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  1. 1. 1.3a Mortality and Influencing Factors There are four important measures of interest to the geographer when mortality of a population is considered. They are: Crude Death Rate Age-specific Death Rate Life Expectancy Infant Mortality
  2. 2. 1.3b Mortality-definitions <ul><li>The crude death rate is the number of deaths in the population per 1000 people per annum. </li></ul><ul><li>The age-specific death rate—a mortality rate that concentrates on a particular sex and age within a population. </li></ul><ul><li>This is needed since mortality does not strike males and females or all age groups at the same rate. For example, heart disease is more prevalent in older generations than younger and only women are exposed to complications resulting from pregnancy or childbirth. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1.3c Mortality -Definitions <ul><li>The life expectancy is the number of years a child born into a particular population in a certain year can be expected to live to. Life expectancy can be influenced by many factors, one of which is gender. For this reason, male and female life expectancies differ and are calculated separately. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1.3d Mortality – definitions (continued) <ul><li>If the average life expectancy is given, this means that male and female expectancies are taken together. </li></ul><ul><li>Infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths beneath the age of one year and is expressed as a count per 1000 live births </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1.3e Factors Influencing Mortality <ul><li>Age and Sex (as stated above) </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation and Wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Housing Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Health Care </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Clean Water and Food </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1.3f Mortality – Influencing Factors <ul><li>The list above represents just some of the common influencing factors. In truth mortality can come in many different forms and for different reasons depending on where the population lives and how it governs itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Again these factors can be grouped into sociocultural and economic factors. But also environmental factors. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1.3g Special Reference to Infant Mortality <ul><li>This illustrates the link between development and demography. The countries with the lowest infant mortalities are MEDC’s </li></ul><ul><li>These countries do not have food or water shortages, they are politically stable and the population is generally well educated </li></ul>4.05 Andorra 3.97 Czech Republic 3.94 Malta 3.73 Norway 3.59 Finland 3.31 Iceland 3.28 Japan 2.97 Hong Kong 2.77 Sweden 2.28 Singapore Infant Mortality as deaths/1000 live births Country World's top 10 countries with lowest Infant Mortalities
  8. 8. 1.3h Infant Mortality <ul><li>LEDC’s have much higher infant Mortalities. Countries from Africa and SE Asia dominate the lower rankings. </li></ul><ul><li>In LEDC’s, fertility rates are high. Access to food and water maybe severely restricted and some nations are plagued by civil war or social unrest. Access to education, particularly for women is also a major contributing factor to high infant mortality. </li></ul>Data source: Adapted from: http// 192.50 Angola 165.96 Afghanistan 145.24 Sierra Leone 137.08 Mozambique 130.51 Liberia 122.66 Niger 118.52 Somalia 117.99 Mali 112.10 Tajikistan 108.72 Guinea-Bissau Infant Mortality as deaths/1000 live births Country World's bottom 10 countries with highest Infant Mortalities
  9. 9. 1.3i Infant Mortality-Influencing Factors <ul><li>The birth interval, that is the number of years between the birth of children, significantly influences infant mortality. The lower the average birth interval, the higher the infant mortality is likely to be. </li></ul><ul><li>Order of birth—In some nations the first born child has a greater chance of surviving into adulthood as parents are able to invest more time into caring for its needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Sex of baby—some societies, (reputedly parts of China for example), openly favoured birth of males. </li></ul><ul><li>Education of Mother—Particularly in matters of hygiene and disease management. </li></ul>