B k standards-cognition_knowledge 5-11-2012 final

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  • 1. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, The domain of Cognition and General Knowledge encompasses children’s knowledge of their physical and social worlds. It includes content knowledge, concepts and skills in the areas of mathematics, social studies and science. It also covers cognitive processes and skills fundamental to learning in different domains. Mathematics. The sub-domain of Mathematics encompasses the mathematical concepts and skills that children develop during the birth-to-five-year period, including children’s developing understanding of number and quantity, number relationships, and basic algebraic concepts. A meta-analysis conducted by Duncan and colleagues (2007) suggests that specific early math skills such as knowledge of numbers and ordinality are important predictors of later achievement in math and reading. The Mathematics domain also addresses children’s developing knowledge of key attributes of objects, including size and shape, and the way objects fit, are positioned, and move in space. The sub-domain of Mathematics consists of these strands and topics. Mathematics Strand: Number Sense Topic: Number Sense and Counting Compare Numbers Mathematics Strand: Number Relationships and Operations 1 Topic: Explore Number Relationships Mathematics Strand: Algebra Topics: Group and Categorize Patterning Mathematics Strand: Measurement and Data Topics: Describe and Compare Measurable Attributes Data Analysis Mathematics Strand: Geometry Topics: Spatial Relationships Identify and Describe Shapes Analyze, Compare and Create Shapes icon Cognition and General Knowledge here
  • 2. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, Social Studies. The sub-domain of Social Studies includes basic skills and competencies that set the foundation for learning about concepts of social science. At a young age, children begin to develop their social identity and to think about their place in the social world. As they grow, they develop an increased awareness of their personal histories and heritage, and a sense of time and place. Through everyday interactions with children and adults, they develop an appreciation for rights and responsibility within a group, and how social rules help people in promoting safety and fairness (Mindes, 2005). The sub-domain of Social Studies consists of these strands and topics. Social Studies Strand: Self Topic: Social identity Social Studies Strand History Topic: Historical Thinking and Skills Heritage Social Studies Strand: Geography Topic: Spatial Thinking and Skills Human Systems 2 Social Studies Strand: Government Topic: Civic Participation and Skills Rules and Laws Social Studies Strand: Economics Topic: Scarcity Production and Consumption Science. The sub-domain of Science focuses on children’s curiosity to explore and learn about their environment. It includes behaviors of exploration and discovery, and fundamental conceptual development such as problem solving and cause and effect. These early behaviors develop into increasingly systematic inquiry skills, and the ability to observe, investigate and communicate about the natural environment, living things, and objects and materials (Gelman and Brenneman, 2004). icon Cognition and General Knowledge here
  • 3. The sub-domain of Science consists of these strands and topics. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, Science Strand: Science Inquiry and Application Topic: Cause and Effect Exploration and Discovery Observe and Investigate Communicate, Document and Construct Explanations Science Strand: Earth and Space Science Topic: Observations and Explorations of Nature Science Strand: Physical Science Topic: Observations and Explorations of Objects and Materials Science Strand: Life Science Topic: Observations and Explorations of Living Things Processes and Skills. The sub-domain of Processes and Skills refers to the underlying cognitive mechanisms, skills and processes that support learning and reasoning in different domains, including the development of memory, symbolic thought, reasoning and problem- 3 solving. It also addresses the ability to learn about complex ideas or events through imitation. The sub-domain of Processes and Skills consists of these strands and topics. Processes and Skills Strand: Memory Topic: Memory Processes and Skills Strand: Cognitive Processes Topic: Symbolic Thought Reasoning and Problem Solving Processes and Skills Strand: Cognitive Skills Topic Imitation icon Cognition and General Knowledge here
  • 4. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Number Sense Number Sense and Countingicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT Pay attention to quantities when Show understanding that Count to 20 by ones with Explore objects and attend toCognition and General Knowledge – Mathematics interacting with objects. numbers represent quantity and increasing accuracy. events in the environment. EXAMPLES demonstrate understanding of EXAMPLES EXAMPLES words that identify how muchi. • Communicates “more” and “all • Recites the numbers 1-20 • xplores or experiments with E EXAMPLES gone” when eating from a bowl of incompletely or with errors. object(s) such shaking a rattle or cheerios. • Uses words such as, “One, two, • Chants or sings 1-20 in order while ring of keys. • Searches for the third ball after more, little, a lot.” marching. • Holds one block in each hand and two of three balls were handed • Recites 1-20 to show how high she drops one when offered a third to him. can count. block. STANDARD STATEMENT • Communicates, “A lot” when looking at a large number of Use number words to indicate blocks. the quantity in small sets of STANDARD STATEMENT objects (e.g., 2, 3), and begin Identify and name numerals 1-9. counting aloud. EXAMPLES EXAMPLES • Points to numerals in a book as the • Starts counting with “one” teacher names them. 4 sometimes pointing to the same • Points to and names numerals on item twice when counting or uses spinner while playing game. numbers out of order. “One, two, three, five, eight.” • Moves an equivalent number of steps indicated by a numeral on a • Reaches into bowl and takes out large number cube during gross two carrots when the care teacher motor play. says, “Just take two.” • Holds up two fingers and says, “Two, when asked how old,” STANDARD STATEMENT • Participates in counting songs, Identify without counting small rhymes and stories. quantities of up to 3 items. EXAMPLES • Looks briefly at a picture and immediately communicates the quantity of up to three objects in the picture. • Identifies quantities up to three without counting during play and classroom routines (e.g., sorting bears, getting snack, etc.). (Standard Statements continue on page X.)
