Sm 1.41.32 99ob9


Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Material pertinent to this illustration is found on pages 168-169.
  • Material pertinent to this illustration is found on pages 168-169.
  • Sm 1.41.32 99ob9

    1. 1. <ul><li>Review Power and Politics (Chap. 11) & Conflict, Negotiation, and Intergroup Behavior (Chap. 12) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point - Counterpoint presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review Questions (Book, Multiple Choice) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New: Foundations of Organization Structure (Chap. 13) </li></ul>OB 9
    2. 2. Point-counterPoint 11: Politics <ul><li>Point : Politics in organizations is simply a fact of life. Those who ignore it will fail to understand why employees withhold information, restrict output, publicize their successful performance but hide their failures. </li></ul><ul><li>counterPoint : Political behavior, yes, but it is more a case of organizational members projecting beliefs about political about political behavior. It is mostly in the interpretations of the young and inexperienced. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis : In most organizations, there is a limited amount of resources. If there is a perception of politics, there is also the reality of politics. Students who want to become managers should learn to use positive politics like any other tool to achieve organizational goals effectively/efficiently. </li></ul>S. ROBBINS, OB 8th ed., 1998, Prentice Hall
    3. 3. Point-counterPoint 12: Conflicts <ul><li>Point : Conflict is good for an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>counterPoint : All conflict is dysfunctional . It is one of management’s major responsibilities to keep its intensity as low as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis : Most behavioral scientists and practitioners now accept that the goal of effective management is not to eliminate conflict but to create the right intensity so as to reap its functional benefits. Functional conflict is necessary in management of change. It improves group and organizational effectiveness. Organizations without conflict suffer from apathy, stagnation, groupthink. The negative consequences from dysfunctional conflict can be devastating: turnover, employee dissatisfaction, inefficiencies, sabotage, strikes, physical aggression. </li></ul>S. ROBBINS, OB 8th ed., 1998, Prentice Hall
    4. 4. Summary and Implication for Managers Ms.Chung
    5. 5. Power & It’s Sources <ul><li>Sources of power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward power: based on ability to control over resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimate power: based on position in the formal hierarchy </li></ul></ul>Power is a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. <ul><ul><li>Expert power: based on special skill or knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referent power: based on personal sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercive power: most often use, most often condemn, most difficult to control </li></ul></ul>Ms.Chung
    6. 6. Power Tactics <ul><li>There are standardized ways by which power-holders attempt to get what they want: reason , friendliness, coalition, bargaining, assertiveness, higher authority and sanctions </li></ul><ul><li>Four contingency variables affect the selection of a power tactics: </li></ul><ul><li>The manager’s relative power </li></ul><ul><li>The manager’s objectives for wanting to influence </li></ul><ul><li>The manager’s expectation of the target person’s willingness to comply </li></ul><ul><li>The organization’s culture </li></ul>Ms.Chung
    7. 7. Politics <ul><ul><li>Individual factors: individual differences foster politicking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational factors: certain organization’s situations and cultures promote politics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors contributing to political behavior </li></ul>Politics is a fact of life in organizations <ul><li>Reality of politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance outcomes are ambiguous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals & groups hold different goals and interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational resources are limited </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political behaviors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensive behaviors: protection of self-interest and promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impression management: try to being perceived positively </li></ul></ul>Ms.Chung
    8. 8. Implications <ul><li>Effective use of expert and referent power leads to higher employee performance, commitment, and satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of bad effects from defensive behaviors. </li></ul>Managers should develop and use expert power base. Ms.Chung
    9. 9. Conflict <ul><li>Conflict is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. </li></ul>Conflict has a positive side as well as a negative side. It is necessary for a group to perform effectively. <ul><ul><li>Behavior: conflicts become visible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intention: decision to act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognition and personalization: perceived conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential opposition: sources of conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The conflict process </li></ul>Ms.Chung
    10. 10. Negotiation and Intergroup Relations <ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributive bargaining: a win - lose situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrative bargaining: a win - win solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manage integrated relations </li></ul>Ms.Chung
    11. 11. Implications <ul><ul><li>How to deal with conflicts in various situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to improve negotiation skills </li></ul></ul>Ms.Chung
    12. 12. Answer to Review Questions 11 (Q3) <ul><li>Coercive power is based on fear. It stems from the individual or the organization. ‘Do this or you are fired.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Reward power stems from organization or individual. ‘Do a good job you will get a raise.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate power stems from always from the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Expert and referent powers are individually based. </li></ul>S. ROBBINS, OB 8th ed., 1998, Prentice Hall
    13. 13. Answer to Review Questions 11 (Q7) <ul><li>Power is the ability to be influential. </li></ul><ul><li>Politics is acting outside one’s specified job role to be influential. </li></ul><ul><li>--> Politics is the use of power outside of a person’s prescribed job role. </li></ul>S. ROBBINS, OB 8th ed., 1998, Prentice Hall
