1.2a Fertility and Influencing Factors Fertility can be measured in several different ways which can sometimes make the topic confusing. It is therefore important to distinguish between the main types of fertility so that confusion is minimised.
1.2b Fertility-Measures <ul><li>Fertility Rate—this is the number of children born to women of child-bearing age. </li></ul><ul><li>Total Fertility Rate (TFR)—this is the number of children a woman in a particular population is expected to have during her lifetime based on current birth rates for that particular population. TFR’s can be calculated at the local, national and global scale. For example, the TFR for the world is a little over three. </li></ul>
1.2c Fertility Measures <ul><li>Birth Rate—the proportion of a population that is newborn. </li></ul><ul><li>Crude Birth Rate—the most frequent measure of fertility-it is the number of live births per annum compared to the total population and is expressed numerically per 1000. </li></ul><ul><li>Fecundity. </li></ul>
1.2d Which factors influence fertility? <ul><li>Education of women or literacy rates </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Personal choices </li></ul><ul><li>Standard of living and wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality rates and infant mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Health issues </li></ul><ul><li>political policy--incentives/disincentives </li></ul>
1.2e Grouping the influences <ul><li>The previous list of factors can be more conveniently grouped under headings such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural factors </li></ul><ul><li>Economic factors </li></ul>
Percentage of women of child bearing age and fertility rates Fertility rate % women of child bearing age 3.3 5 50 46 World 2.1 3.9 49 42 High Income countries 3.2 5 49 45 Middle income countries 3.8 6 51 46 Low Income countries 1991 1970 1991 1965
1.2f Sociocultural Examples For some communities abortion is simply not an option. Attitudes and Values Devout Catholicism for example prohibits the use of some forms of contraception (e.g. the condom). Religion Disease, particularly the AIDS virus in Botswana, Africa. Here the TFR of 2.85 is significantly below the world average of 3.1 due to a higher than usual mortality rate of women of child-bearing age. Health Care In LEDC's many children are needed to assist with generating income in labour intensive industries like farming. In MEDC's secondary and tertiary industries dominate and laws prohibit child labour. Nature of Employment As above, but sometimes a lack of education about matters such as child birth and contraceptive measures can lead to higher fertility rates. Low Literacy Rates In some Sub Saharan African nations women have limited access to an education and are expected to tend crops and raise families. In such countries the TFR is high. The Status of Women Example Sociocultural Examples
1.2g Economic Influences <ul><li>In MEDC’s the high cost of rearing children has lead to falling fertility and negative population growth </li></ul><ul><li>In LEDC’s where the economy is predominantly agrarian, fertility remains high. </li></ul>
1.2h Spatial Patterns <ul><li>Orange=above replacement level. </li></ul><ul><li>yellow=replacement level. </li></ul><ul><li>Blue =below replacement level. </li></ul><ul><li>2.1 is the rate required to achieve a replacement level in the population. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, 61 countries have a TFR of 2.1 or less. </li></ul><ul><li>The USA has the highest TFR in the “Western World” of 2.1. </li></ul>Europe 1.1 197 Czech Republic Europe/Asia 1.2 191 Russia Europe 1.5 170 Sweden Europe 1.7 154 UK Oceania 2 134 New Zealand North America 2.1 129 USA Europe 2.5 116 Turkey Asia 3.5 77 Philippines Africa 5.2 45 Ivory Coast Africa 6.4 14 Malawi Africa 7.3 2 Somalia Africa 7.5 1 Niger Continent Fertility Children/woman World Rank Selected Country
Non-replacement of the population <ul><li>Anxiety amongst MEDC’s </li></ul><ul><li>Weaken a countries position in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting an ageing population </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by better health and welfare provision </li></ul><ul><li>Improved pre-natal care </li></ul><ul><li>Emancipation of women </li></ul><ul><li>High cost of child care </li></ul><ul><li>High cost of housing </li></ul><ul><li>Government Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in reproductive age sector </li></ul>
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