DNA Structure
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DNA Structure

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DNA Structure DNA Structure Presentation Transcript

  • DNA Structure By Joshua Rosenberg
  • Introduction DNA is the hereditary material of life This molecule carries the instructions needed to make all living organisms
  • Introduction The four Molecules that are very important to life  Lipids  Proteins  Carbohydrates  Nucleic acids DNA is composed of Nucleic Acids
  • Introduction In DNA, the Nucleic Acids are found in the form of a molecule called a Nucleotide Tell me more, please!
  • Composition Remember that the Nucleotide is the basic building block (Monomer) of DNA
  • Structure So, a molecule of DNA is made up of millions of subunits called Nucleotides Those subunits are the genetic code! The structure of DNA is of 2 strands arranged into a Double Helix
  • Structure Each nucleotide consists of three parts: 1. P 2.D 3. A, T, C, G
  • Structure Each nucleotide consists of three parts: 1. Phosphate group 2.Deoxyribose sugar 3. Nitrogenous base
  • The three parts of a Nucleotide Phosphate Nitrogenous Base Sugar
  • Structure And the structure of DNA is of 2 strands arranged into a Double Helix
  • The Backbone and the Bases The phosphate and deoxyribose sugar (P & D) form the backbone of the DNA molecule The nitrogen bases (A, T, C, G) form the “rungs of the ladder”
  • Nucleotides There are four distinct types of Nucleotides  Adenine (A)  Thymine (T)  Cytosine (C)  Guanine (G)
  • Nucleotides A T Adenine Thymine C G Cytosine Guanine
  • Nucleotides Each base will only bond with one other specific base. Adenine (A) Form a base pair. Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Form a base pair. Guanine (G)
  • DNA Structure Because of this complementary base pairing, the order of the bases in one strand determines the order of the bases in the other strand
  • A TC GT AC GA TG CT A
  • DNA Structure To crack the genetic code found in DNA we need to look at the sequence of bases. The bases are arranged in triplets called codons. AGG-CTC-AAG-TCC-TAG TCC-GAG-TTC-AGG-ATC
  • What do I need to know? DNA is the hereditary material DNA contains the instructions for all living organisms A DNA molecule is composed of many tiny Nucleic Acids called Nucleotides
  • What do I need to know? The Nucleotide has three parts  Phosphate (P)  Deoxyribose Sugar (D)  Nitrogenous Base (A, T, C, G) The bases are complimentary and pair-up  A-T  C-G
  • Looking Ahead Each triplet of nitrogenous bases is known as one codon Each codon encodes one amino acid
  • Looking Ahead DNA to RNA is called transcription RNA to Protein is called translation