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  • Welcome to todays session..“Using APA Format.” This presentation is designed to introduce you to the purposes of documenting your references, it’s designed to aid you understand the primary rules when using the APA referencing style.
  • Purposes for using APA documentation. APA documentation style is commonly utilized for research in science-related fields. APA format provides writers with a format for cross-referencing their sources--from their parenthetical references to their reference page. This cross-referencing system allows readers to locate the publication information of source material. This is of great value for researchers who may want to locate your sources for their own research projects. The proper use of APA style also shows the credibility of writers; such writers show accountability to their source material. Most importantly, use of APA style can protect writers from plagiarism--the purposeful or accidental use of source material by other writers without giving appropriate credit.
  • This slide explains the importance of cross-reference your sources. It may be helpful to discuss this in terms of a community. Writers of research papers enter a community of reseachers by sharing the sources they’ve found.
  • Using APA properly will allow you to communicate more effectively with other researchers who also use APA. When a style is used consistently, others can easily find where you’ve listed your resources.
  • This slide explains how using APA can establish your credibility as a researcher.
  • Key Concepts failure of the course, or expulsion from school.
  • Key Concepts: Plagiarism is a serious offense in the university system, and may result in punishments ranging from failure of the assignment, failure of the course, or expulsion from school. What software does the University use for plagiarism checks? Can students use it in advance of essay submission to the department?   As at November 2011 A. Students submit their work through “Turnitin” . A. Students can’t use the software before submitting the essay HOWEVER Academic staff can set up "Turnitin" in VITAL modules for students to self-check for plagiarism before a final submission. This has to be setup by staff, it can’t be done by students. See CSD pages for details about What plagiarism is. How the software works. How it checks. http://www.liv.ac.uk/csd/plagiarism/turnitin/index.htm
  • Key Concepts: There are many rules for following APA format, and it is nearly impossible to memorize them all. Students’ best course of action is to utilize the official APA handbook or the APA section in an updated composition textbook as guides for properly using the documentation format. Since the American Psychological Association, a professional group of behavioral and social science professors and instructors, periodically updates the guide, students should be certain that they are using the most current information possible. There are other resources for finding current information on APA documentation style. The APA web site offers some limited information about recent format changes, especially regarding the documentation of World Wide Web and electronic sources.
  • Rationale: This slide establishes the two areas of APA documentation, parenthetical citations and the reference page. DIRECT QUOTE example
  • Rationale: This slide establishes the two areas of APA documentation, parenthetical citations and the reference page.
  • Key Concepts: The next two slides explain the occasions in which APA citations will be necessary, as well as explains the differences between quoting, summarising , and paraphrasing . Students will be most familiar with the need to site for quotations, but the facilitator should stress that if the idea comes from someone else, the source material should be cited.
  • Key Concepts: This slide explains the differences between summarising and paraphrasing . The facilitator may stress that if the idea comes from someone else, the source material should be cited. Key Concepts: This slide emphasizes the need to keep parenthetical citations within a paper brief. The information provided in the body of the paper should be just enough so that a reader could easily cross-reference the citation with its matching entry on the reference page. The following slides give examples of how to use parenthetical references.
  • Examples: The two examples in this slide illustrate methods for including parenthetical citations in the text. If the author’s name is listed in the preceding sentence, only the publication year and page number of the quotation should appear in the parenthetical citation following the sentence. If the author’s name does not appear within the sentence, the parenthetical citation should include the author’s last name, the publication year, and the page number. In either case, a reader should be able to cross-reference back to the reference page and locate all of the publication information needed to find Cathy Caruth’s book: Caruth, Cathy (1996). Unclaimed experience: trauma, narrative, and history . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. Key Concepts: When referring generally to an article or book (rather than to a specific passage) the author should include the last name of the author and the publication year in the parenthetical reference. You may also tell the students that the parenthetical reference is located before the period.
