedback, demonstration of skills, Ethical Dilemma - A moral conflict that involves determining conferencing, and resource provider. appropriate conduct when an individual faces conflicting MFE - Under IDEA, children must undergo a multi-factored professional values and responsibilities. evaluation to determine eligibility for special education services. Family – A social unit of two or more people who share goals and An MFE consists of an evaluation, conducted by a multidisciplinary values, have long-term commitments, and often but not always live team, of more than one area of a child’s functioning so that no in the same household. A family may include children and adults single procedure is the sole criterion for determining a child’s living in the home, adults who are responsible for the long-term eligibility for a free appropriate educational program under the care and well-being of the child, a child’s legal guardian, and/or law. Children must be evaluated in all areas of suspected disability. parents who may not live in the same household as the child. Norm-Referenced – A measure in which an individual child’s Family Systems Theory - A framework that emphasizes the notion performance is compared with that of a normative group, usually that everything that happens to any family member affects all other others of the same age. family members. Nutrition - The study of food and how it is used in the body. Formal (observation/assessment) - Following accepted rules and Objective - Uninfluenced by emotions or personal biases. standards for use of forms, structure and arrangement of outcomes. Observation - Gathering information through one or more of the Graphic Organizers - A pictoral way to organize information and five senses for the basic purpose of determining a child’s individual thoughts for understanding, remembering, or writing about. needs and learning style.
Open-ended materials - Materials that can be used in multiple Separation - The process of a young child’s sensory interpretationAppendix A: Glossary ways and allow for children’s construction, concrete solving of of noticing a prime care giver or parent’s leaving or is out of sight, problems, imagination and creativity. causing the child to experience anxiety and insecurity. Professional Resources - Education, information, materials, support Special health care needs - Children with special health care needs services, and advocacy for early childhood stakeholders including, are those who have, or are at risk for, chronic physical, developmental, providers, teachers, trainers, and those working with families. behavioral, or emotional conditions and who also require health and related services of a type or amount not usually required by Professionalism - Decisions and actions, based on knowledge of typically developing children. early childhood theories, research and practice that shape one’s career in the field. Standards - Agreed upon expectations for young children, programs and teachers. Varying terms are used to describe standards: early Pro-social behavior - Caring behaviors toward others and concern learning standards are expectations about learning and development over the distress of someone else. of young children; program standards are expectations for the Quality Standards - Principles that provide a set of guidelines to characteristics and quality of schools, child care centers or other ensure the optimum level of regulations and practice in the field education settings for children; and content standards represent of early childhood. what students – including adult students – should know and be able to do within a particular discipline, such as math, science, Reciprocal interaction – An interaction with a child in which both language, or the arts. adult and child are actively contributing, listening, and responding to one another. Strength-based - The ability to recognize and utilize existing abilities and competencies in children in order to refrain from 46 Reflective Professional Development - On-going thinking about a negative focus. one’s role, personal actions, or effects on others, (e.g., children, staff, families, or colleagues) that lead to improvement and Valid - Extent to which a test measures what its authors claim meaningful change. it measures; appropriateness of the inferences that can be made on test results. Reliability – Consistency of test scores over time and between testers: the extent to which it is possible to generalize from one test result conducted by one person to test results conducted at different times or by different observers. Safe sleep - A sleep environment that reduces the risks associated with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Safety - Security and freedom from danger. Sanitize - Cleaned or sterilized. Screening - A brief procedure to determine whether a child requires further and more comprehensive evaluation. Self-regulation - Child’s ability to gain control of bodily functions, manage powerful emotions and maintain focus and attention. Sensitivity - Positive responsiveness to the attitudes, feelings, and circumstances of others.