  • 5. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Number Sense Number Sense and Counting Continuedicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten (Standard Statements continued from page X.)Cognition and General Knowledge – Mathematics STANDARD STATEMENT Demonstrate one-to-one correspondence when counting objects up to 10. EXAMPLES • Counts the number of cars on the rug, “One, two, three, four, five, six.” • Counts out napkins for snack time, saying the number aloud as he puts each one on the table. • Accurately counts five crackers to match the picture in a rebus chart. STANDARD STATEMENT 5 Understand that the last number spoken tells the number of objects counted. EXAMPLES • Moves an equivalent number of steps indicated on a large number cube, during gross motor play. • When asked how many napkins he passed out for snack says “ten napkins.”
  • 6. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Number Sense Compare Numbersicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT Identify whether the number ofCognition and General Knowledge – Mathematics objects in one group is greater than, less than or equal to the number of objects in another group up to 10. EXAMPLES • Points to the set with six blocks when asked which set has more blocks, the set with five or the set with six. • Compares the number of letters in their friend’s names and indicates who has more or less. • Responds to questions like “Does Jason have as many crackers as Jasmine?” 6 • Compares sets.
  • 7. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Number Relationships and Operations Explore Number Relationshipsicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT Explore objects and attend to Notice changes in quantity of Demonstrate an understanding Solve simple addition andCognition and General Knowledge – Mathematics events in the environment. objects (especially ones that can that adding to increases the subtraction problems with totals EXAMPLES be detected visually with ease). number of objects in the group. smaller than 8, using concrete EXAMPLES EXAMPLES objects. • xplores objects by mouthing, E banging, shaking or hitting them. • Says “All gone!” when the bowl Is • Adds more objects to a collection EXAMPLES • Holds an object in each hand empty. of objects, and indicates “I have • Counts the number of boys and looking at both as if comparing • Says “More” when the teacher more.” the number of girls present and them. brought out more balls. • When the teacher adds one more then finds out how many children duck to a group of two ducks, are there altogether. • Looks for character toy when noticing that one of his three shows three fingers to indicate the • Responds appropriately when character toys is missing. total number of ducks. asked, “Right now there are five • Has one slice of apple in her plate, people at our snack table. How adds another slice of apple, and many people will be here if Jenny communicates, “Two.” comes?” • Groups and counts the number of zoo animals and the number of STANDARD STATEMENT farm animals, and count the total 7 Place objects in 1-1 correspon- number of animals in the block dence relationships during play. area. EXAMPLES • Participates in stories and rhymes involving addition and subtraction • Gives each doll a pretend sip from (e.g., The Doorbell Rang, Ten in a cup. the Bed, Where is Thumbkin.) • Sits each animal on a block. • Counts the number of crackers left • Sets the table with two plates after everyone is served at snack. and two cups when playing in the house corner with a friend.
  • 8. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Algebra Group and Categorizeicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT Notice the difference between Match two objects that are the Sort objects into two or more Sort and classify objects by oneCognition and General Knowledge – Mathematics familiar and unfamiliar people, same, and select similar objects groups by their properties and or more attributes. objects and places. from a group. uses. EXAMPLES EXAMPLES EXAMPLES EXAMPLES • Sorts red and blue counting bears, • ooks back and forth between L • Matches two identical fire trucks • Labels the big animals “mama” and then sorts each group of bears people or objects, as if comparing • Points out all of the blue plates at and the small animals “baby.” by size. them. the lunch table. • Puts all of the red pegs in one • Sorts blocks by size and shape for • Explores objects by mouthing, • Puts toy cars in one pile and bowl, the white pegs in another storing on block shelf, at clean-up banging, shaking or hitting them. airplanes in another. bowl and the green pegs in a third time. • Able to tell the difference between bowl. • Sorts animals into zoo animals and • Takes out all of the red objects friendly and unfriendly voices. from a collection of red and non- • Indicates that birds, dogs and farm animals, and then sort each red objects, with help. horses are all animals, while cars group by kind of animal. are not. • Sorts different-shaped blocks into three piles: circles, squares, and triangles. 8
  • 9. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Algebra Patterningicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT Initiate repeated movements. Participate in adult-initiated Copy and anticipate a repeating Recognize, duplicate and extendCognition and General Knowledge – Mathematics EXAMPLES movement patterns. pattern. simple patterns using attributes EXAMPLES such as color, shape or size. • Makes cooing sound repeatedly EXAMPLES when interacting with an adult. • Copies adult movements, such as EXAMPLES • Follows and remembers • Kicks repeated times at an object. tapping the table or clapping. • Follows pattern for placing utensils movements in familiar songs or • Puts hand near eyes in response to and plates on table in preparation rhymes. peek-a-boo game. for lunchtime. • Recognizes a repeating pattern in • Participates in a part of a pattern • Uses colored pattern blocks to a storybook (e.g., “Brown Bear, song (claps, or moves with adult). copy a pattern picture. Brown Bear What do You See?”). • Extends a pattern started by • Anticipates what happens next in another. everyday routines. • Finds and identifies patterns in the environment. STANDARD STATEMENT Create patterns. 9 EXAMPLES • Builds a road alternating long and short unit blocks. • Orders colored bears in red, blue, yellow; red, blue, yellow pattern.
