1. Who am I? Who do I work with? 2. How many of you are familiar with AR?
Sick at South Shore Beach Using AR gaming to support domain-specific language development Jim Mathews University of Wisconsin-Madison
South Shore Beach, Milwaukee Outdoor AR: The world is your game board
What we DON’T mean by AR Terminator Helmets + Goggles 3-D Simulation
GPS-Based Role-Based Watershed Ecologist Public Health Doctor Map-Based M.I.T. Outdoor AR Engine
Location Awareness The games are played in the physical environment. The GPS tracks your location as you explore the “game space.”
Content Delivery As students play the games they use the PDA to… Explore the physical environment Meet and interview virtual characters View photos and video clips Gather and read documents Interact and collaborate with other players Collect Samples
South Shore Beach Water Chemist Game Structure / Designed Experience Player’s role Virtual Time Playground Content Review Player’s Location Virtual Characters Water Samples
Sick at South Shore Beach: A Place-Based AR Curriculum
Sick at South Shore Beach: Overview Environmental / Health Investigation 10-15 day “base curriculum” Role-playing unit/scenario centered around an AR game Students engage in pre-, post-, and in-game challenges/tasks Integrates reading comprehension, math literacy, scientific argumentation
Gaming Curriculum (2-4 weeks) Phase Activities Sample: 1. Pre-”game” Confront challenge Enter roles Background reading Kids got sick at beach Chemist, ecologist, doctor Study diseases 2. “Game” “ Situate” experience Introduce complexities Gather field data Investigate site Learn new factors “ Simulate” event 3. Work time Process information Use reading strategies Re-read documents Receive new data 4. Presentations “ Test your mettle” Develop concept maps, build evidence-based arguments 5. Debrief Encourage transfer Discussion
The Backstory / Narrative Structure You were just hired by a public health consulting firm called EnvironSci You are part of an investigation team that includes a water chemist , a public health doctor , and a wildlife ecologist You were just assigned to your first case . . .
The Game Challenge 4 kids attended a picnic at South Shore Beach 2 days later the same 4 kids were rushed to the hospital with severe stomach problems
Was it the undercooked chicken?
Water from the local well?
The snot-nosed little brother?
Water from the lake?
The geese who raided the bread?
Or something else. . .
2. Teacher Workshops 3. Fall Implementations Data Analysis 1. Spring Implementations Re-Design Sessions 4. Teacher Workshops Re-Design Sessions Data Analysis ITERATIVE DESIGN CYCLE TEACHERS AS CO-DESIGNERS
Induction into Roles Name: Position Applying For: Street Address: City, State: DOB: Phone Number: SSN #: Are you eligible to apply for a job in the United States? Yes No Education: Name Years Attended/Subjects Studied/Accomplishments Elementary: Middle School: High School: Special Skills/Qualifications: References: Name, Relationship, Years Known, Phone Number 1.)_____________________________________________________________________ 2.)_____________________________________________________________________ 3.)_____________________________________________________________________ I certify that the information contained in this application is true and complete. I understand that false information may be grounds for not hiring me or for immediate termination at any point in the future should I be hired. I authorize the verification of any or all the information listed above. Signature___________________________________ Date____________
Mrs. Becker: Some of my students are convinced this is a real case we are trying to solve! . On the first day, I had one of our security guards come in the room with a "package" from EnvironSci, marked as if it had come through the mail with the word "urgent" on the sides. . . . Their lab coats, nametags, confidential files, and a letter from EnvironSci were inside. It was a fun way to introduce the project and really got them interested right off the bat!
...Public Health Doctor Interview people Diagnose symptoms … Water chemist Interview people Collect water samples … Wildlife Ecologist Interview people Collect wildlife data + samples Each player will perceive the case in a particular perspective and can do something others can’t… Role Differentiation / Jigsawing
Girl 1: It says right here contaminated water. What does that mean?
Girl 2: I think it’s crypto. And I’m not changing my mind.
Girl 3: It’s the food.
Girl 2: Burned!
Girl 1: (whispering) The teacher is right there.
Girl 2: You always catch me in those moments (laughing).
T : You mean yelling “Burned!” to solve your argument? I’m trying to find you making your case.
Girl 1: Wait, you guys. (Pointing to their compilation of symptoms). It’s not Giardiasis (mispronounces).
Girl 3: It’s not hepatitis A either.
Girl 1: (consulting chart) It says here that it appears one to two weeks after.
Girl 2: (To teacher) Can we look at our interviews again?
T: Yes – they are all in there.
Girl 1: (They all turn to chart). Listen, it can’t be this one (pointing to Giardiasis and crossing it off) because it says here that it appears 1-2 weeks after .
Girl 3: Yes, it can’t be cryptotosis (as pronounced).
Girl 1: Yeah it can.
Girl 3: I think that it’s salmonella.
We conclude that these four children has cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidiosis is a diahrrehal disease caused by microscopic parasites of the genus cryptosporidium… … The next reason why we think they have this illness is because they drank the well water which probably contained chemicals that causes sickness or it maybe contaminated with chemicals that causes diseases… … Are concluding statement is that all four of these children have cryptosporidiosis. “ Test Your Mettle”
Learning: Systems Analysis Finding: Many students struggled to interpret data Students who produced concept maps combining quantitative and qualitative data developed more comprehensive depictions of the situation. Design Change: Embedded more inscriptions in the narrative structure of the game (e.g., “a boss” requires check-ins) Developed scaffolding for “evidence management” and interpretation Challenges / Questions: Does this give too much guidance ? Is the inquiry too close-ended ? How can we use this opportunity to reflect on cognitive tools? How do you develop controlled experiments in this context?
Learning: Specialist Language Findings: Students were motivated to use and develop specialist language Field experience helped students’ understanding (especially ELL) Teachers used a plethora of reading strategies to support learning Design Changes: Moved the field experience “up” in the curriculum to more deeply situate reading activities and provide experiential reference. Increased role differentiation to enrich discussion and relevance of role-specific language. Developed additional modes of representations for data and concepts. Challenge / Question: How do you help teachers develop the expertise to run the games?
Learning: Evidence-based Arguments Findings: Multiple errors in students’ arguments , but some development of language associated with argumentation (e.g., causal vs. non-causal) “ Campylobacter jejuni. All of the kids had the symptoms of this illness... chicken, the milk, the lake (as a result of a sewage spill), and the goose poop. Similar illnesses could be avoided if people drank bottled water instead of well water, cooked their food properly, did not leave milk out for too long, and didn’t PLAY IN THE WATER AFTER IT JUST HAD A SEWAGE SPILL.” Design Changes: Integrating “budget” mechanics to limit the number of options that students have. Provided additional scaffolding to highlight casual vs. non-causal evidence Challenges: Developing robust assessments within this context.