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Social Media Based Courseware for ASEAN Open Education: Opportunity and New Challenge

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Khlaisang, J. (2013). Social Media Based Courseware for ASEAN Open Education: Opportunity and New Challenge. The Asia Regional OpenCourseWare and Open Education Conference 2012, organized by Japan …

Khlaisang, J. (2013). Social Media Based Courseware for ASEAN Open Education: Opportunity and New Challenge. The Asia Regional OpenCourseWare and Open Education Conference 2012, organized by Japan Opencourseware Consortium and Office of the Higher Education Commission, Thailand, January 21-22, 2013.

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  • 1. Khlaisang, J. (2013). Social Media Based Courseware for ASEAN Open Education: Opportunity andNew Challenge. The Asia Regional OpenCourseWare and Open Education Conference 2012, organized byJapan Opencourseware Consortium and Office of the Higher Education Commission, Thailand, January 21-22, 2013.Social Media Based Courseware for ASEAN Open Education:Opportunity and New ChallengeJintavee Khlaisang, Ed.D.Assistant ProfessorDepartment of Educational Technology and CommunicationsChulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandThailand Cyber University Projectjintavee.m@chula.ac.thABSTRACTThis paper is aimed at presentingviewpoints of the opportunity and new challengetowards the social media based courseware forOpen Education in ASEAN. The viewpoints sharedwere based on the information gathered from thetwo research studies titled “Proposed Models ofAppropriate Website and Courseware for E-Learning In Higher Education: Research BasedDesign Models” and “Analysis of the CulturalFactors Affecting the Proper Design of Website andElectronic Courseware for e-Learning in ASEAN”which were conducted by the author of this paper in2010 and 2012 respectively. In accordance to theresearch results, the similarity of the coursewarefeatures was proposed as the opportunity, while thedifferent features influenced by cultural factorstowards the ASEAN community were emphasizedas the new challenge.The addressed similarity included: (1) theextensive use of various types of social media, forexample, social web application for the activitybased courseware, and social interactive streamingvideo as a media to foster learners’ attention, aswell as to enhance their understanding, (2) thecourseware customized to the same group oflearners who shared the common manners of socialnetworking and characteristics of 21stcentury skillsin learning, and (3) the courseware shared thecommonly promise towards the concept of openeducation with emphasizing on the creativecommons license agreement and the OpenEducational Resources (OER) Declaration.Whereas the difference focused particularly on theinfluenced factor towards the design of thecourseware for the ASEAN community of learning,were comprised of: (1) history and ethnicity, (2)languages, and (3) wisdoms. As regards thementioned factors which presented a vast amount ofdifferences, the challenge would be how they couldbe integrated into well-designed and meaningfulcourseware to make them worth learning.Thus for, the proposed model of socialmedia based courseware with the integration ofsimilarity and difference is proposed as guideline topromote further implementation when consideringthe design and development of courseware used inopen education particularly for ASEAN learningcommunity which should to be all set by 2015.KeywordsASEAN Learning Community, Open Education, SocialMedia Based Courseware1) INTRODUCTIONThe diversity of culture in ASEAN countries hasaffected ASEAN learning community. Usinginfrastructure, Information and CommunicationTechnology (ICT), and education management was oneway to promote and create an understanding aboutASEAN culture. Nada et al. (1999) studied the effect ofICT on business, organizations, and culture and foundthat ICT has triggered changes in the business world.The lack of the careful use of technology may affectculture. Therefore, appropriate use of ICT, whichreflected the importance and responded to the diversityof culture, belief, values, and culture structure, shouldbe encouraged. This was in accordance with Thompsonand Thianthai (2008) who studied the opinion oflearners from eight out of ten counties in ASAENabout their attitude toward the understanding ofASEAN regarding the region, country information,cooperation, and information sources. It was found thatthe majority of learners needed to have knowledgeabout ASEAN culture which should be easy to access,simple, and could be studied from related documentand exchanged via the media channel. There shouldalso be a knowledge center for information searchingthat collected history