ASLA 2011 Student AwardsResearch CategoryDescriptive Data SummaryEntry Number: SA-593GLevel of Study: GraduateIndividual or Team Entry: IndividualProject Title: South Grand Boulevard: user orientation as a catalyst for resiliencyProject Statement:The economic and environmental costs of aging stormwater infrastructure are increasing in cities allacross this country and world. This study proposes a new theoretical framework that identifies how and atwhat time the introduction of ecological processes into the urban right-of-way is likely to be successful inthe long-term. From this research, it is possible to design streets that surpass current “green street” and“complete street” initiatives and achieve a high level of resiliency.Project Narrative:IntroductionContemporary design of the urban environment focuses increasingly upon the quality of space foundwithin the public right-of-way. Landscape architects and urban planners are beginning to ask new thquestions that deviate from the conventional streetscape designs of the latter half of the 20 century.Under the mantra “complete the streets,” communities all across America are calling for a paradigm shifttowards multimodal, pedestrian-scaled urban rights-of-way. At the same time, existing stormwater andcombined sewer infrastructure is nearing the end of its productive lifespan in cities all across the countryand world. The direct costs associated with repairing this infrastructure combined with the indirect costs ofpoor water quality and a greater frequency and intensity of flooding events downstream present a strongargument for developing new, innovative ideas about how to best design tomorrow’s infrastructure.The reintegration of ecological processes into the urban fabric will act as a catalyst for the appreciation ofgenius loci (spirit of the place) and user meaning while mitigating downstream flooding, increasing waterquality, and extending the lifespan of existing stormwater infrastructure. By studying the hierarchicalcategorization of urban rights-of-way according to increased levels of user orientation, this researchproject aims to clearly articulate a new theoretical framework for expanding upon the current discoursesurrounding “complete streets” and “green streets” theory.In early 2006, the East-West Gateway Council of Governments introduced the St. Louis Great StreetsInitiative with the goal of promoting “complete street” design principles in St. Louis, Missouri. South GrandBoulevard, selected as one of four pilot projects, seeks to be a demonstration project for socially andeconomically sustainable streets in the region; however, current concepts are not progressing far enoughtowards providing a model of future infrastructural design. With the allocation of $2.7 million of federalstimulus money towards the project, a huge opportunity presents itself for testing the Hierarchy of User-oriented Streets framework as a viable model for solving the stated dilemma.Hierarchy of User-oriented Streets FrameworkInnovation often comes through stepping outside the typical boundaries of the design professions to lookat theories developed within other fields of research. During the 1940s and 1950s, a psychologist namedAbraham Maslow was studying the differences among human needs as a way to understand whatmotivates human behavior. Through his research, he realized that some needs take precedence overothers acting as prerequisites for attaining higher level needs. In a day when supervisors viewed theirfactory workers as “replaceable parts,” Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Framework proved to be asuccessful utility for increasing the productivity of workers. He discovered that as supervisors satisfied the
ASLA 2011 Student AwardsResearch CategoryDescriptive Data Summaryhigher-level needs of their workers, they would respond with greater outputs. Drawing a strong parallel,this study asks the question: How can identifying a hierarchy of user-oriented street types lead to greaterproductivity, therefore resiliency, in the design, construction, and maintenance of urban rights-of-way?While this question prompted the initial idea of formulating the proposed framework, the articulation of fivedistinct levels, their definitions, the associated subcomponents, contemporary urbanisms, and streetdesign movements all came from a rich exploration of existing literature. Notable sources of literatureinclude Echols and Pennypacker’s “From Stormwater Management to Artful Rainwater Design” (2008),Lynch and Hack’s Site Planning (1984), Meyer’s “Sustaining Beauty” manifesto (2008), Mossop’s“Landscapes of Infrastructure” (2006), Olin’s “Form, Meaning, and Expression in Landscape Architecture”(1988), and Treib’s “Must Landscapes Mean?” (1995).The Hierarchy of User-oriented Streets framework contains five levels: function, safety, ecology, geniusloci, and meaning. Function is the lowest level of user-orientation in which an urban right-of-way providesthe most basic levels of service to users for their efficient movement from one point of reference untoanother. Safety is the next to lowest level of user-orientation in which an urban right-of-way promotesequal opportunity and experience through the health, safety, and welfare of all users. Ecology is theessential, median level of user-orientation in which an urban right-of-way reintegrates natural processesinto the urban fabric through eco-technologies that promote healthier environments and an improvedquality of life for the users. Genius loci is the next to highest level of user-orientation in which an urbanright-of-way uses ecological processes through time to engender its distinctive character and uniqueidentity toward a community of users. Meaning is the highest level of user-orientation in which an urbanright-of-way cultivates educated “dynamic users” who voluntarily take ownership of the public space andengage in actions that promote resiliency within the corridor. Similar to Maslow’s framework, a street mustfulfill the lower levels before higher levels can be attained.Methods thThis study investigated four precedents: SW the 12 Avenue Green Street (located in Portland, Oregon), ththe 12 Street Rain Gardens (located in Kansas