The Executive Branch

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  • The Presidential Oath, contained in Article II, Section 1 of the United States Constitution, much like the office of president, goes along with some controversy, to the left is Lyndon Johnson’s inauguration on Air Force One on a flight back to Washington after JFK’s assassination. Some were outraged the photo was taken with Jackie Kennedy at his side, the reason for this according to Johnson was to show continuity of the Kennedy Administration. To the right is Barack Obama’s redo oath after Justice Roberts botches the oath causing Obama to mess up also.
  • Look into ways presidential diplomatic powers have changed foreign policy

Transcript

  • 1. The Executive Branch Chapter 14 & 15
  • 2. Voices from the past
    • “ I don’t know whether you fellows ever had a load of hay
    • fall on you, but when they told me yesterday what had
    • happened, I felt the moon, the stars, and all the planets had
    • fallen on me”
    • - Harry S. Truman, the day after FDR’s death.
  • 3. The Executive Branch
    • Not only the President and Vice President
    • Also The Cabinet and Government Agencies
  • 4. Article II of the Constitution
    • The Executive power shall be vested in a president of the United States.
  • 5. Presidential Oath
    • “ I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.” –Article II, Constitution
  • 6. Term of Office
    • 4 year term
    • Allowed two terms
      • Based off George Washington’s Presidency
      • FDR had 4 terms
      • After his (FDR’s) death amendment made it only 2 terms or 10 years in office.
  • 7. Qualifications
    • Formal
      • Natural born citizen
      • At least 35
      • At least 14 years residency in the US
    • Informal
      • Military background?
      • Executive experience? Ex: Governor
      • Educational background
      • Occupations
      • Charismatic
  • 8. Chief Executive 3 Main Powers
      • Appointment or Removal of key executive branch officials
      • Issuing executive orders
      • Maintaining executive privilege
  • 9. Appointment and Removal Powers
      • Constitution gives president to appoint people to fill top posts in the executive branch
      • Some are checked by the Senate
        • Federal Judges
        • Cabinet Members
        • Ambassadors to Foreign Nations
        • Top Military Advisors
      • President can remove them at anytime
        • Except Federal Judges (Lifetime)-Congress can impeach
  • 10. Executive Orders
    • A formal Rule or Regulation
    • Instructing Executive Branch officials on how to carry out their job
    • Controversy
      • War Powers Act of 1973
        • http://www.hbci.com/~tgort/wpa.htm
  • 11. Executive Privileges
    • President can withhold information from congress or a court
      • United States v. Nixon 1974
      • Watergate
      • Limited the executive privilege and power
  • 12.  
  • 13. Check and Balances Review
    • The Executive Branch is given the power to carry out the laws. It has the following checks over the Legislative Branch:
      • Veto power
      • Ability to call special sessions of Congress
      • Can recommend legislation
      • Can appeal to the people concerning legislation and more
    • The Executive Branch has the following checks over the Judicial Branch:
      • President appoints Supreme Court and other federal judges
  • 14. Diplomatic Powers
  • 15. Diplomatic Powers
    • Foreign Policy Leader- formulates the nation’s plan and procedure with dealing with other countries.
    • Negotiating treaties
      • 2/3 Senate Vote to approve
        • World War I Treaty of Versailles never approved
      • Diplomacy- the art of negotiating with foreign countries
  • 16. Diplomatic Cont.
    • Executive Agreements
      • Agreements between President and Foreign Governments
      • Ex: NAFTA North American Free Trade Association
    • Diplomatic Recognition
      • Recognizing the legitimacy of a foreign country
      • Ex: Harry Truman recognized Israel in 1948, Controversial today
  • 17. Military Powers
    • Commander in Chief
    • Congress has power to declare war
      • President has called out the armed forces over 200 times (executive orders) Only 5 has Congress declared war
    • Post-Vietnam saw the War Powers Act follow
    • Modern times the Iraq War 2002
  • 18. Unofficial Roles
    • Chief of State
    • Party Leader
    • Chief Citizen
  • 19. Removal from Office
    • The president shall be removed from office if convicted in an impeachment trial
      • Crimes
      • Treason
      • Bribery
      • Other high crimes and misdemeanors
    • This also applies to the Vice President
    • Two Presidents were Impeached
      • Andrew Johnson
      • Bill Clinton
      • Richard Nixon resigned before impeachment
  • 20. Line of Succession
      • The order successors to the presidency if the president is unable to serve as specified in the Constitution
      • Vice President
      • Speaker of the House
      • President pro tempore of the Senate
      • Secretary of State
      • Line continues by each of the 14 heads
      • of the Cabinet departments, in the order
      • in which their offices were created by
      • Congress
  • 21. Vice President
    • 1 st in line in succession.
    • Changed very much from earlier VPs
    • Duties
      • Presides over the Senate
      • Votes in deadlock (50-50)
      • Role in 25th Amendment
      • Helps decide the question of Presidential disability
    • Debate whether VP is an Executive or Legislative position or both.
  • 22. Overall Theme
  • 23. Federal Bureaucracy
    • Bureaucracy - Large, complex administrative structure that handles the everyday business of the federal government
    • Bureaucrats - civil servants who work for the Federal Bureaucracy
  • 24. Bureaucracy Cont.
    • Federal government is the largest organization in the country Consists of four main groups:
      • The White House staff
      • The Executive Office of the President
      • Executive departments
      • Independent agencies
  • 25. White House Staff
    • Consists of about 400 people
    • Chief of Staff
      • Rahm Emanuel
    • President’s most loyal aid
    • “ Gate-keeper”—controls who talks to president and who does not
    • Provide guidance and advice on issues
  • 26. Executive Office of the President
    • AKA (EOP)
    • About 1,800 employees
    • Perform a variety of specialized tasks for President Ex:
      • Office of Management and Budget—aids president in developing budget proposal to Congress
      • National Security Council (NSC)—advises president on foreign and defense policy
  • 27. Executive Departments
      • Carry out work of government in broad areas of public policy
      • President’s “cabinet”
      • Click on pic
  • 28. Cabinet Departments
    • State
    • Treasury
    • Interior
    • Agriculture
    • Justice
    • Commerce
    • Labor
    • Defense
    • Health and Human Services
    • Housing and Urban Development
    • Transportation
    • Energy
    • Education
    • Veterans Affairs
    • Homeland Security- last in line of presidential succession
  • 29. Independent Agencies
    • Independent establishments are created by Congress to address concerns that go beyond the scope of ordinary legislation.
    • These agencies are responsible for keeping the government and economy running smoothly.
    • Ex: AMTRAK, NASA, FDIC, Social Security Administration, USPS (postal service)
  • 30. Regulatory Commissions
    • Independent of all three branches
    • Impartial
    • Appointed by the president, approved by the Senate
    • Unlike Bureaucrats, They do not report to the president and cannot be fired or removed by president
    • Impact our daily lives
  • 31. Well Known Commissions
      • Research online