  • Examples: The two examples in this slide illustrate methods for including parenthetical citations in the text. If the author’s name is listed in the preceding sentence, only the publication year and page number of the quotation should appear in the parenthetical citation following the sentence. If the author’s name does not appear within the sentence, the parenthetical citation should include the author’s last name, the publication year, and the page number. In either case, a reader should be able to cross-reference back to the reference page and locate all of the publication information needed to find Cathy Caruth’s book: Caruth, Cathy (1996). Unclaimed experience: trauma, narrative, and history . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. Key Concepts: When referring generally to an article or book (rather than to a specific passage) the author should include the last name of the author and the publication year in the parenthetical reference. You may also tell the students that the parenthetical reference is located before the period. If you use a direct quote then you HAVE to provide the page reference: Caruth (1996) proposes that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p.11).
  • Rationale: This slide reminds participants that APA reference guides should be consulted to answer questions about parenthetical references or reference page entries. Activity: At this point, the facilitator may direct students to the sample paper at the end of the APA handout as well as field questions regarding APA documentation. WEBsite: Go to the APA website and navigate to ‘The basics of APA Style’ (right hand column)
  • All authors in reference list ampersand ‘&’ before last name
  • All authors in reference list ampersand ‘&’ before last name
  • When authors number eight or more, include the first six names, then three ellipses, and then the last author's name.
  • Key Concepts: This slide provides information about additional variations on the parenthetical reference.This example demonstrates how to handle sources with no author. In this case, the newspaper article title is listed in quotation marks.
  • Key Concepts: This slide provides information about additional variations on the parenthetical reference. This example demonstrates how to handle sources with no author. In this case, the newspaper article title is listed in quotation marks.
  • Examples: The first example illustrates a citation for a personal communication. Personal communication constitutes letters, memos, telephone interviews, and electronic forms of communication (chat rooms and email). Because these sources cannot be cross-checked by outside readers, such sources are only listed in the body of the paper, not on the reference page. The citation should include the the initials and last name of the sources, “personal communication,” and the date of contact. The second example depicts a citation for a general reference to a web site. If referring to a web site in a general way (no reference to specific passages or information), just the web address should appear in the parenthetical reference. Again, these sources are only listed in the body of the paper, not on the reference page.
  • Rationale: This slide illustrates the inclusion of APA parenthetical citations within a paper. The facilitator should note that everything should be double spaced consistently. * From “Shell Shock and the Great War” by Andrew J. Kunka, Purdue University (unpublished manuscript).
  • Rationale: This slide illustrates the inclusion of APA parenthetical citations within a paper. The facilitator should note that everything should be double spaced consistently. * From “Shell Shock and the Great War” by Andrew J. Kunka, Purdue University (unpublished manuscript).
  • Key Concepts: This slide explains the purpose of a reference page . Students may also understand this to be called the “bibliography” page, but APA makes a distinction between the reference page and a bibliography: a reference list “must include only the sources that were used in the research and preparation of the article. Note that a reference list cites works that specifically support a particular article. In contrast, a bibliography cites works for background or for further reading.” APA is only interested in what they call “recoverable data”—that is, data which other people can find. For example, personal communications such as letters, memos, emails, interviews, and telephone conversations should not be included in the reference list since they are not recoverable by other researchers. The facilitator may stress that each source referenced within the paper should also appear on the reference page. The reference page appears at the end of the paper.
  • Example: This slide offers students a sample of what a reference page looks like. The first and fourth sources are books with one author. The second source is an article with two authors that appeared in an anthology. The third source is an article that appeared in a continuously paginated journal. All sources are double spaced and alphabetized according to author. In the past, APA has required that the first line of each entry be indented (like a normal paragraph). But the 6 h edition requires a hanging indent in which only the first line of an entry is all the way to the left while subsequent lines are indented. Notice that titles of books and journals are italicised while titles of articles are neither italicized nor put in quotes. And only the first word of a title and the first word of a subtitle are capitalised.
  • Examples: This slide provides examples of a few commonly used citation formats. The facilitator should note that titles of books, magazines, journals, and newspapers should be italicized or underlined.
  • Examples: The web page example will prove to be the most confusing for students (particularly because APA just recently released information on citing web pages). According to the manual, “At a minimum, a reference of an Internet source should profice a document title or description, a date (either of publication or update or the date of retrieval), and an address (in Internet terms a URL). Whenever possible, identify the authors of a document as well. If there is no author, begin the entry with the title.