  • 10. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Measurement and Data Describe and Compare Measurable Attributes icon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT Explore properties of objects. Shows awareness of the size of Demonstrate awareness that Describe and compare objectsCognition and General Knowledge – Mathematics EXAMPLES objects. objects can be compared by using measurable attributes; EXAMPLES size (or other attributes, weight, length, size, capacity, and • Looks for what is making a sound. capacity), and begin to use weight. • Brings an object to her mouth to • Communicates, “Big ball.” words such as bigger, smaller, EXAMPLES explore it. • Points to the train and says, and longer. • Drops a toy and watches it fall. “Long.” • Compares the heights of two EXAMPLES children and describes one child as • Shows a preference for the – bigger over the smaller ball. • Communicates, “This block is taller/shorter. more big.” • Compares shoe sizes to see who • Communicates, “My train is has the bigger, smaller. longer.” • Sorts and classifies objects and • Attempts to pick up a box with can explain the sorting criteria toys and communicates, “heavy.” (e.g., one rock is heavier than the other; one pencil is longer, etc.). • Communicates, “This has more” when referring to two cups of milk. • Labels the big animals “mama” STANDARD STATEMENT 10 and the small animals “baby.” Order objects by measurable attributes. EXAMPLES • Orders blocks by height. STANDARD STATEMENT Measure length and volume (capacity) using non-standard or standard measurement tools. EXAMPLES • Measures how many paper clips long is a pencil. • Measures how many Unifix cubes long is the table. • Measures how many small containers it takes to fill one large container at the sand table.
  • 11. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Measurement and Data Data Analysis icon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT Collect data by categoriesCognition and General Knowledge – Mathematics to answer simple questions. EXAMPLES • Sorts the red bears and the blue bears. Counts to see which group has more. • Groups and counts the number of zoo animals and the number of farm animals. • Counts how many children said they have a pet and how many said they do not have a pet. • Counts the number of apples in each column of the chart, and concludes, “More children like red apples” 11
  • 12. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Geometry Spatial Relationshipsicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT Explore the properties of Use trial and error to discover Places objects together to Demonstrate understanding ofCognition and General Knowledge – Mathematics objects. how things fit and move in demonstrate how things fit and the relative positions of objects EXAMPLES space. move, without having to try all with terms such as in/on/under, EXAMPLES possible solutions. up/down, inside/outside, above/ • Watches people and objects move through space. EXAMPLES below, beside/between, in front • Experiments with how objects fit in space: stacks, sorts, dumps, of/ behind, and next to. • Brings an object to her mouth to • Builds a tall tower with a number explore it. pushes, pulls, twists, turns. of blocks. EXAMPLES • Reaches for and grasp an object. • Fits the round puzzle piece in the • Fits a shape into the matching • Says “My toy fell under the table,” round space on the puzzle board. space in a shape sorter toy on the or “I left my ball outside,” or “Sit • Drops a toy and watches it fall. • Gets stuck in a tight space when first try. down beside me.” • Moves her body through space by exploring. • Completes a puzzle with three to • Navigates an obstacle course rolling, rocking or crawling. • Explores the ways shapes and four interlocking pieces. when the teacher says “go under objects fit together. • Stacks rings on a base in the the bridge” and then “go around correct order the first time she the climber.” • Notices similarities and differences in the shapes of objectsiii. tries. • Says, “My dad keeps the car inside the garage.” 12 • Builds simple but meaningful “maps” using blocks and toys such as trees, cars, houses, and describes relative positions. (e.g., “The truck is beside the road.” “The dog is behind the house.”).
  • 13. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Geometry Identify and Describe Shapesicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT Recognize basic shapes. Understand and use names ofCognition and General Knowledge – Mathematics EXAMPLES shapes when identifying objects. • Identifies a circle and a square in a EXAMPLES shape-puzzle. • Recognizes and names basic two- • Points to circles of different sizes, dimensional shapes, including, and communicates that these are circle, square, rectangle, and all circles. triangle. • While playing a game of shape bingo, identify different shapes that are called out loud. • While playing with blocks, asks a friend, “Can I have another square block?” STANDARD STATEMENT Names three-dimensional objects 13 using informal, descriptive vocabulary. EXAMPLES • Refers to a cube as a “box.” • Calls the cone “ice cream cone.” • Calls a sphere a “ball.”