of ASEAN countries. Therefore,it can be seen that ICT has helped facilitate theexchanging of information for the user.Online social media was one of the ICTfeatures which can be used for exchanging informationin learning community. At present there are variousonline social media that can be applied to educationcontext, especially e-Learning. This paper will presenta model of e-Learning courseware which is consideredan important element of e-Learning. This paper aimedat presenting viewpoints of the opportunity and newchallenge towards the social media based coursewarefor Open Education in ASEAN. The viewpoints sharedwere based on the information gathered from the tworesearch studies titled “Proposed Models ofAppropriate Website and Courseware for E-Learning
  • 2. In Higher Education: Research Based DesignModels” and “Analysis of the Cultural FactorsAffecting the Proper Design of Website andElectronic Courseware for e-Learning in ASEAN”which were conducted by the author of this paper in2010 and 2012 respectively. In accordance to theresearch results, the similarity of the coursewarefeatures was proposed as the opportunity, while thedifferent features influenced by cultural factorstowards the ASEAN community were emphasizedas the new challenge.2) SIMILARITY AS AN OPPORTUNITYThe similarity of social media based coursewarewhich was considered as the opportunity included:(1) the extensive use of various types of socialmedia (2) the courseware customized to the samegroup of learners with similar characteristic of 21stcentury learners, and (3) the courseware shared thecommonly promise towards the concept of openeducation. The details are as follows:2.1 The extensive use of various types of socialmediaCourseware that used social media can be dividedinto two types: (1) social web application for theactivity based courseware, such as web applicationof Google Drives, including Google Docs, GoogleDrawing, and Google Form. These webapplications enabled instructors to prepare contentsfor activity-based learning. Social media was usedfor sharing information, communicating, creatingparticipation in activities, and evaluating. Atpresent there are several information sharingmethods, such as sharing photos via Flickr(http://www.flickr.com) which was created byCambridge University (figures 1-2) and viaPinterest (https://pinterest.com) created by DukeUniversity (figure 3); and (2) social interactivestreaming video was used, emphasizing as a mediato foster learners’ attention, as well as to enhancetheir understanding such as e-courseware viaiTuneU and YouTube as shown in Figure 4. Apartfrom the mentioned multimedia courseware, theauthor proposed a model of streaming videocourseware to present a case study. The coursewareoffered options for learners to select using theirreasons through brainstorming activity. Learnerswill not only learn contents, but also practice theircognitive skills such as analyzing, reasoning, andusing logic. The courseware was interactive andconnected with YouTube as shown in figure 5.Figure 1: Example of Cambridge University homepagethat used various types of social mediaFigure 2: Social media on Cambridge Universityhomepage (http://www.cam.ac.uk)Figure 3: Sharing photos via Pinterest created by DukeUniversity (https://pinterest.com/dukeuniversity)Figure 4: Social Media Based Courseware via iTuneUof Open University (http://open.edu/itunes)
  • 3. Figure 5: Social Media Based Courseware usingstreaming video via YouTube presenting a casestudy to create learners’ cognitive skills2.2 The courseware customized to the same groupof learners who shared the common manners ofsocial networking and characteristics of 21stcentury skills in learningLearners in ASEAN community of learning are ofthe same group, since they all were from digitalgeneration and had high networking skills. Socialmedia based courseware for this group of learnerswill support the learning of learners of 21stcenturywho were born during 1982-2004, or were between8-30 years old. The characteristics of this group oflearners was that they liked technology, Internet,communication and interaction (especially onlinecontext), and options. They liked to do several tasksat the same time and they were creative and good atinformation searching (especially onlineinformation). The changing of learners’characteristics has prompted instructors to changetheir teaching methods; from giving informationand passive learning to be guiding and allowinglearners to search for information as an activelearning. In accordance with twenty-first centurystudent outcomes consisting of 4 outcomes: CoreSubjects, Life and Career Skills, Learning andInnovation Skills, and Information, Media andTechnology Skills (http://www.p21.org), e-Learning and the use of social media basedcourseware clearly