  • Examples: This slide offers examples of citations for a newspaper article and for a source (in this case, a newspaper article) with no author. The facilitator might ask students how to alphabetize a source with no author within a reference page. They should alphabetize according to their next best piece of information--here, the first word of the article, “Cigarette.” When citing a reference in the text, use a short title for the parenthetical citation (e.g., “Cigarette sales”).
  • Just to recap....
  • aid you understand the primary rules when using the APA referencing style.
  • [Assume the three studies were done in 1998 and each was published separately that year.]
  • No error in this one just fill in the blanks using the Reference List provided!
  • (Assume NIMH is introduced here for the first time.)

Transcript

  • 1. Using APA Format presented by Jacqueline Mooney
  • 2. Aims of the session
    • To gain a greater understanding of APA referencing
    • To be able to create in-text citations and construct a reference list
    • To understand how (referencing software) can aid your study
  • 3. Why Reference APA?
    • Allows readers to cross-reference your sources easily
    • Provides consistent format within your discipline
    • Gives you credibility as a writer
    • Protects yourself from plagiarism
  • 4. Referencing Your Sources
    • Referencing allows your tutors to locate the materials or resources you use within your work.
    • Later on in your career if you are writing academic papers other researchers may wish to validate your theories by examining your supporting arguments including your references.
  • 5. Benefits of a Consistent Format
    • For the reader…
    • Using a consistent format helps your reader understand your arguments and the sources they’re built on.
    • For the author…
    • Keep track of your sources as you build your arguments within your work.
  • 6. Establishing Credibility
    • The proper use of APA style shows that you are able to present your work as a professional academic paper.
    • As an academic writer you are able to show accountability to your source material.
  • 7. Avoiding Plagiarism 1
    • Proper citation of your sources
    • in APA style can help you avoid plagiarism, which is a serious offense.
    • Plagiarism can occur very easily if you don’t acknowledge another's work, ideas or suggestions.
  • 8. Avoiding Plagiarism 2
    • The University uses Turnitin for plagiarism detection...
    • Students cannot use it in advance of essay submission to the department, however, staff can set Turnitin so that you can check your written work before final submission.
    • See CSD pages for more details: http://www.liv.ac.uk/csd/plagiarism/turnitin/index.htm
  • 9. Referencing Resources?
    • Liaison Librarian
    • LibGuides
    • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6 th ed.
    • APA website http://www.apastyle.org/
    • Lecturers
    • Cite Them Right , 8 th ed.
  • 10.
    • In-text citation
    • (in-text referencing)
    Referencing: a Two Stage Process
  • 11. Referencing: a Two Stage Process
    • Reference List
    • (end-of-text citations)
  • 12. When Should You Use In-text Citations?
  • 13. When Should You Use In-text Citations?
    • When quoting any words that are not your own
      • Quoting means to repeat another source word for word, using quotation marks
  • 14. When Should You Use In-text Citations?
    • When summarising facts and ideas from a source
      • Summarising means to take ideas from a large passage of another source and condense them, using your own words
    • When paraphrasing a source
      • Paraphrasing means to use the ideas from another source but change the phrasing into your own words
  • 15. Three Parts to In-text Citations
    • Author’s last name, publication year, and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text
    • Caruth states that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena”.
    • Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p.11).
  • 16. Three Parts to In-text Citations
    • Author’s last name, publication year, and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text
    • A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena”.
    • A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p.11).
  • 17.
    • There are many different combinations and variations within APA citation format.
    • If you run into something unusual, look it up!
    • http://www.apastyle.org/
    Handling Quotes in Your Text
  • 18.
    • Sometimes additional information is necessary . . .
    • Using ‘and’ or ‘&’: if you are citing in-text then you use the ampersand (&) but only within parenthesis, otherwise use ‘and’ to link your authors always use ‘&’ in your Reference List.
    • Two or more works within the same year by the same author:
    • Fussell (1995a, 1995b, 1995c)
    Handling In-text Citations
  • 19. Handling In-text Citations (3 to 5 authors)
    • A work by 3 to 5 authors:
    • List all the authors within the text or in parentheses the first time you cite the source.
