12 - AN INSTRUCTIONALDESIGN PLAN AND ITERATIVE DESIGN Mobile Learning @ NCSU
QUINN; CHAPTER 9There are two aspects to mobile design: the nitty-gritty speciﬁcs of designing for mobile devices how to make mobile design as similar to your normal process of instructional design
QUINN; DESIGN MODELSThe acronym ADDIE describes a process of designingfor learning which stands for Analysis-Design-Development-Implementation-EvaluationQuinn’s Four-Step Mode: Analysis-Design-Implementation-Evaluation
QUINN; DESIGN GENERALITIESLess is more - cut out words and use bold, italic,underline, and minimize ﬁle sizeUse spatial relationships to convey conceptualrelationships: color, proximity, and typography areways you can do this
QUINN; DESIGN PROCESSTo not fall into the “design traps” that Quinnhighlights: work as a team, think of what would be ideal and what would work “if you had magic”, evaluate your design independently before as a group
QUINN; DESIGN SPECIFICSQuinn presents three types of mobile designs: The Learnlet - this is a mobile design that makes an entire course mobile. A Formal Learning Augment - Quinn argues that a mobile design can easily augment formal learning A Performance Support Augment - mobile design can also support a speciﬁc task in a course
QUINN; USE THE RIGHT MEDIUMQuinn discusses the affordances of different types ofmedium in your mobile design: SMS: ready when students need it Text: great for conceptual information Media: convey valuable information, but may take more time
QUINN; GET YOUR HANDS DIRTYTaking on a mobile design initiative (like we are) is agreat way to learn about mobile learningEven if the mobile design doesn’t work, we will learn bydesign about mobile learning and how we canintegrate technology into our classrooms
APP DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGEThere are numerous app development challengesavailable to teachers and students: Learning Without Boundaries Apps Development Challenge from the Virginia DOE The STEM App 2012 ChallengeWhat if you were to promote an app challenge inyour community or school?
TEACHER CREATES OWN APPS TO HELP STUDNETSA high school teacher in New York City, FrederickFeraco, created iPhone apps he named “Buddy” appsto help his students study for the New York Regentsexam - New York State’s equivalent of our EOG &EOCsHe’s made 12 apps - eight are Regents exampreparation apps
TEACHER CREATES OWN APPS TO HELP STUDNETSEach app contains six primary features:1. Basic lessons organized by topic2. Interactive Regents "fun quizzes" with questions from past tests3. YouTube videos with relevant content4. Newsfeeds sourced from subject-speciﬁc media5. Vocabulary ﬂashcards6. The option to share the app on social media.
APEX HIGH SCHOOLApex High School is one of ﬁve high schools in theUnited States participating in a 12-week appdevelopment program for high school studentsthrough MITCheckout the YouTube video about the start of theprogram - these programs are groundbreaking, andthe mobile design skills we are acquiring now arevaluable for our classes and students
ALLY; CHAPTER 8Chapter 8: Design and development of multimedialearning objects for mobile phonesResearchers describe the iterative process that theyused to design and develop a multimedia learningobject for the mobile phone. This chapter discussesthe challenges and solutions that document the routeresearchers took.
ALLY; MOBILE MULTIMEDIAMobile devices are useful for presenting multimedia:video, audio and photographsMultimedia can be useful because it crossesdisciplinary boundaries - we display content fromdisciplines in stereotypical ways, and multimedia canpresent content in unique ways
ALLY; RLOThe researchers created multimedia demonstratinghow to reference a book, a journal, and a websiteThe multimedia is designed to be viewed sequentially,but has a menu to allow users to go back to content -each multimedia application, called by researchers anRLO (reusable learning object) concluded with a setof quiz activities
ALLY; ADAPTING FOR MOBILEThe researchers adapted multimedia on referencingmaterials for PC to the mobile device they selectedResearchers were concerned with the small screen,the viability of the ﬂask software, and losing thepedagogical integrity of the PC-based multimedia
ALLY; FACING THE CHALLENGESResearchers took time to master the ﬂash software,looked at other ﬂash applications to understand thedesign process, developed design templates andcompiled scripts - code that enabled ﬂash functions -for their multimedia
ALLY; THE ITERATIVE PROCESSPrototype 1: researchers thought through the smallerscreen, and developed a storyboard and UI (userinterface)To remedy overcrowding, researchers usedkeywords in their text and chunkinginformation so it wasn’t spread out over manyscreens
ALLY; THE ITERATIVE PROCESSPrototype 2: the RLO was tested and the researchersmade changes to the navigation system - it used totake two clicks to navigate between screens, whichwas too great a “click investment”The left and right keys became the new one clicksystem
ALLY; THE ITERATIVE PROCESSPrototype 3: researchers created a sub-menu for the“Making a reference” sectionThe prototype was ready to be tested by students -who liked the clear navigation and found the RLOuseful
ALLY; THE ITERATIVE PROCESSPrototype 4 - researchers removed the title of theRLO at the top of the screen, and replaced it with thename of the screen the user is onSince the “Making a reference section” took too long,they used the number keys on the phone instead of atwo-step menu
ALLY; THE ITERATIVE PROCESSThrough the iterative design process, the navigationprocess was simpliﬁed (and simpliﬁed again), the UIwas made more clearOverall, the pedagogical richness was notcompromised for their mobile design
ALLY; DISCUSSIONThe iterative process allowed the researchers to reﬁnetheir design after using the multimedia, testing it withpeers, then testing it with studentsThe results demonstrate that students liked using theRLO, and a challenge ahead is integrating this type ofmultimedia into student’s learning in different subject areasThe prototype process made designing for a new modeeasier
ITERATIVE DESIGNThe time and cost involved in implementing athorough, large-scall mobile design project (such asthis project with iPods) are highTherefore, an iterative process that involves designresearch and assessing the effects of new designs isappropriate
AN ITERATIVE INVESTIGATION INTO THEIMPLEMENTATION OF HANDHELD COMPUTERS AS LEARNING TOOLS IN A SCIENCE MUSEUM The 2008 research by Phipps consists of two parts: a description of the design principles behind using iPods in education, and an exhibit See the section Research Design - Design Research on p. 78 - the process of design is focused on creating a system that works
AN ITERATIVE INVESTIGATIONThere is (relatively) little prior research into usingmobile devices in educationEspecially with app development, we’re at theforefront of this trend - we therefore must designiterativelyWhat works with your design? What doesn’t work?The process of iterative design allows you to makechanges.
AN ITERATIVE INVESTIGATIONThe multimedia learning object was essentially aprototype of a mobile LMS. The iterative process theauthors took might be useful to the process ourstudents take to design an app.
QUINN - WHERE DOES YOUR APP FIT IN?
QUINN; WHERE DOES YOUR APP FIT IN?
QUINN; A QUICK NOTE FROM CHAPTER 10Quinn writes in chapter 10 (we’re not reading thischapter right now) about the good, the bad, and theugly in mobile design Good: there are standards for mobile design Bad: mobile devices are different from previous technology, ie Flash Ugly: interoperability between carriers