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  • Chapter 15: Congress, The President, and the Budget The Politics of Taxing and Spending
  • Brief Contents of Chapter 15: Congress, The President, and the Budget The Politics of Taxing and Spending
  • Lecture Tips and Suggestions for In-Class Activities Have students access a Web site that provides simulation of the federal budget or provides students with other budgetary tradeoff or analysis games. (An Internet search will reveal many.) Develop a current “balanced” budget. Have students compare their decisions in class, debating the value of their expenditure and revenue choices. For class discussion, have students debate the value of a balanced budget amendment. In particular, have them examine the costs and benefits of balancing the budget given that most of the budget expenditures are mandated. Insist that students identify which benefits and which obligations should be the first to go.
  • Lecture Tips and Suggestions for In-Class Activities Tell the students that the opposition to tax increases constrains the adoption or expansion of many programs. This opposition also makes it difficult to balance the budget. Ask student the following question. How can we reconcile our preference for low taxes with our demands for government services?
  • Lecture Outline The president and Congress have been caught in a budgetary squeeze : Americans want them to balance the budget, maintain or increase the level of government spending on most policies, and still keep taxes low. Because budgets are so important to almost all other policies, the budgetary process is the center of political battles in Washington and involves nearly everyone in government. The central political issue for many years has been how to pay for policies that most people support. Resources have been scarce because the national government has run up large annual budget deficits over the past 30 years. A budget deficit occurs when expenditures exceed revenues . The total national debt rose sharply during the 1980s, increasing from less than one trillion dollars to $15 trillion dollars by 2011.
  • LO 15.1 Image: In 1995–1996, the inability of the president and Congress to reach agreement on the budget led to the shutdown of much of the federal government.
  • Lecture Outline Expenditures are government spending. Major areas of federal spending are social services and national defense. Revenues are the financial resources of the government. The individual income tax and Social Security tax are two major sources of the federal government ’s revenue.
  • Lecture Outline The three major sources of federal revenues are the personal and corporate income tax , social insurance taxes , and borrowing. Only a small portion comes from excise taxes (such as tax on gasoline) and other sources.
  • Figure 15.1 Federal Revenues
  • Lecture Outline Personal and Corporate Income Tax The first peacetime income tax was enacted in 1894. The tax was declared unconstitutional in Pollock v. Farmer ’s Loan and Trust Co. (1895). The Sixteenth Amendment was added to the Constitution in 1913, explicitly permitting Congress to levy an income tax. Congress had already started one before the amendment was ratified, and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) was established to collect it. Corporations also pay income taxes. Although corporate taxes once yielded more revenues than individual income taxes, today corporate taxes yield only about 12 cents of every federal revenue dollar, compared with 44 cents coming from individual income taxes.
  • Lecture Outline Social Insurance Taxes Social Security taxes come from both employers and employees. Unlike other taxes, these payments do not go into the government ’s general money fund; they are specifically earmarked for the Social Security Trust Fund to pay benefits. Social Security taxes have grown faster than any other source of federal revenue. In 2010, employees and employers each paid a Social Security tax equal to 6.2 percent of the first $106,800 of earnings, and for Medicare they paid another 1.45 percent on all earnings. In 1957, these taxes made up a mere 12 percent of federal revenues; today they account for about 36 percent.
  • Lecture Outline Borrowing When the federal government wants to borrow money, the Treasury Department sells bonds, guaranteeing to pay interest to the bondholder. Today the federal debt —all of the money borrowed over the years and still outstanding—exceeds $15 trillion by 2011. Nine percent of all federal expenditures goes to paying off the debt. Government borrowing crowds out private borrowers. Concerns about the national debt have led to some calls for a balanced budget amendment . Unlike state and local governments and private businesses, the federal government does not have a capital budget , a budget for items that will serve for the long-term. These purchases are counted as current expenditures and run up the deficit.
  • Figure 15.2 Total National Debt
  • Lecture Outline Taxes and Public Policy Tax Expenditures What does cost the federal budget a substantial sum is the system of tax expenditures , which represent the difference between what the government actually collects in taxes and what it would have collected without special exemptions. Tax expenditures are essentially monies that government could collect but does not because they are exempted from taxation. The Office of Management and Budget estimated that the total tax expenditures in the 2011 would be about $1.063 trillion—an amount equal to more than 40 percent of the total federal receipts. Individuals receive most of the tax expenditures, and corporations get the rest. Tax expenditures amount to subsidies for some activity, such as deductions for contributions to charities, deductions by homeowners for mortgage interest, and business deductions of investment in new plants and equipment at a more rapid rate than they can deduct other expenses. (cont.)