  • 14. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Geometry Analyze, Compare and Create Shapesicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT Compare two-dimensionalCognition and General Knowledge – Mathematics shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language. EXAMPLES • Locates two-dimensional geometric shapes of differing size and orientation in the classroom environment. • Answers questions like “How do you know the shape is a triangle?” by describing the number of “lines” and “points.” • Identifies two-dimensional shapes by feel in a “feely box.” • Identifies a triangle whether sitting 14 on its base or on its point. STANDARD STATEMENT Create shapes during play by building, drawing, etc. EXAMPLES • Draws a picture of his house using some basic shapes such as a rectangle for the building and a triangle for the roof and a circle for the sun. • Creates symmetrical block structures. • Draws shapes from memory. (Standard Statements continue on page X.)
  • 15. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Geometry Analyze, Compare and Create Shapes Continuedicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten (Standard Statements continued from page X.)Cognition and General Knowledge – Mathematics STANDARD STATEMENT Combine simple shapes to form larger shapes. EXAMPLES • Uses blocks to create larger shape structures. • Manipulates pattern blocks to form larger shapes. • Describes the shapes used to create new shapes. 15
  • 16. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Self Social Identityicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT Show awareness of self and Prefer familiar adults and Identify themselves andCognition and General Knowledge – Social Studies awareness of other people. recognize familiar actions and others as belonging to one EXAMPLES routines. or more groups, according to EXAMPLES characteristics they notice. • ses his hands to explore different U parts of his body and explores • Expresses anxious behavior EXAMPLES mom’s facial features. around unfamiliar adults. • Uses pronouns like “we,” and • Attends to the difference between • Talks on the phone and walks “our”. familiar and unfamiliar people. around the way her mommy does • Says, “Adrian is a boy, and I’m a • Smiles and lights up when big at home. boy.” brother comes to talk to him. • Claps and says “yeah” after • Says, “I’m not a baby. I’m a big • Shows anxiety when dad leaves. singing a song at home, because girl.” that’s what they do at her family • Names some family members or • Cries and expects a care teacher to child care. friends. meet her needs. • Goes to get coat when it’s time to go outside even though it’s raining and the care teacher has said the group is having inside play. 16
  • 17. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC History Historical Thinking and Skillsicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT Demonstrate an understandingCognition and General Knowledge – Social Studies of time in the context of daily experiences. EXAMPLES • Tells her mom that her friend was sick yesterday and not at school. • When talking to his friend at snack, labels the day “swim day” or “field trip day.” • Reminds substitute teacher that they go on the playground after snack in the morning. • Shows the new boy in the class the picture schedule so he will know what comes next. 17 STANDARD STATEMENT Develop an awareness of their personal histories. EXAMPLES • Looks at the classroom photo album, points to grandma and tell the teacher about how she rocked him when he was a baby. • Tells his friend about going to the park for a picnic with his family while playing in the sensory table. • Asks her mama to tell “her born story” on her birthday. • Shares that when he was a baby he wore diapers, but he’s not a baby anymore.
  • 18. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC History Heritageicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT Develop an awareness andCognition and General Knowledge – Social Studies appreciation of family and cultural stories and traditions. EXAMPLES • Imitates making one of his family’s traditional desserts while playing in the kitchen area. • Points to the flag in the classroom and tells the teacher he got one at a parade on the 4th of July. • Participates in re-enacting different holiday traditions, during dramatic play. 18
  • 19. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Geography Spatial Thinking and Skillsicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT Demonstrate a beginningCognition and General Knowledge – Social Studies understanding of maps as actual representations of places. EXAMPLES • Includes representations of roads, buildings, bodies of water during block play. • Draws a map. • Goes on a “bear hunt” using a map. • Drive cars along a road on a map. 19
  • 20. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Geography Human Systemsicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT Identify similarities andCognition and General Knowledge – Social Studies differences of own personal, family, and cultural characteristics, and those of others. EXAMPLES • Asks the teacher why her skin is pink and her friend’s skin is brown. • Makes a self-portrait that includes his body parts and clothing, and states, I have black hair and Catherina has brown hair. • Tells the teacher, “I speak Spanish at home, but English at school,” or “I live with my mom and my grandma, but Casey lives with his mom and his dad.” 20
  • 21. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Government Civic Participation and Skillsicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT Understand that everyone hasCognition and General Knowledge – Social Studies rights and responsibilities within a group. EXAMPLES • Participates in group vote on what to name the guinea pig. • Offers to be a class buddy for a new boy in the room. • Let’s the teacher know there is a broken toy in the room. • Shows concern for his classmate who has trouble getting on the playground because he uses braces. • Reminds another child to put a plastic bottle in the recycle 21 container. STANDARD STATEMENT Demonstrate cooperative behaviors and fairness to others during interactions with peers and adults. EXAMPLES • Helps a friend rebuild a block tower when it accidentally falls over. • Works with a friend in the sensory table to fill a bottle with water. (Standard Statements continue on page X.)