City, Missouri), St. Charles Avenue (located in NewOrleans, Louisiana, and Stephen Epler Hall (located at Portland State University). In order to furtherdevelop the ideas represented in the proposed framework, each of the selected precedents werequalitatively evaluated using the framework as a metric. The specific methods for this assessmentincluded using a coded imagery analysis to identify individual components with the appropriate level ofthe framework.During the precedent study, the theoretical framework established a set of criteria with which to evaluatethree precedent projects and one existing place. Because of its utility, the framework was employed fororganizing the site inventory and analysis; however, this time, it was used as a point of departure forgenerating specific methods rather than serving as a metric for evaluation.Seeking to maintain the hierarchical ordering within the proposed framework, the site analysismethodology consistently categorizes each of its steps into the five framework divisions of function,safety, ecology, genius loci, and meaning. In this way, landscape architects and urban planners can lookto this study as a guide for which type of analysis questions they should ask depending on where theirproject is intended to hit upon the framework. If your end goal is to design a “complete street,” there islittle to no reason for you to spend time analyzing hydrological watersheds and existing impervioussurfaces. These are two examples of site analysis tasks found within the ecology level of the proposedframework. Only in designing a “green street,” “destination street,” or “resilient street” would you addressthese tasks. Higher level analysis is not needed for a lower level design.The first step of the site analysis methodology included completing a user analysis for each level of thetheoretical framework. Following the user analysis, three project goals were selected for each level of theframework. While these goals would eventually be used to guide the conceptual thinking for designexplorations, they served an immediate function to break down the subcomponents of each level of the
ASLA 2011 Student AwardsResearch CategoryDescriptive Data Summaryframework for the development of site appropriate programmatic elements. An ongoing literature reviewand precedent study feedback loop aided in the selection of additional programmatic elements for SouthGrand. The next step in the methodology formalized specific analysis questions that related andreferenced the given user group, project goals, and programmatic elements to South Grand as anexisting site. In many cases, these questions were quite complex requiring the formalization ofsubsequent inventory questions to further delineate an appropriate path of inquiry for answering theoriginal question. In the end, task sheets outlining the inputs, source data, methods, and potential outputswere assembled to guide the production work of South Grand’s inventory and analysis.ResultsThe application of the framework to the design proposal for South Grand yields several unique, siteappropriate design strategies. At the function level, the design strategies include transforming the arterialcorridor from four travel lanes to two travel lanes separated by a middle turn lane and incorporatingconcrete wet vaults underneath the sidewalk. In addition to serving many ecology-related services, thewet vaults protect the limestone foundations of the adjacent buildings from unwanted subsurface water.At the safety level, design strategies include raised intersections acting as “speed tables,” a dispersion ofbike parking throughout the district, radiant heating of sidewalk and on-street parking spaces, extra-wideparking stalls for users with disabilities, and a 3” tall safety curb around all stormwater infiltration planters.At the ecology level, design strategies include stormwater infiltration planters and a significant investmentin the district’s urban forest. Disregarding soil infiltration rates, the stormwater planters can accommodate9,410 cubic feet (CF) of the total runoff volume leaving 5,489 CF to enter into the underground wet vaults.In terms of the investment in the urban forest, this study’s design proposal for South Grand, obtains a netannual benefit of $12,255.18 (Davey Resource Group 2009). This is a substantial increase in value as theexisting urban forest is only valued at a net annual benefit of $3,920.62.At the genius loci level, design strategies include painted spherical bollards at the raised intersections,electric car charging stations, the use of local materials, expressive paving patterns, and the incorporationof lighting into the stormwater planters.Finally, at the meaning level, design strategies include incorporating a cast iron pump within the right-of-way to provide users the opportunity to physically interact with the eco-technologies and the design of aninteractive and educational pocket park intended to encourage the development of a “community ofusers” and a “user land ethic.”ConclusionsIn this study, the proposed framework was utilized throughout the precedent study, the site inventory andanalysis, the development of program, the design proposal, and the project evaluation. As evidencedthrough its application at South Grand, the incorporation of this framework into one’s design processyields a substantial return towards attaining resiliency in urban rights-of-way. The Hierarchy of User-oriented Streets framework provides the road map for how landscape architects and urban planners canlead the movement that transforms our cities’ infrastructure from functional thoroughfares to resilientplaces.Future ResearchTwo important opportunities exist for future research in relation to this study. First, future investigationscould establish performance baselines for each level of the framework allowing for a quantified measureof success. Second, though presented within the scope of urban rights-of-way, the proposed frameworkcould be easily adapted to other project types (parks, golf courses, community planning, suburban sprawl,gardens, greenways, brownfield sites, etc.) as a design process model that effectively addresses thecreation of productive, resilient landscapes.