Research in child development and early care and education Epstein, J. L. (1996). Perspectives and previews on research and Appendix B: Research References practices provides the foundation upon which the Core is built. policy for school, family, and community partnerships. Research findings presented in the following references were In A. Booth J. Dunn, (Eds.), Family-school links: How do useful throughout the document: they affect educational outcomes? Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Bredekamp, S., Copple, C. (1997). Developmentally appropriate Garris-Christian, L. (2006). Understanding families: Applying p ractice in early childhood programs. Washington, D.C.: family systems theory to early childhood practice. Young NAEYC. Children, 61, 1, 12-20. Shonkoff, J. P. Phillips, D. A. (Eds.). (2000). From neurons to Lareau, A. (2000). Home advantage: Social class and parental n eighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. i ntervention in elementary education. Lanham, MD: Washington D.C.: National Academies Press. Rowman Littlefield Publishers. Lerner, R. M. (1989). Individual development and the family The rationale statements for each content area were based upon system: A life span perspective. In K. Kreppner R. M. research cited in the following references: Lerner (Eds.), Family systems and life-span development. Child Development Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Ainsworth, M.S. (1973). The development of infant-mother Pfannensteil, J., Lambson, T., Yarnell, V. (1996). The parents as attachment. In B. Caldwell H. Ricciuti (Eds.), Review of t eachers program: Longitudinal follow up to the second wave child development research (Vol 3, pp. 1-94). Chicago: study. Overland Park, Kan.: Research Training University of Chicago Press. Associates. 47 Cushner, K., McClelland, A., Safford, P. (2006). Human diversity Health, Safety Nutrition i n education: An integrative Approach. New York: McGraw Hill. Aronson, S. (2002). Healthy young children: A manual for programs (4th ed.). Washington, DC: NAEYC. Gillespie, L.G. Seibel, N.L. (2006). Self-regulation: A cornerstone early childhood development. Young Children, 61 (4), of Charlesworth, R. (2004). Understanding child development 34-39. (6th ed.) Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning. Kagan, R. (2004). Rebuilding attachments with traumatized Earls, F. (1998). The era of health promotion for children and c hildren: Healing from losses, violence, abuse and neglect. adolescents: A cross-sectional survey of strategies and new New York: Haworth Maltreatment and Trauma Press. knowledge. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 869-871. Kaiser, B. Rasminsky, J.S. (2006). Challenging behavior in young Richardson, M., Elliman, D., Macguire, H. Simpson, J. Nicoll, A. c hildren: Understanding, preventing and responding (2001). Evidence base of incubation periods, periods of effectively (2nd Ed). Boston: Allyn Bacon. infectiousness and exclusion policies for the control of communicable diseases in schools and preschools. Family Community Relations Pediatric Infections Disease Journal, 20, 380-391. Dunst C. J., Trivette, C. M. (1998). Current and prospective use Child Observation Assessment o f family-centered principles and practices in the early elementary grades. Ashville, NC: Orelena Hawks Bentzen, W. R., Frost, M. B. (2003). Seeing child care: A guide for Puckett Institute. a ssessing the effectiveness of child care programs. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.
Buysse, V., Wesley, P. W. (2004). Consultation in early childhood Appendix B: Research References settings. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing. Neisworth, J. T., Bagnato, S. J. (2005). Recommended practices: Assessment. In S. Sandall, M. L. Hemmeter, B. J. Smith, M. E. McLean (Eds). DEC recommended practices: A comprehensive guide for practical application (pp. 45-70). Longmont, CO: Sopris West. Professional Development Brown, B., Johnson, E., Traill, S., Wohl, J. (Eds). (2004). The e conomic impact of the early care education industry in Ohio. Oakland, CA.: National Economic Development Law Center. Eliot, L. (1999). What’s going on in there?: How the brain and m ind develop in the first five years of life. New York: Bantam Books. Hyson, M. (2003). Preparing early childhood professionals: NAEYC’s standards for programs. Washington, 48 D.C.: NAEYC. Zaslow, M., Martinez-Beck, I. (2006). Critical issues in early c hildhood professional development. Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co. Learning Environments Experiences Elkind, D. (2005). Early childhood amnesia: Reaffirming children’s need for developmentally appropriate programs. Young Children, 60, 38-40. Gallagher, K. C. (2005). Brain research and early childhood development: A primer for developmentally appropriate practice. Young Children, 60, 12-20. Greenman, J. (2005). Caring space, learning places: Children’s e nvironments that work. Redmond, WA: Exchange Press, Inc. Rushton, S. P. (2001). Applying brain research to create developmentally appropriate learning environments. Young Children, 56, 76-82.
