Education Situation


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A Philippine education situationer by Youth Against Debt and Freedom from Debt Coalition

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Education Situation

  1. 1. Education Situation Youth Against Debt Freedom from Debt Coalition
  2. 2. Policy Gaps, Flawed Framework
  3. 3. The Philippine Education Sector can be described as gradually being transferred from the public to the private sector. 1. Section 42 of Batas Pambansa 232 or the Education Act of 1982 2. RA 6782 or Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education (GASTPE). 3. RA 7772 or Higher Education Act of 1994. 4. Section 4 of RA 8292 or the Higher Education Modernization Act (HEMA) of 1997. Privatized, Deregulated and Commercialized Philippine Education
  4. 4. 1. Section 42 of Batas Pambansa 232 or the Education Act of 1982 allows private schools to determine the rate of its school fees without regulation. Supreme Court ruled in 153 SCRA 622 (Philippine Consumer’s Foundation vs. Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports) that the power to regulate school fees devolves to the Department of Education Nonetheless, there is a lack of a mechanism to mitigate the impact of deregulation to the education cost, given that DepEd don’t have any regulatory powers. Policy Gaps in the Education Sector
  5. 5. 2. RA 6782 or Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education (GASTPE). While Section 10 of GASTPE requires consultations before any increase is to be made, it does not guarantee bargaining powers to consulted parties. No mechanisms that would prevent these consultations from being mere announcements of fee increases Policy Gaps in the Education Sector
  6. 6. 3. RA 7772 or Higher Education Act of 1994. The RA that created the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) failed to give CHED the ff. powers: a. to regulate tuition increases, and b. to stringently penalize violators. Even if it is the policy of the state to privatize the education sector, no provisions that would empower CHED to regulate and stabilize private education cost No mechanisms to ensure accountability on the part of CHED Policy Gaps in the Education Sector
  7. 7. 4. Section 4 of RA 8292 or the Higher Education Modernization Act (HEMA) of 1997. Supplements corporatization Governing boards of SUCs given the power to engage in private and profit-oriented transactions Facilitates the slow relinquishing of state responsibility on education, since it forces SUCs to find other means to sustain its own operations. Inconsistent with the mandated policy of the state (as stipulated in the constitution) to prioritize education in the allocation of its resources. Policy Gaps in the Education Sector
  8. 8. The Philippine Education System lacks a clear national policy. Crucial in determining the role and position of the education sector in the whole schema of social production. Especially true for higher education, since we (wrongly) assign to it the function of training our labor sector Governed by the policy of trifocalization. The current education paradigm treats vocational- technical education for basic production as extrinsically separate and independent of basic and higher education. May have been caused by the difference of the three levels in terms of cost. For example, basic education is supposedly universally free, and there is an option later whether to pursue vocational- technical education or a much more expensive higher education. The Philippine Education System
  9. 9. Basic (primary and secondary) education is unable to capacitate the labor pool to a level of competence apt for specialized training due to lack of government and private investment for a quality education system. Due to this incapacity, the populace had been conditioned to view primary and secondary schooling only as preparations for college, thus resulting in the relegation of much of the tertiary education to skills training. In this case, we have higher education system only serving to bridge the gap between the technical skills of the existing workforce (produced by secondary education) and the demands of the labor market. The Philippine Education System
  10. 10. As a social reaction to the emergent problems of this education framework, there is a trend towards tying vocational-technical education with higher education. College courses being offered gradually begin to reflect the technical needs of the booming industries, such as healthcare and ICT (Information Communication Technology). There had also been proposals to create college programs that are modularized to include technical education, so one receives a technical education diploma sometime along the middle of the college program. The Philippine Education System