    • (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)
    • In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." within the text or in parentheses.
    • (Kernis et al., 1993)
    • *Et al. is an abbreviation et alii and means ‘and others’.
  • 20. Handling In-text Citations (6 or 7 authors)
    • A work by 6 or 7 authors:
    • Use the first author's name followed by et al. in main text or parentheses.
    • Ko et al. (2009) argued... Or (Ko et al., 2009)
    • Ko, C. H., Yen, J. Y., Liua, S. C., Huanga, C. F., Tam, Y., Yeun, Q. Y., & Yen, C. F. (2009). The associations between aggressive behaviors and internet addiction and online activities in adolescents.  Journal of Adolescent Health, 6,  598-605.
  • 21. Handling In-text Citations (8 or more authors)
    • A work by 8 or more authors:
    • Use the first author's name followed by et al. in main text or in parentheses.
    • Burger et al. (2007) argued... Or (Burger et al., 2007)
    • Burger, J., Gochfeld, M., Jeitner, C., Burke, S., Stamm, T., Snigaroff, R., ... Weston, J. (2007). Mercury levels and potential risk from subsistence foods from the Aleutians.  Science of The Total Environment, 384,  93-105.
  • 22.
    • If the source has no known author, then use an abbreviated version of the title:
    • Full Title: “California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers”
    • Citation: (“California,” 1999)
    Handling In-text Citations (No Author)
  • 23.
    • In-text: William Wundt and his colleagues (Wundt Research Group, n.d.)
    • Reference: Wundt Research Group [Image] (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology
    Handling In-text Citations (Image)
  • 24. Handling In-text Citations (e-mail/websites)
    • A reference to a personal communication:
    • Source: email message from C. Everett Koop Citation: (C. E. Koop, personal communication, May 16, 2008)
    • Cite only in the text NOT in Reference List.
    • A general reference to a website Source: University of Liverpool website
    • Citation: (http://www.liv.ac.uk)
  • 25.
    • Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Higonnet et al. (1987), Marcus (1989), and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include women’s personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects. Feminist researchers now concur that “It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt & Tate, p. 2). Though these studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions originating in Fussell (1975) and Bergonzi (1996).
    • However, Tylee (1990) further criticizes Fussell, arguing that his study “treated memory and culture as if they belonged to a sphere beyond the existence of individuals or the control of institutions” (p. 6).
    In-text Citations Example
  • 26. In-text Citations Example
    • Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Higonnet et al. (1987), Marcus (1989) , and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include women’s personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects. Feminist researchers now concur that “It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt & Tate, p. 2) . Though these studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions originating in Fussell (1975) and Bergonzi (1996) .
    • However, Tylee (1990) further criticizes Fussell, arguing that his study “treated memory and culture as if they belonged to a sphere beyond the existence of individuals or the control of institutions” (p. 6) .
  • 27. Reference List
    • Also known as end-of-text citations.
    • At the end of your work on a new page .
    • Double spaced and indented if over a single line in length.
    • An A-Z list of every source that you cite in your work.
  • 28. A Sample Reference List
  • 29.
    • Book Shipley, W. C. (1986). Shipley Institute of Living Scale . Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
    • Article in a magazine Klein, J. (2009, October 5). Violence and Video Games. The New Yorker, 451, 45.
    References: Some Examples 1
  • 30.
    • Web page Poland, D. (1998, October 26). The hot button. Roughcut . Retrieved October 28, 2011 from http://www.tnt.tv/
    • E-Journal Article
    • Culbertson, H., & Bruck, D. (2005). Narcolepsy and disruption to social functioning. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 1 , 14-22. Retrieved September 20, 2005, from http://www.liv.ac.uk
    References: Some Examples 2
  • 31.
    • A newspaper article Tommasini, A. (1998, October 27). Master teachers whose artistry glows in private. New York Times , p. 2.
    • A newspaper source with no known author Cigarette sales fall 30% as California tax rises. (1999, September 14). New York Times , p. 17.
    References: Some Examples 3
  • 32.
    • While you are conducting research for your essay or assignment you will need to consult a lot of material around your chosen subject area. Even if you don’t directly quote but use the ideas you have gained from these materials you need to show that you have accessed them.