The following resources are recommended for additional Honig, A. (2002). Secure relationships: Nurturing infant/toddler Appendix C: For More Information information: attachment in early care settings. Washington, D.C.: NAEYC. General Information Family Community Relations Ashcraft, M. (2005). Best practices: Guidelines for school-age Anderson, H., Johnson, S. (1994). Regarding children: A new programs. Eden Prairie, MN: Sparrow Media Group. r espect for childhood and families. Louisville, KY: Bredekamp, S., Copple, C. (1997). Developmentally Appropriate Westminster John Knox Press. P ractice in Early Childhood Programs. Washington, D.C.: Chira, S. (1993). What do teachers want most? Help from parents. National Association for the Education of Young Children. New York Times, 23, June 7. Council for Professional Recognition. (n.d.) The Child Couchenour, D., Chrisman, K. (2004). Families, schools, and Development Associate Assessment System and Competency c ommunities: Together for young children (2nd ed.). Standards (various publications). Washington, D.C.: Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. The Council for Professional Recognition. Available: http://www.cdacouncil.org/shop/index.html Kagan, S., Weissbourd, B. (1994). Putting families first: A merica’s family support movement and the challenge of Harms, T., Clifford, R.M., Cryer, D. (n.d.) Environmental Rating change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Scales (various publications). New York: Teachers’ College Press. Available: http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~ecers/ Health, Safety Nutrition Lally, R. (2003). Caring for infants and toddlers in groups: Develop- 49 m entally appropriate practice. Washington, D.C.: Zero American Academy of Pediatrics, American Public Health to Three. Association, and National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care (2002). Caring for our children: Roots Wings: Affirming Culture in Early Childhood Programs, National health and safety performance standards: Stacey York, Redleaf Press, 2003. Guidelines for out-of-home child care programs (2nd ed.). Szanton, E. S. (1997). Creating child-centered programs for infants Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics and a nd toddlers. New York: Open Society Institute. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration Aronson, S. S. (Ed.) (2002). Healthy young children: A manual for Children and Families, Head Start Bureau (1998). Head for programs. Washington, D.C.: NAEYC Start Program Performance Standards. Washington, D.C.: Marotz, L., Cross, M. Z., Rush, J. M. (2004). Health, safety and U.S.D.H.H.S. n utrition for the young child (6 th Ed).Clifton Park,NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Child Growth Development Robertson, C. (2001). Safety, nutrition and health in child care. Berk. L. (2005). Child development (7th Ed.). Needham Heights, Clifton Park,NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. MA: Allyn Bacon. National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care Croft, C. (Ed.). (2004). Children challenging behavior: Making http://nrc.uchsc.edu/ i nclusion work (Vols. 1 2). Eden Prairie, MN: Sparrow Media Group. Gartrell, D. (2003). A guidance approach for the encouraging classroom. Clifton Park,NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.
Child Observation Assessment Gonzalez-Mena, J., Eyer, d. W. (2003). Infants, toddler, and Appendix C: For More Information c aregivers: A curriculum of respectful, responsive care and Beaty, J. J. (2001). Observing development of the young child (5th education (6th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Ed). Upper Saddle River, N. J.: Prentice-Hall. Companies. Bentzen, W. R. (2005). Seeing young children: A guide to Greenman, J. (2005). Caring space, learning places: Children’s o bserving and recording behavior (5th Ed.). Clifton Park, NY: e nvironments that work. Redmond, WA: Exchange Thomson Delmar Learning. Press, Inc. McAfee, O., Leong, D. .J., Bodrova, E. (2004). Basics of Ralph, K. S., Eddowes, E. A. (2003). Interactions for development a ssessment: A primer for early childhood educators. a nd learning: Birth through eight years (2nd Ed.). Upper Washington, D.C.: NAEYC. Saddle River, N. J.: Prentice-Hall. Nicolson, S., Shipstead, S. G. (2001). Through the looking glass: O bservations in the early childhood classroom (3rd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, N. J.: Prentice-Hall. Professional Development Bloom, P. J., Sheerer, M., Britz, J. (2005). Blueprint for action: A chieving center-based change through staff development (2nd Ed.). Lake Forest, IL: New Horizons. 50 Feeney, S. Freeman, N.K. (1999). Ethics and the early childhood e ducator: Using the NAEYC Code. Washington, D.C.: NAEYC. Kagan, S. Bowman, B. (Eds.). (1997). Leadership in early care education. Washington, D.C.: NAEYC. Sullivan, D. R. (2003). Learning to lead: Effective leadership skills for teachers of young children. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press. Tertell, E.A., Klein, S.M., Jewett, J. (Eds.). (1998). When teachers r eflect: Journeys toward effective, inclusive practice. Washington, DC: NAEYC. Learning Environments Experiences Bredekamp, S. (1997). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs. Washington, D. C.: NAEYC. Bronson, M. B. (1995). The right stuff for children birth to eight: S electing play materials to support development. Washington, D.C.: NAEYC. Copple, C., Bredekamp, S. (2006). Basics of developmentally a ppropriate practice: An introduction for teachers of children 3 to 6. Washington, D.C.: NAEYC.