  • On the whole, tax expenditures benefit middle- and upper-income taxpayers and corporations. Poor people (who tend not to own homes) cannot take advantage of most such provisions. Tax Reduction Early in his administration, President Reagan proposed a massive tax-cut bill, which was passed by Congress in July 1981. Over a three-year period, Americans would have their federal tax bills reduced 25 percent, corporate income taxes were also reduced, new tax incentives were provided for personal savings and corporate investment, and taxes were indexed to the cost of living. When President Reagan first revealed his massive tax simplification plan in 1986, the president actually had more problems obtaining the support of his own party than from the Democrats. (cont.) --- Table 15.1 Tax Expenditures: The Money Government Does Not Collect
  • The Tax Reform Act of 1986 eliminated or reduced the value of many tax deductions, removed several million low-income individuals from the tax rolls, and changed the system of 15 separate brackets to just two generally lower rates (28% and 15%). In 1990, a third bracket of 31 percent was added for those with higher incomes. In 2001, Congress enacted a tax cut that gradually lowered tax rates over the next ten years. In 2003, Congress reduced the tax rates on capital gains and dividends. --- Figure 15.3 How Big Is the Tax Burden?
  • Lecture Outline The biggest category of federal expenditures is payments to individuals, composing more than 60 percent of the budget. National defense accounts for about one-fifth of the budget. The economic crisis of 2008–2009 led to a dramatic increase in the budget.
  • Figure 15.4 Federal Expenditures
  • Lecture Outline Big Governments, Big Budgets The United States actually has one of the smallest public sectors among Western nations relative to the size of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Gross Domestic Product is Gross National Product minus the value of goods and services produced outside the country. Two conditions associated with government growth in America are the rise of the national security state and the rise of the social service state . American governments—national, state, and local—spend an amount equal to one-third of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Expenditures of the national government alone equal over 25 percent of the GNP.
  • Lecture Outline The Rise of the National Security State President Eisenhower coined the phrase military industrial complex to characterize the close relationship between the military hierarchy and the defense industry that supplies its hardware needs. The Pentagon wants weapons systems and arms makers want contracts, so they tend to be mutually supportive. After World War II, the “ cold war ” with the Soviet Union resulted in a permanent military establishment and expensive military technology. In the 1990s, defense expenditures decreased in response to the lessening of tensions in Europe. The budget of the Department of Defense now constitutes about one-fifth of all federal expenditures. Payrolls and pensions constitute a large component of the defense budget, as does research, development, and procurement (purchasing) of military hardware. The cost of advanced technology makes any weapon, fighter plane, or component more expensive than its predecessors, and cost overruns are common.
  • Figure 15.5 Trends in National Defense Spending
  • LO 15.2 Image: Unveiled in 1989, the stealth bomber ’s unusual shape allows it to fly undetected by enemy radar.
  • Lecture Outline The Rise of the Social Service State The Social Security Act (passed in 1935) was originally intended to provide a minimal level of sustenance to older Americans. In 1965, Medicare was added to the Social Security system, providing hospital and physician coverage to the elderly. Today, more than 53 million Americans receive payments from the Social Security system. The typical retired worker received nearly $1,044 a month in 2007. Disability insurance was added in the 1950s, which included workers who had not retired but were disabled. Essentially, money is taken from working members of the population and spent on retired members; but demographic and economic realities now threaten to dilute this intergenerational agreement. In 1945, 50 workers paid taxes to support each Social Security beneficiary. In 1990, about three workers supported each beneficiary. By the year 2025, fewer than two workers will be supporting each beneficiary. Social Security is not the only social policy of the federal government that is costly. (cont.)
  • The rise of the social service state has contributed to America ’s growing budget in health, education, job training, and scores of other areas. Liberals often favor these programs to assist individuals and groups in society. Conservatives see them as a drain on the federal treasury. The rise of the social service state and the national security state together are linked with much of American governmental growth since the end of World War II. --- Figure 15.6 Trends in Social Service Spending
  • Lecture Outline Incrementalism Incrementalism means that the best predictor of this year ’s budget is last year’s budget plus a little bit more (an increment). Causes of Incrementalism The support of relevant interests for spending programs makes it difficult to pare the budget. The budget is too big to review from scratch each year. More and more of federal spending has become “uncontrollable.”