    • The Bibliography follows your reference list and complies to the same formatting rules.
    Bibliography
  • 33. Additional help with APA documentation?
    • APA style:
    • http://www.apastyle.org/
    • Check your LibGuides: http://libguides.liv.ac.uk/psychology
    • Email your Liaison Librarian: [email_address]
  • 34. Quiz time...
    • Time to put your learning into practice...
  • 35. Introducing RefWorks
  • 36. What is
    • Definition:
    • is an online tool that the library subscribes to which is designed to help researchers easily gather, manage, store and share records from database searches and other types of information, as well as generate citations and bibliographies .
  • 37.
    • Create an account
    • Export references
    • Create a new folder
    • Organise references into a folder
    • Create a bibliography
    • Use to create a bibliography
    • with in-text citations
  • 38.
    • 1. Create an account
  • 39.
    • Create search (in this example: Scopus)
    1. Create an account
  • 40.
    • Select References and then select Export
    2. Export references
  • 41.
    • Select References and then select Export
    2. Export references
  • 42.
    • Select to Export to RefWorks
    2. Export references
  • 43.
    • Export to RefWorks
    2. Export references
  • 44.
    • Export to RefWorks
    2. Export references
  • 45.
    • Export to RefWorks
    2. Export references
  • 46. 3. Create a folder
  • 47. 3. Create a folder
  • 48. 4. Organise references
  • 49. 4. Organise references
  • 50. 5. Create a bibliography
  • 51.
    • Choose output style
    5. Create a bibliography
  • 52.
    • View bibliography
    5. Create a bibliography
  • 53.
    • View bibliography
    5. Create a bibliography
  • 54.  
  • 55.  
  • 56.  
  • 57.  
  • 58.  
  • 59. Find the Citation Error: A Quick Quiz on APA Style
  • 60. Directions
    • All of the following slides marked, “Catch the Error,” break one or more APA citation rule. See if you can find the error(s), and then revise the citation so that it conforms with APA style.
  • 61. Catch the Error #1
    • Hollingshead measured aggressiveness in children before and after exposure to violent videogames (2002, p. 15).
  • 62. Question 1 Revised
    • Hollingshead (2002) measured aggressiveness in children before and after exposure to violent videogames.
    • Explanation: The year comes after the researcher’s name. No page number is needed if there is no direct quote.
  • 63. Catch the Error #2
    • Neither group showed any significant growth (Wong and Tuttle 2005).
  • 64. Question 2 Revised
    • Neither group showed any significant growth (Wong & Tuttle , 2005).
    • Explanation: Use an ampersand (&) when citing parenthetically and put a comma between author(s) and year of publication.
  • 65. Catch the Error #3
    • Duffy & Petronius (2002, p. 23) found that none of the subjects showed improvement.
  • 66. Question 3 Revised
    • Duffy and Petronius (2002) found that none of the subjects showed improvement.
    • Explanation: Use “and” -- not ampersand -- when citing authors outside of parentheses. No page number needed since there was no direct quote.
  • 67. Catch the Error #4
    • Boyle (1998, 1998, 1998) found in three separate studies that the rats had higher stress hormone levels after exposure.
  • 68. Question 4 Revised
    • Boyle (1998a, 1998b, 1998c) found in three separate studies that the rats had higher stress hormone levels after exposure.
    • Explanation: To avoid confusion, each study will be designated by a different letter – a, b, c, etc. Items are listed in the reference section alphabetically by title.
  • 69. Catch the Error #5
    • Parker (2003, page 12) found that there was “no significant difference between the treatment group and the control group.”
  • 70. Question 5 Revision
    • Parker (2003) found that there was “no significant difference between the treatment group and the control group” (p. 12) .
    • Explanation: Since a direct quote was used, a page number must be provided after the quote.