Ohio’s Core Knowledge and Competencies is closely linked to three 3. DEC Recommended Practices: A Comprehensive Guide for Practical Appendix D: Linkages with Primary Sources important source documents from leading early childhood profes- Application in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education, sional organizations: (2005). S Sandall, M. L. Hemmeter, B. J. Smith, M. E. McLean; Division for Early Childhood of the Council for 1. AEYC Early Childhood Program Standards and Accreditation N Exceptional Children. Criteria (2005). The National Association for the Education of Young Children. Many of the knowledge and competency areas in Core Knowledge are related to specific standards, criteria or recommended 2. Preparing Early Childhood Professionals: NAEYC’s Standards for practices in these three documents. In order to allow for easy Initial Licensure, Advanced, and Associate Degree Programs, (2003). cross-referencing, the following table links each content area M. Hyson (ed.)., The National Association for the Education of in Core Knowledge with the relevant content in each of the Young Children. other documents. 1. AEYC Accreditation N 2. AEYC Professional N 3. EC Recommended D Core Knowledge Content Area Criteria Preparation Standards Practices Child Growth Development 1.A Building positive relationships 1a. Knowing and understanding Adults design environments to between teachers and families young children’s characteristics promote children’s safety, active and needs engagement, learning, participation, 2.A Curriculum: essential and membership (C1-11) 51 characteristics 1b. Knowing and understanding the multiple influences on development Adults use ongoing data to 7.A Knowing and understanding and learning individualize and adapt practices to the program’s families meet each child’s changing needs 1c. Using developmental knowledge (C12-16) to create healthy, respectful, supportive and challenging Adults use systematic procedures learning environments within and across environments, activities, and routines to promote children’s learning and participation (C17-27) Families and professionals share responsibility and work collaboratively (F1-5) Practices are strengths- and assets-based (C15-17)
Appendix D: Linkages with Primary Sources 1. AEYC Accreditation N 2. AEYC Professional N 3. EC Recommended D Core Knowledge Content Area Criteria Preparation Standards Practices Family Community Relations 1.A. Building Positive Relationships 2a. Knowing about and understanding Professionals and families collaborate among Teachers and Families family and community characteristics in planning and implementing assessment (A1-12) 1.E. Addressing Challenging Behaviors 2b. Supporting and empowering families and communities through Assessment is individualized and 4.A. Creating an Assessment Plan respectful, reciprocal relationships appropriate for the child and family (A13-20) 4.B. Using Appropriate Assessment 2c. Involving families and communities Methods Professionals meet legal and procedural in their children’s development requirements and meet Recommended 4.E. Communicating with Families and learning Practice guidelines (A37-46) and Involving Families in the 4a. Connecting with Children Adults design environments to promote Assessment Process (4.E.01) and Families children’s safety, active engagement, 6.A. Preparation, Knowledge, and learning, participation, and membership Skills of Teaching Staff (C1-11) Adults use ongoing data to individualize 7.A. Knowing and Understanding and adapt practices to meet each the Program’s Families child’s changing needs (C12-16) 7.B. Sharing Information Between Adults use systematic procedures within 52 Staff and Families and across environments, activities, and routines to promote children’s learning 7.C. Nurturing Families as Advocates and participation (C17-25) for Their Children Families and professionals share 8.A. Linking with the Community responsibility and work collaboratively (F1-5) 8.B. Accessing Community Resources Practices strengthen family functioning 8.C. Acting as a Citizen in the (F6-10) Neighborhood and Early Childhood Community Practices are strengths- and assets- based (F11-14) 10.B. Management Policies and Teams including family members make Procedures decisions and work together (I1-6) Professionals cross disciplinary boundaries (I7-8) Intervention is focused on function, not services (I9-16) Regular caregivers and regular routines provide the most appropriate opportunities for children’s learning and receiving most other interventions (I17-19) Families and professionals shape policy at the national, state, and local levels (PS1-4)