  • Lecture Outline Incrementalism Features of Incrementalism Policymakers focus little attention on the budgetary base—the amounts agencies have had over the previous years. Usually, agencies can safely assume they will get at least the budget they had the previous year. Most of the debate and most of the attention of the budgetary process focus on the proposed increment. The budget for any given agency tends to grow by a little bit every year.
  • Lecture Outline “ Uncontrollable” Expenditures About two-thirds of the federal budget is uncontrollable—based on expenditures that are determined not by how much Congress appropriates to an agency but by how many eligible beneficiaries there are for a particular program. An uncontrollable expenditure is one that is mandated under current law or by a previous obligation. Uncontrollable expenditures result from policies that make some group automatically eligible for some benefit. Congress has in effect obligated itself to pay a certain level of benefits to a particular number of recipients. For example, Social Security or veterans ’ benefits from previous obligations of the government or interest on the national debt. The government does not decide each year, for example, whether it will pay the interest on the debt or send checks to Social Security recipients.
  • Lecture Outline “ Uncontrollable” Expenditures Congress has in effect obligated itself to pay a certain level of benefits to a particular number of recipients. Such policies are called entitlements . The biggest uncontrollable expenditure is the Social Security system, including Medicare , which costs more than $1.2 trillion dollars; other uncontrollable expenditures include veterans aid, agricultural subsidies, military pensions, civil service workers ’ retirement benefits, and interest on the national debt. Although Congress legally can control such expenditures, it could do so only by changing a law or existing benefit levels. Cutting benefits or tightening eligibility restrictions would provoke a monumental outcry from millions of older voters.
  • Lecture Outline It is so very important to assess the impact of democratic politics on budgetary growth and of the budget on scope of government.
  • Lecture Outline Democracy and Budgeting Almost all democracies have seen a substantial growth in government in the twentieth century. Economists Allen Meltzer and Scott Richard argue that government grows in a democracy because of the equality of suffrage . Poorer voters will always use their votes to support public policies that redistribute benefits from the rich to the poor. The most rapidly growing expenditures are items like Social Security, Medicaid, Medicare, and social welfare programs (all of which benefit the poor more than the rich). One often thinks of elites—particularly corporate elites—as being opposed to big government. However, Lockheed and Chrysler corporations have appealed to the government for large bailouts when times got rough. Corporations support a big government that offers them contracts, subsidies, and other benefits. Poor and rich voters alike have voted for parties and politicians who promised them benefits. Policymakers spend money for things voters like (and will remember on election day). Citizens are not the unwilling victims of big government and its big taxes; they are at least co-conspirators. (cont.)
  • Lecture Outline Government also grows by responding to groups and their demands. Some politicians compete for votes by promising not to spend money (such as Ronald Reagan). Americans have chosen to tax less and spend less on public services than almost all other democracies with developed economics. Americans want to spend but not pay taxes. Being a democracy, that is exactly what the government does—and the inevitable result is red ink. --- The Budget and the Scope of Government In many ways, the budget is the scope of government—the bigger the budget, the bigger the government. The budget can be a force for reining in the government as well as for expanding its role. One could accurately characterize policymaking in the American government since 1980 as the “ politics of scarcity, for example the scarcity of funds for programs like healthcare reform and education. America ’s large budget deficit is as much a constraint on government as it is evidence of a burgeoning public sector.
  • LO 15.3 Image: Fluctuating Deficits
  • LO 15.1: Describe the sources of funding for the federal government and assess the consequences of tax expenditures and borrowing.
  • LO 15.1: Describe the sources of funding for the federal government and assess the consequences of tax expenditures and borrowing.
  • Approximately what percentage of federal expenditures goes to paying interest on the federal debt? B. 7 percent (LO 15.1)
  • Approximately what percentage of federal expenditures goes to paying interest on the federal debt? B. 7 percent (LO 15.1)
  • LO 15.2: Describe the major categories of federal expenditures, and explain why the budget has grown.
  • LO 15.2: Describe the major categories of federal expenditures, and explain why the budget has grown.
  • Which of the following comprises the largest slice of the budgetary pie? B. Income security expenditures. (LO 15.2)
  • Which of the following comprises the largest slice of the budgetary pie? B. Income security expenditures. (LO 15.2)
  • LO 15.3: Assess the impact of democratic politics on budgetary growth, and explain how the budget can constrain the scope of government.