  11. 11. Because of the service-oriented nature of labor demand, and the current framework of higher education only as a bridge between the basic education institutions and the labor market, private sector investment in higher education only serves to offer training for service industries. Labor demand remains to be services-oriented because private sector investment in higher education is focused solely on existing labor market demand and not on a specific industrialization strategy. The government is currently supporting a labor- exportation policy, primarily compelled by low internal employment rate and the macroeconomic value of foreign currency remittances of Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW). The Philippine Education System
  12. 12. Trends in Basic Education Sector Some figures from Prof. Benjamin Diokno, 2007
  13. 13. Neglecting Education Public expenditures on education in some ASEAN countries, 2004 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 INDONESIA PHILIPPINES THAILAND MALAYSIA 1.1 3.2 4.2 8.1 9 17.8 27.5 20.3 PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON EDUC AS % OF GDP PUBLIC EXPENDITURES ON EDUC AS % OF TOTAL GOV'T EXPENDITURES Source: Benjamin Diokno, 2007, citing World Bank
  14. 14. Left Behind Completion Rates in Percentage 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 66.13 66.33 66.95 59.32 59.07 56.76 70.62 69.97 59.9 63.14 64.77 54.14 Elementary Level Secondary Level Source: Benjamin Diokno, Real State of the Nation, 20 July 2007, citing DepEd
  15. 15. Giving Up, Losing Opportunities Drop-out Rates in Percentage 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Elementary Level Secondary Level Source: Benjamin Diokno, Real State of the Nation, 20 July 2007, citing DepEd
  16. 16. Lagging Behind Rank and Score of Higher Education 2006 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 CAMBODIA VIET NAM PHILIPPINES INDONESIA THAILAND MALAYSIA SINGAPORE 110 90 63 53 42 32 10 2.63 3.39 4.02 4.25 4.44 4.8 5.59 SCORE RANK Source: Benjamin Diokno, Real State of the Nation, 20 July 2007, citing World Economic Forum
  17. 17. Trends in Higher Education Sector An Analysis by Youth Against Debt (YAD)
  18. 18. Exodus to Public HEIs Costs in Private Higher Education Institutions (HEI) are going up beyond people’s ability to pay. This forces students to transfer to Public HEI (SUCs, LUCs, etc.). Average Net Increase of Students per HEI 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Public Private Growth rate for private Schools dips, despite increase in new entrants.
  19. 19. SUCs cannot Accomodate But, the meager SUC budget cannot simply capacitate our SUCs to absorb the college entrants. New SUC Budget per College Entrant (4,000) (2,000) - 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 1995-1996 1996-1997 1997-1998 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003  SUCs will thus be forced to past the cost to the students. The UP System, for example, recently hiked tuition by 300%.
  20. 20. Result: College Enrollment Dips Students thus, not being able to afford any school at all, have nowhere to go. This slows down net growth of college students. Less and less people are enrolling in college. This trend will inevitably take its toll on our economy, which will have a decreasing supply of skilled labor. -4.00% -2.00% 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Net Increase in College Students Growth Rate
  21. 21. The Delors Standard, Education Spending, and Debt Servicing An Analysis by the Freedom from Debt Coalition (FDC)
  22. 22. UNESCO on 21st Century Education In 1996, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) formed the International Commission on Education for the 21st Century (a.k.a. the Delors Commission) Headed by Jacques Delors, stated that “in confronting the many challenges that the future holds in store, humankind sees in education an indispensable asset in its attempt to attain the ideals of peace, freedom and social justice”. “Education is a human right and an essential tool for achieving the goals of equality, development and peace.”
  23. 23. The Delors Standard This Delors Commission pegs real education expenditure at 6% of the Gross National Product (GNP) for developing nations such as the Philippines. The international benchmark set by Delors was adopted by UNESCO. This is to increase the skills and knowledge of the would-be labor sector of the country.
  24. 24. Education Spending of Various Countries (2002, UNESCO)
  25. 25. Education Spending of Various Countries (2002, UNESCO)
  26. 26. 0.00% 0.50% 1.00% 1.50% 2.00% 2.50% 3.00% 3.50% 4.00% 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Ramos Estrada Arroyo 3.30% 3.76% 3.80% 3.53% 3.34% 3.13% 2.97% 2.79% 2.45% 2.23% 2.20% 2.26% Education Spending as % of GNP
  27. 27. Education Spending and Relative Wealth of Countries We decided to test if there is a correlation between education spending as % of GNI/GNP, and GDP per capita in PPP (purchasing power parity, US dollars), of 83 countries in the year 2004, using UNESCO Institute for Statistics data. The resulting correlation coefficient is 0.468412 < .5, indicating mild correlation between the two variables. This only proves that to some degree, the wealth of the country is proportional to its education spending.