  • 22. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Government Civic Participation and Skills Continuedicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten (Standard Statements continued from page X.)Cognition and General Knowledge – Social Studies STANDARD STATEMENT Engage in problem- solving to resolve social conflicts with adult support. EXAMPLES • Creates a waiting list to take turns at the computer, with adult support. • Tells a friend, “Give it back, he had it first” when she takes a book from another child. • Tells his friends, “You will be the cashier and you can be the shopper and then you can switch.” 22 STANDARD STATEMENT Demonstrate an awareness of the outcomes of choices. EXAMPLES • Tells a friend to hold onto the swing so they won’t fall. • Asks for his coat when he’s outside and didn’t bring his coat. • Says, “I’m hungry; I wish I would have eaten my snack,” after choosing not to eat during snack time.
  • 23. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Government Rules and Lawsicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT Understand that rules play anCognition and General Knowledge – Social Studies important role in promoting safety and protecting fairness. EXAMPLES • Participates in creation of classroom rules. • Tells a classmate to stop throwing blocks because one could hit a friend. • During dramatic play asks a friend, “Can I have a turn playing with the doll when you are all done?” 23
  • 24. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Economics Scarcityicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT Recognize that people haveCognition and General Knowledge – Social Studies wants and must make choices because resources and materials are limited. EXAMPLES • Notices that the red paint is gone and asks the teacher to get more out of the supply closet. • Offers to share the sponge in the water table when there is only one available. • Tells his friend that there are only two books about cars in the book area and that he has to pick one. 24
  • 25. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Economics Production and Consumptionicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT Demonstrate understandingCognition and General Knowledge – Social Studies of where goods and services originate and how they are acquired. EXAMPLES • Makes a grocery list during dramatic play, puts purse over her shoulder and says, “I have to go to the grocery store.” • Helps to take care of tomato plant in classroom and to make salsa for snack when tomatoes are ripe. STANDARD STATEMENT Explore the concept of responsible consumption and 25 conservation of resources. EXAMPLES • Tells the teacher that his family went to the apple orchard to pick apples and when they got home they made applesauce with them. • Tells a new classmate at snack not to take too many crackers because “we only to take as many as we can eat so we don’t throw them away.”
  • 26. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Science Inquiry and Application Cause and Effecticon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT Not applicable. Use simple actions to make Purposefully try behaviors to Demonstrate understanding thatCognition and General Knowledge – Science things happen. make things happen. events have a cause. EXAMPLES EXAMPLES EXAMPLES • xplores objects by mouthing, E • Drops objects from different • Chooses only rings with holes banging, shaking or hitting them. heights and positions. when playing with a ring-stacking • Grasps a toy in her hand, bats or • Pulls a string attached to a toy to toy. kicks at water, then acts surprised bring the toy closer. • Says, “Lucile fall down” when by the splash. • Touches or bangs the handle of a seeing a peer crying. • Shakes a rattle repeatedly to make jack-in-the-box, then hands it back • Communicates about what makes the sound continue. to caregiver to make it pop. a pop-up toy go. • Touches different parts of a • Repeats an action to cause a musical toy to make the music known reaction. start again. • Explores the air moving through a bubble blowing wand to produce bubbles. 26
  • 27. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Science Inquiry and Application Exploration and Discoveryicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT Observe, hold, touch and Try out different things with an Engage in sustained andCognition and General Knowledge – Science handle objects, and examine object to see what happens, or complex manipulations of them with their lips and how things work. objects. tongues. EXAMPLES EXAMPLES EXAMPLES • Tries to reach an object behind the • Experiments with water tubes • Turns face to the light breeze. bookcase. in the water table, pours water • Explores body parts of self and • Drops objects from different through different tubes, and others. heights and positions. observes the water flow down. • Explores, touch and feel books. • Builds with blocks, making a big castle. STANDARD STATEMENT Demonstrate a broad interest in objects and events in their environment. EXAMPLES 27 • Observes a butterfly and asks, Observes a butterfly and asks, “Where did it go?” • Uses eyes to watch movement of ants on an anthill. • Looks inside a toy to see how it works. STANDARD STATEMENT Use simple tools to explore the environment about them. EXAMPLES • Uses nesting cups in water table. • Uses a small shovel or stick to move the dirt looking for bugs. • Uses a magnifier to examine moss growing near a tree.
  • 28. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Science Inquiry and Application Observe and Investigateviicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT Exhibit curiosity and raiseCognition and General Knowledge – Science questions about objects and events in their environment. EXAMPLES • Asks why the ant hill on the playground is bigger today than it was yesterday. • Listens intently to the voice on the classroom intercom and then asks if it is a phone. • Asks, “How did the caterpillar become a cocoon?“ STANDARD STATEMENT Observe objects and events in their environment, and describe 28 their observations. EXAMPLES • Draws a picture of the bird eating a worm that he saw on a walk. • Observes the bird and communicates, “It is eating a worm.” • Tells his mother, “The sunflowers we planted are almost as tall as me now.” • Tells his classmate, “The cars and houses got smaller and smaller when we took the airplane to visit my dad.” (Standard Statements continue on page X.)