Design process diagram: The overall design process utilized in this study begins with a highly cyclical deﬁnition stage before progressing through the remaining project type issues gray literature end product technology lifespan of project oje t feasibility eas client DEFINE scale DILEMMA interests oals and Inten student awards entry en ct G tio oje n Pr ?cost-benefit analysis efi fit s ?? organizations and In ntions design philosophy d Design Goals an future aspirations te available data definitions site als FORMULATE dI Go INVESTIGATE n te l QUESTIONS son a nti ons pa experiences past p Per legacy T H E SIS explorations resources metrics theories time GATHER EXISTING KNOWLEDGE METHODOLOGY investigation, synthesis, application, and evaluation stages in a predominantly linear manner. PRECEDENTS SITE INVENTORY + ANALYSIS SYNTHESIZE PROGRAM CONCEPTUALIZE P PT ALTERNATIVES ERNAT APPLY DES G DESIGN REFINE EFIN PRODUCE EVALUATE APPLY METRIC TO DESIGN COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS IDENTIFY ? ? UNANSWERED QUESTIONS ? ?
user MEANING education, user creation, dynamic users, user interaction, user ecological urbanism “resilient streets” ownership, social engineering, user “action” response, develop- To what extent does the urban right-of-way cultivate educated, “dynamic users” who inherently take ment of user land ethic ownership of the public space and engage in actions that promote resiliency within the corridor? diversity of surrounding land use, form, experiential design , local materiality, district GENIUS LOCI resiliency and sustainability (increase with higher levels of user orientation) cohesion, recycled materiality, user recreation, destination placemaking, PR branding: “we are progres- sive,” high design urban space, district gateway, community of users, local region visibility, hyper-nature, human-centric vs. landscape urbanism “destination streets” bio-centric, aesthetics, appropriate noise level, culture, neighborhood identity, artistic expression, local community engagement in design process To what extent does the urban right-of-way use ecological processes through time to engender its distinctive character and unique identity toward a community of users? Lon ost subsurface infiltration of stormwater runoff, recycle receptacles, eco-technologies, C g-t native plant species selection, introduction of natural processes, increase in surface porosity, ECOLOGY rm erm reduction of urban heat island effect, energy savings to adjacent structures, cyclical maintenance -te plan, no permanent irrigation system, “cradle to cradle” design philosophy, maximize soil volume per street tree, site-specificity, incorporation of solar panels on adjacent structures, energy efficient lighting or t C ost and controls, preservation of existing vegetation, celebration of stormwater as a “value-added amenity,” Sh landscape urbanism “green streets” emulation of local hydrological and geomorphological conditions, treatment train thinking, green infrastructure, air quality improvement, sequestration of carbon (CO2) To what extent does the urban right-of-way reintegrate natural processes into the urban fabric through eco-technologies that promote healthier environments and an improved quality of life for its users? degrees of security, reduction of criminal activity, visual and textural changes in ground surface, multiple modes of movement, noise reduction, numerous pedestrian amenities, adequate vehicular parking in accordance with existing utilization rates, cyclist circulation: SAFETY bike lanes or sharrows, street beautification tree plantings, “shared parking” concept, ”defensible space theory,” user interaction with other users, “park-once district,” clearly identified crosswalks, reduction of vehicular traffic speeds, connectivity, mass transit circulation: bus or streetcar, wayfinding and signage, walkability, lighting, use of low volatile paints, trash receptacles, pedestrian buffer from vehicular traffic, treatment of severe weather road conditions, universal design for all users, emergency access, promotion of local commerce, potential for “themed” sense of place, new urbanism “complete streets” pedestrian-oriented, proper allowance of sight lines at intersections where modes of movement cross, smaller block sizes with more intersections To what extent does the urban right-of-way promote equal opportunity and experience through the health, safety, and welfare of all users? supports adjacent land use, traffic lights at intersections, clear delineation of vehicular