responded and supported 21stcentury learning. For example, informationsearching, communication and interaction,especially in online context, will not only helplearners to develop information, media, andtechnology skills, but also support the learning ofcore subjects and life and career skills. Whenlearners see different examples and have anopportunity to communicate and interact with otherpeople, they will create learning and innovationskills.Figure 6: 21st century skills for Learning(Schrumand Levin, 2009)2.3 The courseware shared the commonly promisetowards the concept of open education withemphasizing on the creative commons licenseagreement and the Open Educational Resources(OER) DeclarationThe outstanding features of today popular social mediabased courseware were an easy access and the furtherinteraction from the learning content. Another equallyimportant feature was that several social media basedcourseware attempted to promote the use of contents towider users and the public such as sharing presentationvia Slideshare (http://www.slideshare.net). However,there was still a limit of the rights to use suchdistributed contents under the terms that the users hadto publish their own work, so that they can use thework of others. From such restriction, a group ofscholars and various educational organizationsproposed the concept of public knowledge. Users wereallowed to use contents and, sometimes, adaptedcontents to their own context. This licensing was calledCreative Commons (CC) license. It mentioned thatintellectual property was the halfway point betweenprivacy rights and liberalization, as shown in the figure7. The CC has been well received as several countrieshave adopted the idea and published the CC in theirown language, as shown in the figure 8. Manyacademic organizations initiated projects that helpedstrengthen open education to give people a widereducation opportunity. Example of anorganization/institute which had a strong premise,UNESCO initiated 2012 Paris OER Declaration, whileMassachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT was anearly institute that initiated this kind of project asshown in figures 9-11.
  • 4. Figure 7: International Creative Common onhttp://creativecommons.orgFigure 8: Thailand’s Creative Common onhttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/thFigure 9: 2012 Paris OER Declaration byUNESCO (http://www.unescobkk.org) and wastranslated into Thai Language by Office of OnlineEducation,Sripatum University, ThailandFigure 10: MIT OpenCourseware(http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm)Figure 11: Creative Common License of MITOpenCourseware, meaning anyone can create a newversion of this work and you mist licensethe new work under a Non-CommercialShare Alike licenseAnother public resource was Merlot(Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning andOnline Teaching) (http://www.merlot.org), an initiativeproject of the University of California State Universityin cooperation with educational institutions,professional organizations, and the private sector.Merlot Consortium was a resource searching toolwhich can be compared to a library. It collectededucational resources from instructors and scholarsfrom around the world, including Learning Object,lesson plans, and media in various types such as video,images, audio, multimedia. However, this searchingtool stored only content index into library index whichlinked to a reliable academic website. It did not keepthe content. There was also a peer review system toimprove the quality of the content. Users can use thecontent for academic purposes and they can share theircontent through this website for education benefit ofothers.Figure 12: MERLOT Open Educational Resource:OER (http://www.merlot.org)3) DIFFERENCE AS A CHALLENGEThe similarity of social media based courseware wasconsidered as the opportunity including: (1) theextensive use of various types of social media, (2) thecourseware customized to the same group of learnerswith similar characteristic of 21stcentury learners, and(3) the courseware shared the commonly promisetowards the concept of open education. However, inASEAN learning community, the diversity anddifference in culture cannot be ignored. The differentfeatures which were consider as the challenge focusingparticularly on the influenced factors towards thedesign of the courseware for the ASEAN communityof learning, were comprised of: (1) history and