  • 29. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Science Inquiry and Application Observe and Investigate Continuedicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten (Standard Statements continued from page X.)Cognition and General Knowledge – Science STANDARD STATEMENT Begin to identify and use some observation and measuring tools, with adult support. EXAMPLES • Uses a measuring cup to measure out the flour needed to bake muffins or tortillas. • Ask for a magnifying glass to view parts of a flower. • Marks his or her height on a growth chart with parent’s assistance. STANDARD STATEMENT 29 Compare and contrast objects and events, and begin to describe similarities and differences. EXAMPLES • States, “At night it gets dark and we go to sleep and in the morning it gets light so we wake up.” • Makes the observation that in the winter it snows, but where her Grandma lives in California it does not. • States, “I like to eat peanut butter and jelly for lunch, but John and Lisa can’t eat it because it makes them sick.” (Standard Statements continue on page X.)
  • 30. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Science Inquiry and Application Observe and Investigate Continuedicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten (Standard Statements continued from page X.)Cognition and General Knowledge – Science STANDARD STATEMENT Make predictions and check them through concrete experiences, with adult support. EXAMPLES • Provides responses when asked “What do you think will happen to the ice cubes if we leave them on the counter?” • After assisting his grandfather with feeding the hens, states, “I think the chicken eggs will be hatched when we come out here tomorrow.” • States, “Tasha’s sister took two 30 steps today. I bet she’ll take three tomorrow.” • Predicts which toy car will go faster, one rolling down a sharp incline or a car rolling down a slight incline. STANDARD STATEMENT Make inferences and form generalizations based on evidence. EXAMPLES • On a windy day, observes that the leaf pile is gone and infers, “The leaves blew away”. • Observes that his classmate is absent and infers, “Marcos is out sick today.” • Observes that the ground is wet and states, “It rained last night.”
  • 31. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Science Inquiry and Application Communicate, Document and Construct Explanationsicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT Communicate aboutCognition and General Knowledge – Science observations and investigations. EXAMPLES • Tells a friend that the moon was a whole circle last night and a lot of times it’s only part of a circle and expresses interest in why it is different. • Explains that when they plucked rubber bands of different lengths strung across a shoebox they made different sounds. STANDARD STATEMENT Record or represent and communicate observations 31 and findings through variety of methods (e.g. pictures, words, and dramatization) with adult support. EXAMPLES • Helps making a graph that demonstrates the length of his shadow that was measured in the morning and in the late afternoon, to compare which one is bigger. • Draws pictures of the birds that visit two different bird feeders on the playground, making a distinction between the color and size of the birds which eat from each feeder. • Takes pictures of the same tree on the playground at different times of the year and discusses how the tree changes over time. (Standard Statements continue on page X.)
  • 32. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Science Inquiry and Application Communicate, Document and Construct Explanations Continuedicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten (Standard Statements continued from page X.)Cognition and General Knowledge – Science STANDARD STATEMENT Share findings and explanations, which may be correct or incorrect, with or without adult prompting. EXAMPLES • Discusses the smell, feel and color of the wet soil and the reasons why it might be different. • Explains that the snow outside is melting because the sun is shining on it and that if it is a cloudy day the snow won’t melt. • Explains his prediction that a large container will sink and a 32 small one will float in the water table, “because big containers are always heavy and that’s why they sink.”
  • 33. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Earth and Space Science Observations and Explorations of Natureicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT Recognize some elements ofCognition and General Knowledge – Science the natural environment and understand that these change over time. EXAMPLES • Notices how melting snow creates craters and gullies that change the landscape of the playground. • While on the playground, notices that he can see the moon even though it is day. • Notices that the sun moves in the sky during the course of the day. • Matches pictures of weather conditions (snowy, rainy) with pictures of appropriate clothing/ 33 accessories (boots, mittens, rain coat, umbrella). • On a nature walk, observes and documents the seasonal changes of the trees over time (e.g., the leaves color in fall, the bare branches in winter, and the blossoms in spring). • Comments about the wind blowing the flag on top of the playground structure. • Uses language (either verbal or sign language) to describe characteristics of the weather during different times of the year. • Predicts what will happen to snow when the temperature rises. (Standard Statements continued from page X.)
  • 34. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Earth and Space Science Observations and Explorations of Nature Continuedicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten (Standard Statements continued from page X.)Cognition and General Knowledge – Science STANDARD STATEMENT Develop understanding for the relationship between humans and nature, recognizing the difference between helpful and harmful actions toward the natural environment. EXAMPLES • Mentions his mom and dad have a compost pile at home and they use the compost in their vegetable garden. • Expresses concern for the birds in winter and suggests a class bird feeding project. 34 • Explains how he goes to the Recycle Plant with his dad to deposit the family’s paper, glass, and metal trash. • Draws a picture of how food grows (e.g., apples grow on trees, corn grows in the ground). • Categorizes natural objects as those that we can eat and those that we can’t eat (e.g., can eat plants, can’t eat rocks). • Identifies the harmful consequences of a forest fire.