  • 71. Catch the Error #6
    • The ability to predict the likelihood of criminals returning to crime is vital to those responsible for determining the release and management of offenders (Andrews & Bonta, …… ). Bonta, Law and Hanson …… assert that it is now possible to accurately assess the risk of offending “especially…when predictions are based on actuarially derived information rather than professional and clinical judgment” (p. 124). Measures such as previous offences, age, income and drug or alcohol dependency have been used successfully to predict criminal behaviour (Andrews ………. , 2003; Blackburn, 1993; Bonta, Law & Hanson, ………. Webster & Bailes, 2004). Despite this evidence many violent offenders are still being assessed using professional judgement rather than by actuarial measures (Polaschek ……. …………………… ).
  • 72. Question 6 Revised
    • The ability to predict the likelihood of criminals returning to crime is vital to those responsible for determining the release and management of offenders (Andrews & Bonta, 2003 ). Bonta, Law and Hanson (1998) assert that it is now possible to accurately assess the risk of offending “especially…when predictions are based on actuarially derived information rather than professional and clinical judgment” (p. 124). Measures such as previous offences, age, income and drug or alcohol dependency have been used successfully to predict criminal behaviour (Andrews & Bonta , 2003; Blackburn, 1993; Bonta, Law & Hanson, 1998; Webster & Bailes, 2004). Despite this evidence many violent offenders are still being assessed using professional judgement rather than by actuarial measures (Polaschek & Reynolds, 2004 ).
  • 73. Catch the Error #7
    • John Garrett Bretschneider and Nancy Lewis McCoy, 1968. Sexual Interest and Behavior in Healthy 80- 102-Year-Olds. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 14, pp. 343-350.
  • 74. Question 7 Revised
    • Bretschneider, J. G., & McCoy, N. L. (1968). Sexual interest and behavior in healthy 80- 102-year-olds. Archives of Sexual Behavior , 14 , 343-350.
    • Explanation: 1) only initials for first names; 2) year in parentheses followed by period; 3) lower case in article title; 4) italicize journal name and capitalize first letters; 5) no “Vol.,” just italicize; 6) no “pp.”; 7) hanging indent.
  • 75. Catch the Error #8
    • Hashimoto, Thomas. (March 13, 2000, p. 23). Seeing Red in November. Newsweek, vol. 199.
  • 76. Question 8 Revised
    • Hashimoto, T . ( 2000, March 13 ). Seeing red in November. Newsweek , 199 , 23.
    • Explanation: 1)Only initial for first name. 2)Year comes first, then comma, then month and day, all in parentheses. 3)Title of magazine is italicized, followed by comma, volume number italicized, then page number(s). 4)Hanging indent.
  • 77. Catch the Error #9
    • Hardy, G. E., Cahill, J., Stiles, W. B., Ispan, C., Macaskill, N., and Barkham, M. (2005, pp. 59-67). Sudden gains in cognitive therapy for depression: A replication and extension. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, volume 73.
  • 78. Question 9 Revised
    • Hardy, G. E., Cahill, J., Stiles, W. B., Ispan, C., Macaskill, N., & Barkham, M. (2005) . Sudden gains in cognitive therapy for depression: A replication and extension. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73 , 59-67 .
    • Explanation: 1)commas in between authors in list, Ampersand not ‘and’, 2) journal name in italics, 3)no pp. for journals and no need for ‘volume’ (ensure vol number is in italics).
  • 79. Catch the Error #10
    • When contacted on 1 st December, Habbib had no useful explanation except that “mistakes were made” (phone call, 2005).
  • 80. Question 10 Revised
    • When contacted, Habbib had no useful explanation except that “mistakes were made” (personal communication, December 1, 2005) .
    • Explanation: Use “personal communication” and exact date when citing telephone calls, letters, memos, personal interviews, etc. In-text citation only. You do not need to put this in the References section since the data is non-recoverable/non traceable.
  • 81. The Latest Edition
    • American Psychological Association. (2006). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6 th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
  • 82. Reminders
    • You don’t have to memorize all the rules. There are hundreds of APA style rules and lots of exceptions to the rules. Use reference sheets.
    • If you are planning to write scholarly papers for publication, get the book. Take it in slowly, not all at once. (Preserve your sanity.)
    • Have writing consultant review for conformity to APA style.
  • 83. Good Luck!
    • Jacqui Mooney
    • [email_address]
    • Sydney Jones Library, Room 110
    • (0151) 794 3940