  • 5. ethnicity (2) languages and (3) wisdoms as thefollowing details.3.1 History and EthnicityThe study titled "Analysis of the Cultural FactorsAffecting the Proper Design of Website andElectronic Courseware for e-Learning in ASEAN"found that there were 13 variables in the historicaland ethnic differences, including (1) Emphasize onthe cultural uniqueness and reflection of eachcountry in ASEAN, (2) Consider relation betweendifferent cultural contents in each country, (3) Havethe design that enables learners to access thediversity of culture of each country, (4) Presentoriginal story but modify the presentation to bemore interesting, (5) Present native fiction andfolklore, (6) Present contents related to localinformation of countries in ASEAN, (7) Presenttraditional art of countries in ASEAN, (8) Combinelocal historical contents of each country, (9) Presentthe uniqueness of each country’s local culture, (10)Present the history of the precious heritage, historicsites, and artifacts, (11) Combine a variety of mediato present each country’s culture, (12) Present thelifestyle of living of each country, and (13) Presentthe history of the race.This was consistent with the reviewedliterature by Marcus and Reinhard (1998) whichfound that the development of courseware to offerknowledge in museum and culture by designing andusing media that contained self-study elements(HTML, Java, images) had to connect the processof learning to the curriculum. The design ofhypermedia should allow learners to choose thecontent they wish to study. Different media shouldbe available to suit learners’ interest by integratingvarious media in the design.3.2 LanguagesThere were three variables in language elements:(1) Have official language subtitle, (2) HaveEnglish subtitle, and (3) Have dialect subtitle. Theconclusion from the research was consistent withthe reviewed literature. The research of Sabriet al(2010) found that electronic courseware wasproduced to be supplemental media to help learnersimprove their pronunciation as they can hear thecorrect pronunciation of the original language.There was also the dictionary and animations thatcreate concrete learning. Three signs that showedthe improvement of pronunciation were evaluationduring the course, adding English version in thelesson.3.3 WisdomsThere were three variables in wisdom elements: (1)Design course content to be according to educationlevel in different countries in ASEAN, (2) Includeinformation on the local knowledge management ofcountries in ASEAN, and (3) Link similar or relatedinformation of each country.This was consistent with the reviewedliterature by Kitiya Tilawanna (2005) which foundthat when designing courseware, it should containcontent related to the local. The course should bedesigned by according to local education level.4) PROPOSED OF SOCIAL MEDIA BASEDCOURSEWARE FOR ASEAN OPENEDUCATIONThe above three elements were only examples of thedirect factors of cultural variables that affected on thedesigning and developing of courseware. The researchtitled “Analysis of the Cultural Factors Affecting theProper Design of Website and Electronic Coursewarefor e-Learning in ASEAN” proposed the model asshown in figure 13. Details of elements and variablescan be studied from the mentioned research study.DF 1 = History and Ethnicity (direct factor) 13variablesDF 2 = Language (direct factor) 3 variablesDF 3 = Wisdoms (direct factor) 3 variablesDF 4 = Religion (direct factor) 2 variablesDF 5 = Law (direct factor) 6 variablesIF 1 = Screen design (indirect factor) 6 variablesIF 2 = Content design (indirect factor) 25 variablesIF 3 = Multimedia (indirect factor) 5 variablesFigure 13: Proper design of electronic courseware fore-Learning in ASEAN and the culturalfactors affecting the design of coursewareFrom the results obtained from the research, therewere suggestions about proper electronic coursewareelements for e-Learning in ASEAN which can beapplied as follows:1. The design of electronic courseware shouldemphasize on using open educational resources (OER),including open courseware and open content fromvarious website such as MIT Open Courseware andMERLOT.2. The OER content which was used in thecourseware should emphasize on Virtual Lab, VirtualMuseum, or videos that showed that the culture of eachcountry in ASEAN such as wisdom, arts and culturefor example, The Cultural VR Lab.3. Electronic courseware should focus on the useof social media to exchange knowledge for example