traffic lanes, necessary roadway signage, grey infrastructure, efficient, auto-oriented travel, separation of land uses through zoning ordinances and regulations, storm sewer infrastructure, vehicular circulation, retail signage scaled for motorists, traffic lane configura- FUNCTION tion, utilitarian design, AASHTO street classification, larger block sizes with fewer intersections, contributes to point source pollution of downstream water bodies and ecosystems, access to adjacencies, ADA compliant, pedestrian circulation, functional maintenance such as roadway resurfacing, increased frequency and magnitude of flooding downstream, public vs. private separation “conventional streets” To what extent does the urban right-of-way provide the most basic levels of service to users for their efficient movement from one point of reference to another? Time (cyclical)Hierarchy of User-oriented Streets framework: Central to this study is the above framework and its application throughout all stages of the design process.Attached to each level is a deﬁning question, contemporary urbanism, street design movement, and associated subcomponents.
term Demand for Water S the Long- ector osting Infra 08. “C struc . 20 ture n, A .” ma ash ·C · Treib, Mark. 1995. “Must Landscapes Mean?: T: development of user land ethic OS Approaches to Significance in Recent Landscape Architecture” · Olin, Laurie. 1988. “Form, Meaning, and Expression · Krieger, Alex. 2009. “Where and How Does Urban Design Happen?” Urban Design C in Landscape Architecture” user ownership destination place makin ce making e mak user education n appropriate noise level dynamic users · Lynch, Kevin, and Gary Hack. 1984. Site Planning public relations branding: “we are progressive” g · Mennel, Timothy (ed.). 2009. “Smart Codes: user creation MEANING design elements promote district cohesion · Mostafavi, Mohsen, ed. 2010. Ecological Urbanism Model Mixed Use Zoning District” · Moughtin, Cliff. 2003. Urban Design: Street and Square user “action” response user interaction social engineering community of users s · Echols, Stuart. 2007. “Artful Rainwater Design in the Urban Landscape” district gateway · Mennel, Timothy (ed.). 2009. “Smart Codes: Model Affordable Housing Density Bonus Ordinance” · Waldheim, Charles. 2006. The Landscape Urbanism Reader · Echols, Stuart, and Eliza Pennypacker. 2008. user recreation experiential design for user pe “From Stormwater Management to Artful Rainwater Design”· Meyer, Elizabeth K. 2008. “Sustaining Beauty. The Performance of local regional visibility Appearance: A Manifesto in Three Parts” aesthetics culture ultur ultur ure ur GENIUS LOCI · Mennel, Timothy (ed.). 2009. “Smart Codes: Innovative Approaches to Encourage Meaningful Citizen Participation in the Development Process” artistic expression recycled materiality · Ching, Francis D.K. 1996. Architecture: Form, Space, Order local community engagement in design process oc · Engler, Mira. 2004. Designing America’s Waste Landscapes form m d diversity of surrounding land use · Mennel, Timothy (ed.). 2009. “Smart Codes: hyper-naturehuman-centric vs. bio-centric Model Pedestrian Overlay District (POD) Ordinance” · White, Edward T. 1999. Path, Portal, Place: high quality urban space · Beatley, Timothy, Peter Newman. 2009. Green Urbanism Down Under: neighborhood identity Learning from Sustainable Communities in Australia Appreciating Public Space in Urban Environments local materiality · Mossop, Elizabeth. 2006. “Landscapes of Infrastructure” maximize soil volume per street tree · Fremling, Calvin R. 2005. Immortal River: The Upper Mississippi in Ancient and Modern Times energy efficient lighting and controls subsurface infiltration of stormwater runo water runoff · Farrelly, M., R. Brown, and C. Davis. 2009. “Can Demonstration · Mitchell, V. G. 2006. “Applying Integrated Urban Water Management Concepts: A Review of Australian Experience” Projects Act as a Mechanism for Promoting a Transition” site-specificity · Carson, Rachel. 1994. Silent Spring celebration of stormwater as an value-added amenity native plant s e es selection t sp spe speci “green” infrastructure adjacent land-use energy savings · McHarg, Ian L. 1992. Design with Nature p preservation of existing vegetation · Leopold, Aldo. 1966. A Sand County Almanac · Wright, Richard T. 2008. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future solar panels eco-technologies reduce urban heat island effect reduction of vehicular traffic speeds af a c sp · Ellin Nan. 2006. Integral Urbanism · Newman, Peter, Timothy Beatley, and Heather Boyer. 