    14. 14. Answer to Discussion Questions 11 (Q1) <ul><li>Try to develop key alliances, attempt to acquire expert power by gaining important knowledge that is minimally dispersed. </li></ul><ul><li>Gain a hold on resources that others desire: money, important colleagues. </li></ul><ul><li>This list is limited only by your understanding of power sources and your own creativity. </li></ul>S. ROBBINS, OB 8th ed., 1998, Prentice Hall
    15. 15. Answer to Review Questions 12 (Q3) <ul><li>Conflict is constructive when it improves the quality of decisions, stimulates innovation, fosters an environment of self-evaluation and change. </li></ul><ul><li>Research has to identify more situations where conflict is constructive. </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme levels of conflicts are dysfunctional . </li></ul><ul><li>The more creative the decision-making tasks of a team, the greater the probability that internal conflict is constructive. Use ALL ‘hats’. </li></ul>S. ROBBINS, OB 8th ed., 1998, Prentice Hall
    16. 16. Answer to Review Questions 12 (Q7) <ul><li>Integrative bargaining is negotiation aiming for a WIN-WIN solution. </li></ul><ul><li>The conditions for this type of negotiation are not often realized: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parties who are open with information and their concerns </li></ul></ul>S. ROBBINS, OB 8th ed., 1998, Prentice Hall <ul><ul><li>a sensitivity by both parties to the other’s needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the ability to trust one another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the willingness by both to maintain flexibility . </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Answer to Review Questions 12 (Q10) <ul><li>The effectiveness of intergroup relations can be evaluated in terms of efficiency and quality . </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency considers the costs of the organization of transforming an intergroup conflict into actions agreed to by the groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality refers to the degree to which the outcome results in a well defined and enduring exchange agreement. </li></ul>S. ROBBINS, OB 8th ed., 1998, Prentice Hall
    18. 18. . Organization Structure Dr. Arno Schircks S A V
    19. 19. Chapter Outline <ul><li>What is Organizational Structure? </li></ul><ul><li>Common Organizational Designs </li></ul><ul><li>New Design Options </li></ul><ul><li>Why Do Structures Differ? </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Designs and Employee Behavior </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Identify the six key elements that define an organization’s structure </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the characteristics of a bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a matrix organization </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast mechanistic and organic structural models </li></ul><ul><li>List the factors that favor different organizational structures </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the behavioral implications of different organizational designs </li></ul>Learning Objectives
    21. 21. Case study Olympic Games Atlanta (Chapter 13, page 477) <ul><li>Organization committee is a prototype for large organizations in the near future </li></ul><ul><li>Start in 1990 with 6 people </li></ul><ul><li>Peak in 1996 with 88 000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Process: creating - growing - shrinking - dismantling as a Fortune 500 company </li></ul><ul><li>People were specialists in their field who remained flexible to fill in for each other when needed. </li></ul>S. ROBBINS, OB 8th ed., 1998, Prentice Hall S A V Dr. A. Schircks
    22. 22. What is an Organization? <ul><li>Four common denominators of all organizations : 1. Coordination of effort 2. A common goal 3. Division of labor 4. A hierarchy of authority </li></ul>“ A system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons.” Kreitner 1998 <ul><li>The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Survival Profit Growth creative efficient effective Mission Statement
    24. 24. What is an organization? (continued) <ul><li>Organization Charts Display Four Basic Organizational Dimensions : 1. Hierarchy of authority (who reports to whom) 2. Division of labor 3. Spans of control 4. Line and staff positions </li></ul>
    25. 25. Evolution of Organizational Metaphors Closed System : “A self-sufficient entity, closed to the surrounding environment.” (For example, a battery-powered clock.) ===> Weber’s bureaucracy Open system : “Depends on constant interaction with the surrounding environment for survival.” (For example, the human body.) ===> The Biological Metaphor
    26. 26. Scientific Management ‘Taylorism‘ <ul><li>‘ One best way’ to perform each task </li></ul><ul><li>Each job broken into component parts, timed, rearranged (efficient) </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific selection and training of workers </li></ul><ul><li>Division of work: Mgt. vs. worker </li></ul>75 men loading 12.5 t /day/man --> 47.5 t --> 60% wage increase
    27. 27. Bureaucracy Max Weber <ul><li>Authority based on rational-legal system </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations to be arranged as hierarchies of offices, not people </li></ul>China, Catholic church, Prussian army
    28. 28. Weber’s Bureaucracy <ul><li>A closed-system model German sociologist Max Weber believed the following four factors should make bureaucracies the epitome of efficiency: </li></ul><ul><li>Division of labor (people become proficient when they perform standardized tasks over and over again). </li></ul><ul><li>A hierarchy of authority (a formal chain of command ensures coordination and accountability). </li></ul><ul><li>A framework of rules (carefully formulated and strictly enforced rules ensure predictable behavior). </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative impersonality (personnel decisions such as hiring and promoting should be based on competence, not favoritism). </li></ul>
    29. 29. The Biological Metaphor <ul><li>Inputs - Material - Money - Human effort - Information </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependent Subsystems - Managerial subsystem - Goals and values subsystem - Technical subsystem - Psychosocial subsystem - Structural subsystem </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs - Products - Services - Human Satisfaction - Organizational survival and - Social benefit growth </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>
    30. 30. Ex: Organization as open system Organization Inputs Outputs Feedback Productive subsystem Managerial subsystem Adaptive subsystem Maintenance subsystem Supportive subsystem
    31. 31. Ex: Process centered company Business Processes Jobs and structure Management and measurement systems Values and beliefs surface system Beyond reegineering, M. Hammer, 1996
    32. 32. Ex: Process centered company Learning process Redesign process Transition process deep system Beyond reegineering, M. Hammer, 1996
    33. 33. Contingency Approach Behavior of people Systems of management Structure The ‘fit’ between.. ..will depend upon situational variables for each particular organization. There is no one best universal structure!