  28. 28. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 - 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 45,000 EducationSpendingperGNI,inpercent GDP per Capita, PPP, in US$ Scatter Diagram of 83 Countries Philippines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Denmark Chad Kenya
  29. 29. Education Spending and Relative Wealth of Countries But let us look for countries with similar income per capita as the Philippines. Are they spending the same for education? Only war-torn Lebanon is fractionally higher than the Philippines. All others are spending above 5% of their GNI to education. Thus, education under- spending is mostly a matter of national policy. UNESCO 2004 data GDP per Capita, PPP, in US$ Education Spending as % of GNI Cape Verde 5,449 6.23 Lebanon 5,422 2.51 Philippines 4,834 2.36 Swaziland 4,646 6.24 Guyana 4,482 5.35
  30. 30. - 50.0 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0 300.0 350.0 400.0 450.0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Ramos Estrada Arroyo Education Spending vs. Delors Required Education Spending (in billions) 6% of GNP Education Spending
  31. 31. Years and Admin. Ramos Estrada Arroyo 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 in billion pesos 6% of GNP 135.7 151.4 168.9 188.2 209.8 232.6 253.4 277.9 314.9 353.1 394.2 436.5 Education Spending 74.7 95.0 106.9 110.6 116.8 121.5 125.4 129.0 128.8 131.2 144.2 164.1 Delors Gap 61.0 56.4 62.1 77.6 93.0 111.1 128.0 148.9 186.1 221.9 250.0 272.4 Delors Gap Total 1,668.5 in percentage Education Spending as % of GNP 3.30 3.76 3.80 3.53 3.34 3.13 2.97 2.79 2.45 2.23 2.20 2.26
  32. 32. Where did the money go? There is no exact answer to that, but let take a look at where government spending goes. While there are many answers to this question ranging from corruption, obese pork barrel allocations to unnecessary spending, one way of knowing is by looking deeply into our debt problem. Due to the policy of prioritizing debt payments as mandated by the automatic debt servicing provision as provided for by Sec. 26(b) of the Revised Administrative Code of 1987, administrations have been investing much less in social services in terms of percentage.
  33. 33. Education vs. Interest Payments 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Ramos Estrada Arroyo Education Spending as percent of the Budget Interest Payments for Debt as percent of the budget
  34. 34. 154 347 1,783 2,284 117 233 1,318 1,668 - 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 Ramos (96-97) Estrada (98-00) Arroyo (02-07) Combined (96-07) Delors Gap vs. Interest Payments (in billions) Total Interest Payments Total, Delors Gap
  35. 35. Neglecting Education 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Marcos Aquino Ramos Estrada Arroyo Basic Education Spending per pupil
  36. 36. - 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Aquino Ramos Estrada Arroyo Suffer the Future Debt per capita vs. Health, Education per capita Health per capita (deflated) Education per capita (deflated) Debt payment per capita (deflated)
  37. 37. What was lost? - 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Ramos Estrada Arroyo Additional Classrooms that could have been built if Delors required spending was followed PhP 400,000 / classroom 2000 prices •Php 375,000 infra •30 books •30 chairs
  38. 38. Recommendations for an Alternative Public Higher Education System
  39. 39. A Strong, Sustainable Higher Education System Moratorium on fee increases in public HEIs. So as not to compromise the fiscal standing of public HEIs about to increase its tuition and other fees, economic relief equal to the projected increase should be provided by the State upon justification of immediate and substantial need. Republic Act 7722 or the Higher Education Act of 1994 must be amended to increase the power of CHED in regulating and stabilizing tuition and other school fees. The amendment must include the power to impose fee increase cap and the power to prosecute in incidents of violation. Section 42 of Batas Pambansa 232 or the Education Act of 1982 which deregulates school fee increases must be amended Following the Supreme Court ruling in 153 SCRA 622 which states that the power to regulate school fees devolves to the education departments
  40. 40. Multi-sectoral School Fee Boards in all private and public HEIs. Composed of an equal number of representatives from the administration, academic and non-academic personnel, parents/guardians, students and alumni association Concurrent with the strengthening of pre-basic (e.g. Early Childhood Care and Development or ECCD) and basic education (primary and secondary) Using the Education for All (EFA) framework, technical training should gradually be infused to secondary education through establishing greater coordination with TESDA and DepEd, Instead of relegating the task of technical training to higher education. A Strong Developmental Higher Education System
  41. 41. Public HEIs must be subjected to a periodic review, which will ascertain: Effectively performing public HEIs, based on a certain benchmark pegged on international standards For non-performing HEI’s, how much performance was a function of resource input (to determine potentially performing HEIs) Best academic and management practices, which will be documented and used as a resource by all HEIs Transition to a Strong Developmental Higher Ed System
  42. 42. Performing HEIs must be capacitated to a degree which will enable it to absorb the demand for non-performing HEIs in proximate locations. Local and national development demands shall be considered when expanding. In this modified outcome-based financing, both the potential and actual outcome are assessed These performing HEI are in essence competing with these HEIs for students, which gradually weeds out non- performing HEIs without compromising the capacity to accept entrants and to offer those entrants quality education. Regionalized return-of-service programs must be strengthened. Transition to a Strong Developmental Higher Ed System