  • 6. Merlot.org and Slideshare.net. Learners should beboth recipients and providers.4. Electronic courseware will change thedesign of multimedia to share more information andbecome more simple design, such as E-Book fromwebsite and will be used as a part of teaching andlearning activities in activity-based learning,resource-based learning, and a combination ofpedagogy such as problem-based learning andproject-based learning.5) SUMMARYThe author intended to present the viewpoints onsocial media based courseware for ASEAN OpenEducation: Opportunity and New Challenge byintegrating the similar features and challenging thedifferent features to be a guideline for designingand developing courseware that can respond toopen education and challenges of learning societyin ASEAN community. Regarding the similarity,the author considered the design of social mediabased courseware, groups of learners, and the ideaof extending knowledge to the public which willhelp strengthen open education. As for thedifference, the author emphasized on understandingthe social and cultural context, including history,ethnicity, language and wisdoms or indirect factorswhich might be overlooked. However, both havethe same proposes which are to support and preparethe country for entry into ASEAN. Therefore, theproposed model of social media based coursewareis proposed as guideline to promote furtherimplementation when considering the design anddevelopment of courseware used in open educationparticularly for ASEAN learning community whichshould to be all set by 2015.6) ACKNOWLEDGMENTThis paper was based on the two research studiestitled “Proposed Models of Appropriate Websiteand Courseware for E-Learning In HigherEducation: Research Based Design Models” and“Analysis of the Cultural Factors Affecting theProper Design of Website and ElectronicCourseware for e-Learning in ASEAN” which wereconducted by the author of this paper in 2010 and2012 respectively. The two research studies werefunded by Thailand University Project, Office ofHigher Education Commission, Ministry ofEducation. The author would like to thank advisors,scholars, and experts for their help and support increating new knowledge via this paper to strengthenthe educational technology field.7) REFERENCES[1] Khlaisang, J. (2012). Analysis of the Cultural FactorsAffecting the Proper Design of Website andElectronic Courseware for e-Learning in ASEAN.Proceedings of The 26th Annual Conference ofAsian Association of Open Universities(AAOU2012), organized by the Open University ofJapan and Association of Open Universities, Chiba,Japan, October 16-18, 2012.[2] Khlaisang, J. (2012). Proper Design of Website andElectronic Courseware for e-Learning in ASEAN:Cultural framework for Consideration. Proceedings ofThe National e-Learning Conference (NEC 2012):Integrating ASEAN Online Learning: Policy andProcess, organized by Thailand Cyber University, Officeof Higher Education Commission, August 16-18, 2012.[3] Khlaisang, J. (2011). E-Learning Website andCourseware : Current State and Future Trends.Proceedings of The National e-Learning Conference:Open Learning - Open the World (NEC 2011),organized by Thailand Cyber University, Office ofHigher Education Commission, August 9-10, 2011: pp.49-58.[4] Khlaisang, J. (2010). Proposed Models AppropriateWebsite and Courseware for E-Learning in HigherEducation: Research Based Design Models. Proceedingsof the E-Learning 2010: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, &Higher Education, organized by the Association for theAdvancement of Computing in Education, Orlando,Florida, U.S.A. October 18-22, 2010. Pp. 1520-1529.[5] Tilawanna, K. (2005). The Construction of coursewareon omniscient Muang Ratchaburi for Mathayonsuksa1 students in Wat Khao Wang (Saeng Chuangsuwanit)School. Master Thesis, Department of EducationalTechnology, Faculty of Education. Kasetsart University,Bangkok Thailand.[6] Marcus Specht and Reinhard Oppermann. 1998. SpecialIssue: Adaptivity and User Modelling in HypermediaSystems; Hypermedia for Museums and CulturalHeritage . ACE - adaptive courseware environment.4(1), 1998 : 141-161 pp.[7] Nada Korac-Kakabadse, Alexander Kouzmin. 1999.Designing x for cultural diversity in an IT and globalizingmilieu: Some real leadership dilemmas for the newmillennium. Journal of Management Development.18(3), 291 - 319 pp.[8] Sabriet, N.M.; Mohamed, H.; Goh Ying Soon.Enhancement of Mandarin courseware through formativeevaluation. Computer Sciences and ConvergenceInformation Technology (ICCIT), 2010 5thInternational Conference on Nov. 30 2010-Dec. 2 2010:212-215 pp.[9] Schrum, Lynne M. and Levin, Barbara B. (2009).Leading 21st-Century Schools: HarnessingTechnology for Engagement and Achievement. UnitedKingdom: SAGE Company.[10] Thompson, E.C. and Thianthai, C. (2008). Attitudesand Awareness toward ASEAN: Summary of Findingsfrom a Ten Nation Survey (Summary Report), Jakarta:The ASEAN Foundation.8) WEBSITES[1] Cambridge University (http://www.cam.ac.uk)[2] Creative Commons (http://creativecommons.org)[3] Duke Universitys Pinterest(https://pinterest.com/dukeuniversity)[4] MERLOT (http://www.merlot.org)[5] MIT Open Courseware (http://ocw.mit.edu)[6] Open Universitys iTuneU (http://open.edu/itunes)[7] Thailand’s Creative Common(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/th)[8] YouTube (http://www.youtube.com)[9] 21stcentury skills for learning (http://www.p21.org)

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