2009. Resilient Cities: treatment train ECOLOGY Responding to Peak Oil and Climate Change trash receptacles noise reduction use of use of low volati e paints ile no permanent irrigation system recycle receptacles “cradle to cradle” philosophy hilo lighting adequate vehicular parking (according to utilization rates) eq · Karl, Thomas, R., Melillo, Jerry M., and Peterson, Thomas C. (eds.). 2009. numerous pedestrian amenities tie degrees of security · Mennel, Timothy (ed.). 2009. “Smart Codes: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States increase in surface porosity e s · Jacobs, Allan B. 1993. Great Streets Model Shared Parking Ordinance” street beautification tree plantings air quality improvement cyclical maintenance plan promotion of local commerce oca cal a universal design for all users fo “d defensible sp le space theory” · Gurnell, A. 2007. “Urban Rivers: Hydrology, Geomorphology, Ecology, and Opportunities for Change” connectivity emergency access introduction of natural processes walkability · Design Workshop. 2009. South Grand Boulevard Great Streets Initiative emulation of local hydrological and geomorphology conditions · Beatley, Timothy. 2000. Green Urbanism: Learning from European Cities “park-once district” cyclist circulation: bike lanes SAFETY clearly identifie crosswalks ed allows multiple modes of movement potential for “themed” sense of place mass transit circulation: bus or streetcar an · Davey Resource Group. 2009. City of St. Louis, Missouri Street Tree Resource Analysis sequester carbon (CO2) ground surface visual and texturall changes c fewer vehicular lanes and wider sidewalks · Mennel, Timothy (ed.). 2009. “Smart Codes: larger block sizes with fewer intersections · Mennel, Timothy (ed.). 2009. “Smart Codes: Model Policy Promoting Complete Streets” aashto street classification ada compliant Model Street Connectivity Standards Ordinance” reduction of criminal activity on o o “shared parking” concept tr atment of severe road conditions rea utilitarian design storm sewer infrastructure user interaction with other users pedestrian-oriented en · Bohl, Charles C. 2000. “New Urbanism and the City: Potential Applications · AASHTO. 2010. Standard Specifications for Transportation efficient, auto-oriented travel and Implications for Distressed Inner-City Neighborhoods” pedestrian buffer from vehicular traffic Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing separation of land uses through zoning regulations consideration of sight lines at intersections s wayfinding and signage supports adjacent land use cen traffic lane configuration increased frequency and magnitude of flooding downstream functional maintenance pedestrian circulation FUNCTION land use zoning public vs. private se separation ns contributes to point source pollution of downstream water bodies butes to po t s urce “grey” infrastructure access to adjacencies s a ti o · Grigg, N. S. 2003. Water, Wastewater and Stormwater Infrastructure Management v alu traffic lights, painted stripes, and roadway signage nE e sig EVA retail signage scaled for motorists vehicular circulation ie s fo rD LUA at e g T s surplus of vehicular parking based upon peak volumes I O N : S hir itec t ure: S tr v a n i, H a m i c Ar ch d. 1990. Beyond PubliLiterature map: Instrumental to the formation of the proposed framework, an ongoing literature review categorized existing literature into the ﬁve levels. The resultis a hierarchical classiﬁcation of relevant literature indicative of which sources address “higher level” topics.
ongoing literature review CODpotential precedents filter a filter b observations project type ED III ED DM previous site visits MEANING CONTEMPORARY MAG MAG LA THEORIES PRECEDENTS imagery EVALUATION GENIUS LOCI AGE possibilities available data METRIC ERY ERY ECOLOGY RY A existing knowledge relevance SAFETY ANA ANA NALY NL project location FUNCTION L SI S · SW 12th Avenue Green Street located in Portland, Oregon · 12th Street Rain Gardens located in Kansas City, Missouri feedback loop · St. Charles Avenue timeframe located in New Orleans, Louisiana project goals · Stephen Epler Hall @ PSU located in Portland, Oregon technologies obstacles design program elements maintenance requirements over time questions plant species selection materiality design strategies usersPrecedent study methodology diagram: In the precedent study, the framework was utilized as a metric from which coded observations could be extracted fromimagery of each precedent.