  • The budget the scope of government, but the budget may also constrain the scope of government. C. expands (LO 15.3)
  • The budget the scope of government, but the budget may also constrain the scope of government. C. expands (LO 15.3)

Edwards ch15 Edwards ch15 Presentation Transcript

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Chapter 15: Congress, The President, and the Budget The Politics of Taxing and Spending • Federal Revenue and Borrowing • Federal Expenditures • Understanding Budgeting • Summary
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Chapter Outline and Learning Objectives • Federal Revenue and Borrowing • LO 15.1: Describe the sources of funding for the federal government and assess the consequences of tax expenditures and borrowing. • Federal Expenditures • LO 15.2: Describe the major categories of federal expenditures, and explain why the budget has grown.
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Chapter Outline and Learning Objectives • Understanding Budgeting • LO 15.3: Assess the impact of democratic politics on budgetary growth, and explain how the budget can constrain the scope of government.
  • Federal Revenue and Borrowing LO 15.1: Describe the sources of funding for the federal government and assess the consequences of tax expenditures and borrowing. • Budget • A policy document allocating burdens (taxes) and benefits (expenditures). • Deficit • Excess of federal expenditures over federal revenues. • Total debt will be about $15 trillion by 2011. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • To Learning Objectives LO 15.1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Federal Revenue and Borrowing • Expenditures • Government spending – Major areas are social services and national defense. • Revenues • Financial resources of the government – Individual income tax and Social Security tax are two major sources. To Learning Objectives LO 15.1
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Federal Revenue and Borrowing • Personal and Corporate Income Tax • Social Insurance Taxes • Borrowing • Taxes and Public Policy To Learning Objectives LO 15.1
  • To Learning Objectives LO 15.1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Federal Revenue and Borrowing • Personal and Corporate Income Tax • Income tax – Shares of individual wages and corporate revenues collected by the government. • Sixteenth Amendment – Explicitly authorized Congress to levy a tax on income. To Learning Objectives LO 15.1
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Federal Revenue and Borrowing • Social Insurance Taxes • Both employers and employees pay Social Security and Medicare taxes. • In 2010, employees and employers each paid a Social Security tax equal to 6.2 percent of the first $106,800 of earnings, and for Medicare they paid another 1.45 percent on all earnings. To Learning Objectives LO 15.1
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Federal Revenue and Borrowing • Borrowing • Treasury Department sells bonds when the federal government wants to borrow money. • Federal debt – All the money borrowed by the federal government over the years and still outstanding. • Today the federal debt is about $15 trillion. To Learning Objectives LO 15.1
  • To Learning Objectives LO 15.1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Federal Revenue and Borrowing • Taxes and Public Policy • Tax Expenditures – Revenue losses from special exemptions, exclusions, or deductions allowed by federal tax law. • Tax Reduction – In 2001, tax cut gradually lowered tax rates over the next ten years, and in 2003, Congress reduced the tax rates on capital gains and dividends. To Learning Objectives LO 15.1
  • To Learning Objectives LO 15.1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • To Learning Objectives LO 15.1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • Federal Expenditures LO 15.2: Describe the major categories of federal expenditures, and explain why the budget has grown. • Big Governments, Big Budgets • The Rise of the National Security State • The Rise of the Social Service State • Incrementalism • “Uncontrollable” Expenditures To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • To Learning Objectives LO 15.2 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Federal Expenditures • Big Governments, Big Budgets • Big budgets are necessary to pay for big governments. • National, state, and local governments spend an amount equal to one-third of the gross domestic product (GDP). • National government spending alone currently represents about one-fourth of the GDP. To Learning Objectives LO 15.2
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Federal Expenditures • The Rise of the National Security State • In the 1950s and 1960s the Department of Defense received more than 50% of the federal budget. • Defense now gets about one-sixth of all federal expenditures. • This is one reason for growth of government. To Learning Objectives LO 15.2
  • To Learning Objectives LO 15.2 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • To Learning Objectives LO 15.2 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Federal Expenditures • The Rise of the Social Service State • The biggest federal spender is now income security programs. • Social Security is #1 spender, now it includes disability benefits and Medicare, and its recipients are living longer. • This is another reason for government growth. To Learning Objectives LO 15.2
  • To Learning Objectives LO 15.2 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Federal Expenditures • Incrementalism • A description of the budget process where the best predictor of this year’s budget is last year’s budget, plus a little bit more (an increment). • According to Aaron Wildavsky, “Most of the budget is a product of previous decisions.” To Learning Objectives LO 15.2
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Federal Expenditures • Incrementalism (cont.) • Policymakers focus little attention on the budgetary base. • Agencies can safely assume they will get at least the budget they had the previous year. • Most of the debate and attention is on the proposed increment. • Any given agency’s budget tends to grow a little bit every year. To Learning Objectives LO 15.2