  • 35. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Physical Science Observations and Explorations of Objects and Materialsicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT Use observable informationCognition and General Knowledge – Science (touch, see, hear, smell, taste) to categorize objects and materials, based on different criteria. EXAMPLES • Explores the classroom musical instruments and sorts them into categories by how the sound is produced. (e.g., those that make sound by striking, shaking, blowing). • Identifies objects that sink and those that float in the water table. • Sorts items that are hard and soft on the nature table. 35
  • 36. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Life Science Observations and Explorations of Living Thingsicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT Identify the habitats of peopleCognition and General Knowledge – Science and familiar animals and plants in their environment, and begin to realize that living things have their habitats in different environments. EXAMPLES • Matches pictures of different habitats to the things that occupy them (e.g., people live in houses, worms live in the ground, fish live in the water). • In the block area, correctly places “zoo animals” in the zoo and “farm animals” in the farm. • Matches pictures of animals and their habitats (e.g., bird/nest, 36 spider/web). STANDARD STATEMENT Indicate knowledge of body parts and bodily processes (e.g., eating, sleeping, breathing, walking), in human and other animals. EXAMPLES • Can verbalize that eyes are for seeing, ears are for hearing, nose is for smelling, mouth/tongue is for tasting, fingers/skin is for touching. • Observes that the class pet guinea pig eats, drinks water and sleeps just like people do. • While watching the angel fish in the aquarium, observes the gills and explains,“” that is how the fish breathes under water.” (Examples continue on page X.)
  • 37. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Life Science Observations and Explorations of Living Things Continuedicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten (Examples continued from page X.) • Matches animal parts (e.g., aCognition and General Knowledge – Science duck’s feet, a rabbit’s ears, a cat’s tail) to the correct animal. • Identifies the nose and mouth as parts of the body that humans use to breath. STANDARD STATEMENT Demonstrate an understanding that living things change over timeix. EXAMPLES • Studies his baby pictures and explains how he used to be a baby but now he’s big. • Places in sequence pictures of 37 the life cycle of a butterfly from caterpillar to chrysalis/cocoon to butterfly. • Matches pictures of familiar baby animals to adult animals. • Orders correctly a series of pictures of plant’s growth (e.g., from a seed, to a seedling, to a mature plant) • Describes what happens to a human from infancy to adulthood (e.g., begins life as a baby, grows into a child, matures into an adult). (Standard Statements continue on page X.)
  • 38. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Life Science Observations and Explorations of Living Things Continuedicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten (Standard Statements continued from page X.)Cognition and General Knowledge – Science STANDARD STATEMENT Recognize examples of organisms that are similar to each other and of the same kind. EXAMPLES • Recognizes similarities between a pony and horse • Points to a goose and says “It looks like a duck.” • States, “Some bears are brown, and some are black.” 38
  • 39. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Memory Memoryicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT Exhibit differentiated responses Recall information over a period Recall information over a Communicate about pastCognition and General Knowledge – Processes and Skills to familiar and unfamiliar of time with contextual cues. longer period of time without events in their life and people, events, objects and EXAMPLES contextual cues. anticipate familiar routines and their features. EXAMPLES experiences. • Watches the caregiver wiping EXAMPLES down the table with a cloth, then • After watching the caregiver taking EXAMPLES • icks his feet in anticipation of K trying it himself the next day. a cloth out of the drawer, wiping • Communicates about his aunt’s being fed when mother positions • Shows anticipation of the steps down the table, and putting the visit last summer. him on her lap. of feeding – when put into a high cloth in the hamper, tries it himself • Knows what comes next in the • Remembers how to kick to make chair or asked to sit at a table, a week later. schedule, for example that nap mobile hanging over her crib the child knows that meal time • Responds by saying, “She’s at time comes after lunch time. move. is occurring and can wait a short work,” when asked where mommy • Knows the route to the playground time for food xviii. is. • Looks longer at a new picture than out of the building. at one he has seen before. • Sees a photo of a close family • Says, “Meow,” when Daddy points member and say his name or hug to a picture and asks, “What does the frame. a kitty cat say?” 39
  • 40. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Cognitive Processes Symbolic Thoughticon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT Explore real objects, people Uses one or two simple actions Engage in pretend play involving Demonstrate understanding thatCognition and General Knowledge – Processes and Skills and actions. or objects to represent another several sequenced steps, and symbols carry meaning and use EXAMPLES in pretend playx. assigned roles. symbols to represent thinking. • Kicks her leg to create and feel the EXAMPLES EXAMPLES EXAMPLES movement of her body. • Pretends to feed the baby with a • Plays the role of mother, telling the • Places a STOP sign on the road in • Makes bouncing movement after toy spoon and bowl. children to “go to sleep.” the block corner and stops the cars an adult bounces him on his leg. • Uses a block to represent a phone. • Plans with other children who will during play. • Rolls car back and forth on the • Puts a bowl on his head as a hat. take which roles during play; for • Orders from “menu” in pretend floor. example, “You be the dog; I’m the play. cat.” • Tells a story about making a snow man and draws a picture of his story and writes “snow” under the picture with his own symbols for representing that word. STANDARD STATEMENT 40 Participates cooperatively in complex pretend play, involving assigned roles and an overall plan. EXAMPLES • Assigns her two friends the role of “cat” and “daddy,” and then makes herself the vet who fixes the broken leg, gives the cat some medicine, and tells daddy how to take care of the cat. • Engages in pretend play, reenacting Goldilocks and the Three Bears, pretending to be little bear. • Engages in pretend play, in which he is the doctor, and the other children are the patient and the nurse, and pretends to write prescriptions.