FUNCTION SAFETY SW 12th Avenue Green Street | Portland, Oregon 12th Street Rain Gardens | Kansas City, Missouri ECOLOGY GENIUS LOCI St. Charles Avenue | New Orleans, Louisiana Stephen Epler Hall | Portland State University MEANINGCoded imagery analyses: Imagery for each of the four precedents was selected and subsequently coded according to the proposed framework. Color ﬁllselections call out the role speciﬁc elements assume in the urban right-of-way.
theoretical framework user analysis program elements site analysis questions site inventory questions tasks SITE-SPECIFICITY ? ITE SPECIFICIIT T PE FICIT MEANING ?? project goals and intentions EC C ? GENIUS LOCI ?? ? ECOLOGY ?? ? SAFETY ?? ? FUNCTION ??Site inventory and analysis methodology diagram: The framework is utilized as a point of departure for deriving the speciﬁc methods and end tasks to becompleted in the site inventory and analysis.
project goals and intentions program elements site analysis questions site inventory questions tasksMEANING Cultivate motivated “dynamic users” · urban outdoor classrooms What user amenities can be spatially associated with stormwater eco-technologies Which natural systems can be reintroduced into the urban context? Needed Seating Analysis · emulate baseline flow natural processes with the goal of promoting a “meaningful” user experience of the site’s natural · hand pump irrigation of stormwater infiltration gardens by users systems? Where on site can users observe “artful” stormwater runoff and be protected during Property Utilization Map · spaces for “user creation” where they can play/change landscape rain showers so as to not put them in harm’s way or cause discomfort? Foster user ownership of the urban right-of-way · temporary didactic signage explaining eco-technologies Context for Learning · benches “staged” for user interaction with eco-technologies Which areas of the site comprise the most suitable context for learning in terms of What property adjacent to South Grand is most suitable for redevelopment into a small Suitability Analysis visibility, opportunity for gathering, and potential for interactivity? urban outdoor classroom? · community involvement in design process Promote a “user land ethic” · How close is the location to existing schools within a 1 mile radius? · eventual removal of didactic signage as “user owners” fulfill the responsiblitiy · What is the potential for this site to handle stormwater from adjacent property and/or include a vertical garden? educating visitors about the corridor’s natural systemsGENIUS LOCI Create a progessive identity in the regional market · inviting awnings off of adjacent buildings · “park-once district” How can the design of South Grand use “artful rainwater design” to create a new What components of the existing community’s historical identity should be preserved Outdoor Dining Analysis · information kiosks · banner mounts designed into street lighting progressive identity for the district while respecting the historic and ethnic character and further articulated in the new design proposal? · shuttle bus between site and missouri botanical gardens of the community? · What is the identity or composition (land use, iconic elements, demographics, materiality, etc.) of each city block Historic Landmarks in the project area facing South Grand? Are certain blocks hierarchically more important than others? · appropriate decibel level · series of portals and thresholds Map Engender a distinctive, ecology driven district · local, public art commissions · local materiality selection Which sidewalk areas are most suitable for outdoor dining based upon existing use, · What is the ethnic population breakdown surrounding the project area? · What are local material palettes for the St. Louis City area? · renewable energy technologies · signage indicating public parking locations setbacks, land use, and views toward important district identifiers? District Competition · multi-space vehicular parking meters · street furniture Map What are other competing community business districts in the greater St. Louis City Develop the district as a “community of users” · recycled materiality · land use diversity metropolitan area? · bike sharrows for experienced cyclist · district gateways into and out of site Public Art Analysis · locations for temporary, rotating, and permanent art installations · reduce sidewalk clutter Which sites are most suitable for locally commissioned pieces of public art along · pocket gardens located on adjacent, vacant properties User Ethnicity Analysis South Grand?ECOLOGY Incorporate a cost-benefit analysis of street trees · stormwater retention vaults under sidewalks · stormwater capture of rooftops How much sidewalk space can be allocated to stormwater eco-technologies without How do you maximize pedestrian sidewalk and amenity space while not reducing the Hydrology Analysis · eco-technologies · cyclical maintenance plan sacrificing user circulation or safety (public health, safety, and welfare) in this site? vehicular parking capacity? · heating element