Appendix D: Linkages with Primary Sources 1. AEYC Accreditation N 2. AEYC Professional N 3. EC Recommended D Core Knowledge Content Area Criteria Preparation Standards Practices Health, Safety Nutrition 1.A. Building positive relationships 1a. Knowing and understanding Professionals and families among teachers and families young children’s characteristics collaborate in planning and and needs implementing assessment (A1-12) 1.B. Building positive relationships between teachers and children 1b. Knowing and understanding the Assessment is individualized and multiple influences on development appropriate for the child and family 2.K. Curriculum content area for and learning (A13-20) cognitive development: health 2a. Knowing about and understanding Assessment provides useful information and safety family and community characteristics for intervention (A21-29) 3.C. Supervising children 2b. Supporting and empowering Professionals share information in 5.A Promoting and protecting families and communities through respectful and useful ways (A30-36) children’s health and controlling respectful, reciprocal relationships Professionals meet legal and infectious disease 2c. Involving families and procedural requirements and 5.B. Ensuring children’s nutritional communities in their children’s meet Recommended Practice well-being development and learning Guidelines (A37-46) 5.C. Maintaining a healthful 3b. Knowing about and using Adults design environments to observation, documentation and promote children’s safety, active 53 environment other appropriate assessment tools engagement, learning, participation, 9.A. Indoor and outdoor equipment, and approaches and membership (C1-11) materials and furnishings 3d. Knowing about assessment Adults use ongoing data to individualize 9.C. Building and physical design partnerships with families and and adapt practices to meet each other professionals children’s changing needs (C12-16) 9.D. Environmental health 4d. Using own knowledge and other Families and professionals 10.B. Management policies resources to design, implement, and share responsibility and work and procedures evaluate meaningful, challenging collaboratively (F1-5) 10.D. Health, nutrition and safety curriculum to promote Practices strengthen family policies and procedures positive outcomes functioning (F6-10) 10.F. Program evaluation, 5b. Knowing about and upholding Practices individualized and flexible ethical standards and other accountability and continuous (F11-14) professional guidelines improvement Teams including family members 5c. Engaging in continuous, make decisions and work together collaborative learning to (I1-16) inform practice Families and professionals shape 5d. Integrating knowledgeable, policy at the national, state and local reflective, and critical perspectives levels (PS1-4) on early education Program policies and administration 5e. Engaging in informed advocacy promote family participation in for children and the profession decision-making (PS12-18)
Appendix D: Linkages with Primary Sources 1. AEYC Accreditation N 2. AEYC Professional N 3. EC Recommended D Core Knowledge Content Area Criteria Preparation Standards Practices Child Observation Assessment: Principles/Foundation 4.A Creating and Assessment Plan 3a. Understanding the goals, Assessment is individualized and benefits and uses of assessment appropriate for the child and family (A13-20) 3b. Knowing about and using observation, documentation and Professionals share information in other appropriate assessment tools respectful and useful ways (A30-36) and approaches Professionals meet legal and 3c. Understanding and practicing procedural requirements and meet DEC Recommended Practices responsible assessment guidelines (A37-46) Gathering/Documentation 4.B Using Appropriate Assessment 3b. Knowing about and using Professionals and families Methods observation, documentation and collaborate in planning and other appropriate assessment tools implementing assessment (A1-12) 4.E Communicating with Families and approaches 54 and Involving Families in the Assessment is individualized and Assessment Process 3c. Understanding and practicing appropriate for the child and responsible assessment family (A13-20) Summary and Uses 4.C Identifying Children’s Interests 3a. Understanding the goals, Assessment provides useful information (Results and Interpretation) and Needs and Describing Children’s benefits and uses of assessment for intervention (A21-29) Progress Professionals meet legal and 3d. Knowing about assessment 4.D Adapting Curriculum, partnerships with families and procedural requirements and meet Individualizing Teaching, and other professionals DEC Recommended Practices Informing Program Development guidelines (A37-46) Sharing and Reporting Methods 4.C Identifying Children’s Interests 3a. Understanding the goals, Assessment provides useful and Needs and describing Children’s benefits and uses of assessment information for intervention Progress (A21-29) 3c. Understanding and practicing 4.E Communicating with Families responsible assessment Professionals share information in and Involving Families in the respectful and useful ways (A30-36) 3d. Knowing about assessment Assessment Process Professionals meets legal and partnerships with families and 7.B Sharing Information Between procedural requirements and meet other professionals Staff and Families DEC Recommended Practices guidelines (A37-46) 8.A Linking with the Community