  43. 43. Participatory Education Budgeting Student groups must consider advocating for a multi-stakeholder, participatory budget process in their respective public universities. The students must proactively and critically engage the administration in developing the school’s budget (or at least, the budget it will proposed in the DBM and CHED) Instead of the administration solely developing the budget, and instead of the students merely calling for higher state subsidy
  44. 44. Protecting Student Rights, Upholding Student Welfare
  45. 45. The constitution guarantees all citizens concrete civil and political liberties such as the freedom of the press, assembly, and organization. The studentry, being citizens themselves, should thus be capacitated to enjoy and exercise such liberties, with governing institutions designed in such as way that they will respect and protect these rights. Moreover, since education is perceived to be the engine with which we perpetuate our societal values, the way we do education should above all reflect the progressive ideals our democratic society – thus the continuing need to proactively establish an intellectually free, equal-opportunity learning environment. The Continuing Need for a Magna Carta of Students
  46. 46. But while our ideals and laws do require those conditions, the status quo continuously fails to deliver. This is actually due to certain statutory inadequacies, in particular: The arbitrary and non-uniform standards and procedures imposed by school administrators on students regarding democratic and education rights; Lack of student awareness of these rights; The Continuing Need for a Magna Carta of Students
  47. 47. Lack of democratic space and institutions which will negotiate for the interest of the students; Lack of stakeholders’ representation and channels for participation in the fundamental formulation of policies, despite the multi-sectoral effects of these decisions; and Lack of punitive mechanism against violators of education statutes which will discharge justice, guarantee compensation to aggrieved, and act as a deterrent for future violations. The Continuing Need for a Magna Carta of Students
  48. 48. Magna Carta of Students hopes to a comprehensive set of solutions which will protect student rights, to forward their welfare, and assure basic services for them. Aims to increase the democratic space within campuses, ensuring that students can exercise constitutional liberties such as the freedom to organize and empowering them to participate in policy-making. Establishes punitive mechanism to discharge justice, guarantee compensation to the aggrieved, act as deterrent for future violations. The Continuing Need for a Magna Carta of Students
  49. 49. To be effective, the Magna Carta should have three primary components. It should have: 1. Provisions on student rights, welfare, and basic services. 2. Provisions on student representation and involvement in decision-making processes. 3. Provisions for violators. The absence of any of the three components would necessarily dilute the effectiveness of the statute. The Continuing Need for a Magna Carta of Students
  50. 50. An explicit declaration of these rights and privileges will only serve to define the State’s responsibility towards the students. Democratic Rights Right to have an autonomous student council or government Right to publish and circulate an independent campus publication Right to due process in disciplinary proceedings Right to organization and recognition Right to assembly and redress of grievances Right to information and consultation 1. Provisions on Students Rights, Welfare, and Basic Services (A)
  51. 51. Academic Rights, Student Welfare, and Basic Services Protection against discrimination in admission policies Right to take periodic exams even if a student has not paid the amount due provided there is a reasonable justification Right to academic freedom Right to adequate academic and welfare services consistent with the economic capacity of the school Non-militarization of the campuses 1. Provisions on Students Rights, Welfare, and Basic Services (B)
  52. 52. Proposes a student representative in the highest policy-making body (e.g. board of directors, regents, trustees) of all educational institutions. In the case of public learning institutions, the representative must have both deliberating and voting rights, given the multi-stakeholder nature of public institutions. 2. Provisions on Student Participation
  53. 53. On top of that, the following institutions must be established in all schools, with the students fully represented (with voting and deliberation rights): 1. Tuition and other Fees Board which decides on the rate of fee increases 2. Administrative Council which is responsible for screening incoming faculty members and retention of academic personnel 3. Programs and Curriculum Council which is responsible for the approval of courses/subjects to be added, modified, or deleted and the revision/retention of school curricula 4. Disciplinary Council which gives the final decision on matters related to discipline problems of both students and academic and non-academic personnel. It will also have power to amend school regulations. 2. Provisions on Student Participation
  54. 54. 3. Provision on Criminalization of Violations All of these provisions will be rendered useless if there would be no punitive mechanism to ensure justice for victims of current violators and deterrent against future violators. Thus, it is important that we make punishable the derogation of any of the provisions of the Magna Carta.
  55. 55. “The pessimism of mind… the optimism of the will” Antonio Gramsci (Italian thinker and revolutionary)