  • 41. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Cognitive Processes Reasoning and Problem Solvingicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT Actively use the body to find Use simple strategies to solve Solve problems without having Demonstrate ability to solveCognition and General Knowledge – Processes and Skills out about the world. problems. to try every possibility of familiar everyday problems based on EXAMPLES EXAMPLES situations, while avoiding past experiences. solutions that clearly won’t EXAMPLES • Cries to get needs met. • Twists a shape until it fits into a hole in a container. work. • Explores objects by mouthing, • Moves glass away from the table EXAMPLES and cautions her baby sister, “be banging, shaking, or hitting them. • Squeezes onto the care teacher’s lap even though another child is • Bites a classmate to get the crayon careful, if my glass falls off the • Drops a toy and watches it fall. already sitting there. they want away from them. table, it will break.” • Transfers a rattle from one hand to • Tries several ways to reach a ball • Moves chair to reach a ball. (PA) • “ Puts the large block on the the other. that is stuck under the couch. bottom after repeatedly adding • Uses a fork or spoon. a large block on top of smaller • Tries multiple shapes to find the blocks and watching the tower fall piece that fits the “hexagon” down. shape in the shape sorter xix. • Touches a bug and squeals when • Turns a puzzle piece to make it fit it moves away, and then cups into its space. hand to catch the bug. 41 STANDARD STATEMENT Solve problems by planning and carrying out a sequence of actions; may seek more than one solution, and explain their reasoning. EXAMPLES • olds the napkins a different way F before setting the tablexx. • While building the train track, tries to create a curve with 4 different track pieces, before asking for help xxi . • Discusses the number of people who want some play dough, suggests methods for dividing it, and how they might determine if the pieces are all the same, when the teacher asks “How can we divide this one tub of play dough so everyone has the same amount?”
  • 42. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, STRAND TOPIC Cognitive Skills Imitationicon here Infants Younger Toddlers Older Toddlers Pre-Kindergarten STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT STANDARD STATEMENT Mirror the simple actions and Mirror and repeat something Reenact a sequence of events Recreate complex ideas, events/Cognition and General Knowledge – Processes and Skills facial expressions of others. they saw at an earlier time, even that they observed at an earlier situations with personal EXAMPLES though it is no longer happening time. adaptations. in front of them. EXAMPLES EXAMPLES • Sticks out his tongue in reaction to care teacher sticking out her EXAMPLES • Takes a toy phone and put it in her • Sings simple, short phrases of new tongue. • Imitates an adult’s sounds when play purse, copying what she saw song in Spanish right after the • Becomes quiet and stops moving babbling. her caregiver was doing last week. teacher models. his body to watch an adult as she • Takes a drink from her cup, sets • Pretends to make a cake, wrap • Listens to the story of the “Three interacts with him. it down, and says, “Aah” after gifts and decorates the living Billy Goats Gruff,” and then • Imitates an adult’s facial watching an adult doing it the room, “like I saw my grandma do stomps around the room talking in expressions. previous day. for my last birthday party.” a deep voice. • Takes a toy phone and puts it in • Feeds her baby doll, burps the • Looks at Van Gogh’s Sunflowers her play purse, copying what she doll, and wraps it in a blanket, painting, holds her markers up saw her caregiver was doing last pretending to rock it to sleep in the to the original to try to match the week. same way that her care teacher colors, but paints the background does. pink. • Organizes a “play” of the Three 42 Little Pigs with his friends, using pink and grey dress up clothes, pink markers to paint their noses, and squeaky voices when answering the knocks of the wolf.
  • 43. • May • DRAFT 6:37 PM 2012 11, 2012 May 11, References California Department of Education. (2009). California infant/toddler learning and development foundations.icon Sacramento, CA: CDEhere Pennsylvania Department of Education and Department of Public Welfare. (2009). Infants-toddlers: Pennsylvania learning standards for early childhood, 2nd Ed. Harrisburg, PA: PDE/DPW.Cognition and General Knowledge 43