Appendix D: Linkages with Primary Sources 1. AEYC Accreditation N 2. AEYC Professional N 3. EC Recommended D Core Knowledge Content Area Criteria Preparation Standards Practices Professional Development 6a. Preparation, knowledge and 5a Identifying and involving oneself Field experiences are systematically skills of teaching staff with the early childhood field designed and supervised (PP29 – 39) 6b. Teacher’s dispositions and 5b Knowing about upholding Faculty and other personnel trainers professional commitment ethical standards and other are qualified and well-prepared for professional guidelines their role in personnel preparation (PP40 – 55) 5c Engaging in continuous, collaborative learning to Professional development (inservice) activities are systematically designed inform practice and implemented (PP56 – 66) 5d Integrating knowledgeable, reflective, and critical perspectives on early education 5e Engaging in informed advocacy for children and the profession 55 Learning Environments Experiences: Interactions Relationships 1A. Building positive relationships 1a. Knowing and understanding Adults design environments to among teachers and families young children’s characteristics promote children’s safety, active and needs engagement, learning, participation, 1B. Building positive relationships and membership (C1-11) 1b. Knowing and understanding the between teachers and children multiple influences on development Adults use ongoing data to and learning individualize and adapt practices 1C. Helping children make friends to meet each child’s changing 1c. Using developmental knowledge needs (C12-16) 1D. Creating a predictable, consistent, to create healthy, respectful, Adults use systematic procedures and harmonious classroom supportive, and challenging within and across environments, learning environments activities, and routines to promote 1E. Addressing challenging behaviors 4a. Knowing, understanding, and children’s learning and participation using positive relationships and (C17-27) 2B. Social-emotional development supportive interactions Assessment provides useful information for intervention 3B. Creating caring communities (A21-29) for learning
Appendix D: Linkages with Primary Sources 1. AEYC Accreditation N 2. AEYC Professional N 3. EC Recommended D Core Knowledge Content Area Criteria Preparation Standards Practices Learning Environments Experiences: Physical Environments 2.A. Curriculum: essential 1a. Knowing and understanding Adults design environments to characteristics young children’s characteristics promote children’s safety, active and needs engagement, learning, participation, 2C. Physical development and membership (C1-11) 1b. Knowing and understanding the 2E-L. Curriculum content area for Adults use ongoing data to multiple influences on development cognitive development individualize and adapt practices and learning 3A. Designing enriched learning to meet each child’s changing needs 1c. Using developmental knowledge (C12-16) environments to create healthy, respectful, Adults use systematic procedures 3D. Using time, grouping and supportive, and challenging within and across environments, routines to achieve learning goals learning environments activities, and routines to promote 3E. Responding to children’s 4b. Knowing, understanding, and children’s learning and participation interests and needs using effective approaches, strategies, (C17-27) and tools for early education Assessment provides useful 5C. Maintaining a healthful environment 4d. Using own knowledge and other information for intervention 56 resources to design, implement, and (A21-29) 9.A: Physical Environment: Indoor evaluate meaningful, challenging and Outdoor Equipment, Materials, curriculum to promote positive and Furnishings outcomes 9.B: Physical Environment: Outdoor Environmental Design 9.C: Physical Environment: Building and Physical Design
Appendix D: Linkages with Primary Sources 1. AEYC Accreditation N 2. AEYC Professional N 3. EC Recommended D Core Knowledge Content Area Criteria Preparation Standards Practices Learning Environments Experiences: Learning Experiences 2.A. Curriculum: essential 1a. Knowing and understanding Adults design environments to characteristics young children’s characteristics promote children’s safety, active and needs engagement, learning, participation, 2B-D. Areas of development and membership (C1-11) 1b. Knowing and understanding the 2E-L. Curriculum content area for Adults use ongoing data to multiple influences on development cognitive development individualize and adapt practices and learning 3A. Designing enriched learning to meet each child’s changing needs 1c. Using developmental knowledge (C12-16) environments to create healthy, respectful, Adults use systematic procedures 3D. Using time, grouping and supportive, and challenging within and across environments, routines to achieve learning goals learning environments activities, and routines to promote 3E. Responding to children’s 4b. Knowing, understanding, and children’s learning and participation interests and needs using effective approaches, strategies, (C17-27) and tools for early education Assessment provides useful 3F. Making learning meaningful for all children 4c. Knowing and understanding information for intervention 57 the importance, central concepts, (A21-29) 3G. Using instruction to deepen inquiry tools, and structures of children’s understanding and build content areas or academic their skills and knowledge disciplines 4d. Using own knowledge and other resources to design, implement, and evaluate meaningful, challenging curriculum to promote positive outcomes