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The Scientific Revolution
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  • Ptolemaic - perfect, unchanging - more complicated that it appears
  • German? Pole? - Beginning of SciRev? - Simplicity
  • Presented a copy on his deathbed @ 70
  • Not the first heliocentric model - Aristarchus in the 3rd C BCE, for example/ Not a figure by Copernicus - mobile inner spheres / immobile outer of stars

  • Simplicity eluded him and epicycles were needed. Not much an improvement on the geocentric model.
  • Church really paid no attention to this model (as claimed by the preface) / Highly mathematical and in Latin




  • Copernicus’ “conversation with God” (1872)

  • Buried in Fromburk Cathedral – reconstruction

  • Observation / No telescopes / Prosthetic gold bridge to nose

  • Uraniborg / instruments / This model – though never really accepted – fitted the facts as then known better than any. It is also wrong. What was the problem? Spheres!

  • Uraniborg / instruments / This model – though never really accepted – fitted the facts as then known better than any. It is also wrong. What was the problem? Spheres!


  • Publication of Brahe’s data
  • Publication of Brahe’s data
  • Publication of Brahe’s data
  • Publication of Brahe’s data
  • Beware of seeing K as a modern - mysticism
  • 30 yr war involved most of europe, fought on germany, cath v protest, defenestration of prague
  • 30 yr war involved most of europe, fought on germany, cath v protest, defenestration of prague
  • 30 yr war involved most of europe, fought on germany, cath v protest, defenestration of prague
  • 30 yr war involved most of europe, fought on germany, cath v protest, defenestration of prague
  • 30 yr war involved most of europe, fought on germany, cath v protest, defenestration of prague
  • 30 yr war involved most of europe, fought on germany, cath v protest, defenestration of prague
  • 30 yr war involved most of europe, fought on germany, cath v protest, defenestration of prague
  • 30 yr war involved most of europe, fought on germany, cath v protest, defenestration of prague
  • But not too much democracy


  • This year is the 350th anniversary of foundation of the RSL
  • The Air Pump
  • Joseph Wright of Derby - Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump (1768) - The Alchemist - A philosopher lecturing
  • Joseph Wright of Derby - Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump (1768) - The Alchemist - A philosopher lecturing











  • Influence on Newton, Hooke, etc. Writing largely in Italian.
  • 1608 - obtained patent (in Holland) for telescope - lead to great interest among scientits and attempts to improve.
  • Begins improvement in 1609. 3x -> 30x
  • Aug 1609 - Presenting the telescope to the Doge of Venice - economic benefit
  • Latin




  • Pleiades / Belt of Orion
  • Pleiades / Belt of Orion
  • Pleiades / Belt of Orion
  • Pleiades / Belt of Orion
  • Pleiades / Belt of Orion
  • Pleiades / Belt of Orion

  • Named after Cosimo di Medici (to preserve his memory) - now Galilean Sats.

  • Actually 63




  • Sensing trouble - Letter to Grand Duchess - 1615 (not pub until 1636).
  • Inquisition - 1633 - due to Simplico in the Dialogue - house improsionment until death in 1642.

  • Born the year GG died. 1687