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Federal Expenditures • “Uncontrollable” Expenditures • Expenditures are determined by how many eligible beneficiaries there are for a program or by previous obligations of the government; Congress therefore cannot easily control. • Social Security benefits are an example of uncontrollable expenditures. To Learning Objectives LO 15.2
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Federal Expenditures • “Uncontrollable” Expenditures (cont.) • Entitlements – Policies for which Congress has obligated itself to pay X level of benefits to Y number of recipients. • Social Security benefits are an example of entitlements. To Learning Objectives LO 15.2
  • Understanding Budgeting LO 15.3: Assess the impact of democratic politics on budgetary growth, and explain how the budget can constrain the scope of government. • Democracy and Budgeting • The Budget and the Scope of Government To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Understanding Budgeting • Democracy and Budgeting • Many politicians spend money to buy votes. • Bigger budgets – Many groups and people ask for government assistance. • People like government programs, but they really do not want to pay for them, thus there are deficits and federal debt. To Learning Objectives LO 15.3
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Understanding Budgeting • The Budget and the Scope of Government • The size of budget is the scope of government. • The bigger the government, the bigger the budget. • Limits on revenues can limit what the government can do. To Learning Objectives LO 15.3
  • To Learning Objectives LO 15.3 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman LO 15.1 Summary • Federal Revenue and Borrowing • The personal income tax is the largest source of revenue for the federal government, with social insurance taxes a close second. • Other revenue comes from the corporate income tax and excise taxes. To Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman LO 15.1 Summary • Federal Revenue and Borrowing (cont.) • Borrowing helps with funding the government, and the national debt and expenditures have grown rapidly in the past decade. • Interest on the debt will eat up a big portion of future budgets. • Tax expenditures represent an enormous drain on revenues but subsidize many popular activities. To Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Approximately what percentage of federal expenditures goes to paying interest on the federal debt? A. 1 percent B. 7 percent C. 15 percent D. 25 percent E. 40 percent To Learning Objectives LO 15.1
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Approximately what percentage of federal expenditures goes to paying interest on the federal debt? A. 1 percent B. 7 percent C. 15 percent D. 25 percent E. 40 percent To Learning Objectives LO 15.1
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman LO 15.2 Summary • Federal Expenditures • Budgets have grown with the rise of the national security state and the social service state. • National security and, especially, social services such as Social Security and Medicare, plus interest on the debt, make up most of the budget. To Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman LO 15.2 Summary • Federal Expenditures (cont.) • Expenditures for most policies grow incrementally with each year’s budget building on last year’s. • Much of the budget represents uncontrollable expenditures, primarily entitlements to payments that the government has committed to make at a certain level and that are difficult to limit. To Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Which of the following comprises the largest slice of the budgetary pie? A. Defense expenditures. B. Income security expenditures. C. Foreign aid expenditures. D. Domestic policy expenditures other than for income security. To Learning Objectives LO 15.2
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Which of the following comprises the largest slice of the budgetary pie? A. Defense expenditures. B. Income security expenditures. C. Foreign aid expenditures. D. Domestic policy expenditures other than for income security. To Learning Objectives LO 15.2
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman LO 15.3 Summary • Understanding Budgeting • Budgets in democracies grow because the public and organized interests demand new and larger public services. • Increasing budgets increase the scope of government, but decreases in taxes and increases in debt make it more difficult to add or expand programs. To Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The budget the scope of government, but the budget may also constrain the scope of government. A. decreases B. reduces C. expands D. none of the above To Learning Objectives LO 15.3
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The budget the scope of government, but the budget may also constrain the scope of government. A. decreases B. reduces C. expands D. none of the above To Learning Objectives LO 15.3
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Text Credits • Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2011: Historical Tables (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010), Table 2.1. • Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2011: Historical Tables (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010),Table 7.1. Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2011: Historical Tables (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010),Tables 16.1 and 16.3. • Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2011: Historical Tables (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010),Table 6.1. Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2011: Historical Tables (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010), Table 3.1. • Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2011: Historical Tables (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010), Table 1.1.
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Photo Credits • 503: AP Photos • 504: AP Photos • 510: Mike Keefe/Denver Post • 518: AP Photos