under sidewalk · moisture tolerant plant species to filter stormwater · How many on-street parking stalls currently exist? Impervious Surface · high albedo pavement materials · green roofs Analysis Reduce the carbon footprint of urban right-of-way · solar panels mounted on adjacent building roofs · amended soils Which eco-technologies can be adapted from precedent studies of other right-of-way How does the hydrological cycle currently take place on site? · treatment train linkage of all eco-technologies projects, and where are they best incorporated into the existing urban fabric along · What other natural systems are important to take into consideration? Sidewalk Width Analysis · pervious concrete · selection of street tree species for economic value over time South Grand? Treat stormwater runoff on-site · recycle receptacles · urban stormwater infiltration planters Street Tree Analysis · permeable pavers · no permanent irrigation Which existing street trees should be preserved in the final design proposal? What is the threshold of determining how valuable an existing street tree is? · increase soil volume capacity per tree · native plant species Eco-technology Suitability AnalysisSAFETY Provide a positive, physical environment for users · pedestrian traffic signals · reserved disability parking Which components of the existing urban right-of-way present potential safety hazards Which intersection(s) has the highest traffic accident injury/fatality rating? Intersection Safety Map · outdoor dining opportunities · wider sidewalks to users (pedestrians, cyclist, special needs, commuters, etc.) other than motorists? · bus stop shelter and level concrete pad · pedestrian-scaled materiality What are the “high-traffic” volume times of the day for each user group? What are the Street Lighting Analysis · seating: 1 linear foot per 21’ of street frontage · security Where is additional street lighting needed to provide all intersections with 2 fc of light existing user groups? Prevent injury or harm among all users · bus stop signage · newspaper bins intensity and 1 fc along the length of the street? Bus Stop Analysis · trash receptacles: 1 bin per 2,000 sq. ft. of sidewalk space (within 50’ of seating · bus stops · cross walks · reduce vehicular traffic speeds Where are bus stop locations most appropriate in terms of safety, surrounding land Which existing stops need to include more amenities (such as a bus shelter) based · low volatile paints · ground surface textural changes Bicycle Amenity Analysis Promote equality of experience for all users · vehicular parking meters · pedestrian-oriented signage use, and proximity to largest number of users? upon current ridership levels? · What amenities are associated with bus stops? · street tree plantings for beautification · curb bulb-outs · bike lanes · street lighting: 2 fc at intersections and 1 fc along the street Where is bike parking most suitable along South Grand according to adjacent building · bike parking: 4 bike racks for every 10,000 sq. ft. of sidewalk space use, observed cycling destinations, and other associated bike amenities (public restrooms, drinking fountains, etc.)?FUNCTION Provide efficient movement for vehicular users · functional maintenance · vehicular-oriented signage Which vehicular lane configuration provides the optimal balance between traveling What are the potential vehicular lane configurations? Vehicular Lane Analysis · vehicular traffic lanes · manholes · center line road crown motorist needs and the community’s desire to become a destination rather than a · How does the existing urban right-of-way function to provide users with efficient travel and circulation? · traffic lights · access to service alleys thoroughfare? · What connections are essential to maintaining the functionality of the existing street? Existing Utilities and · curb and gutter · pedestrian sidewalk · catch basins Infrastructure Analysis Incorporate existing stormwater infrastructure · vehicular parking based upon peak volumes · paint stripes Where are existing utilities located in relation to limestone building foundations? What are the needs of a traveling motorist? · vehicular travel speeds · What is the average vehicular speed within the project site? · What design guidelines are specified by AASHTO for vehicular circulation along a major arterial corridor? Land Use Map · roadway surface materiality · storm sewer infrastructure · ada ramps at all intersections and general compliance Protect limestone foundations of buildings What are the components necessary to create a destination rather than vehicular Vehicular Parking · protection of limestone foundations thoroughfare? Analysis · What vehicular speed is most often observed in historic business districts? · How many parking stalls currently exist as on-street parking or immediately adjacent parking stalls? Site inventory and analysis process map: This graphic maps the actual implementation of the previous abstract diagram. Notice that an implied hierarchy exists for each of the categories across the top.