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Teaching Evolution One Icon At  a Time
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Teaching Evolution One Icon At a Time

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  • 1. john m. lynch center for biology & society school of life sciences
  • 2. Implications Mechanism Pathway Fact
  • 3. “Intelligent design means that various forms of life began abruptly through an intelligent agency with their distinctive features already intact – fish with fins and scales, birds with feathers, beaks and wings, etc.”
  • 4. Life is complex and cannot be  explained by naturalistic mechanisms. A scientific theory of design can explain the complexity (Brennan) Evolution as taught in public  schools is fraudulent as leaves out evidence against evolution and overstates the evidence that may exist. (Scalia) Naturalistic thinking has bad  consequences
  • 5. Implications Identity Mechanism Detection
  • 6. “Easily the biggest challenge facing the ID community is to develop a fully-fledged theory of biological design. We don't have such a theory right now, and that's a problem. Without a theory, it's very hard to know where to direct your research focus. Right now, we've got a bag of powerful intuitions, and a handful of notions … but, as yet, no general theory of biological design.” Touchstone Magazine 7/8 (2004), pp. 64
  • 7. “I also don‟t think that there is really a theory of intelligent design at the present time to propose as a comparable alternative to the Darwinian theory … No product is ready for competition in the educational world.” http://sciencereview.berkeley.edu/articles.php?issue=10&article=evolution
  • 8. “ID is not a mechanistic theory, and it‟s not ID‟s task to match your pathetic level of detail in telling mechanistic stories. If ID is correct and an intelligence is responsible and indispensable for certain structures, then it makes no sense to try to ape your method of connecting the dots.” William Dembski, 2001 http://www.iscid.org/ubbcgi/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=6;t=000152;p=3
  • 9. “Intelligent design is just the Logos theology of John‟s Gospelrestated in the idiom of information theory” (William Dembski, 1999)
  • 10. Exclusion of Evolution •Epperson v. Arkansas (1968) Inclusion of Creation Science •Edwards v. Aguillard (1987) Intelligent Design •Kitzmiller v. Dover (2005) New Tactics •“Teach The Controversy” •“Teach the Strengths and Weaknesses” •“Academic Freedom to …”
  • 11. “Teaching the controversy about Darwinism as it exists in the scientific community will engage student interest. It will motivate students to learn more about the biological evidence as they see why it matters to a big question.” Cincinnati Enquirer, 3/30/02
  • 12. “We are skeptical of claims for the ability of random mutation and natural selection to account for the complexity of life. Careful examination of the evidence for Darwinian theory should be encouraged.”
  • 13. 700 Dissenters from Darwinism Engineering Chemistry Physics Medicine Mathematics Rest What is their basis for forming a professionalopinion on evolution?
  • 14. “We, the undersigned American citizens, urge the adoption of policies by our nation's academic institutions to ensure teacher and student academic freedom to discuss the scientific strengths and weaknesses of Darwinian evolution. Teachers should be protected from being fired, harassed, intimidated, or discriminated against for objectively presenting the scientific strengths and weaknesses of Darwinian theory. Students should be protected from being harassed, intimidated, or discriminated against for expressing their views about the scientific strengths and weaknesses of Darwinian theory in an appropriate manner.”
  • 15. “[I]n all fields of science, analyze, evaluate and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.”
  • 16. “natural selection … mutations … common  ancestry” “scientific explanations concerning any data of  sudden appearance, stasis, and sequential nature of groups in the fossil record.” “scientific explanations concerning the  complexity of the cell.” “The evidence regarding formation of simple  organic molecules and their organization into long complex molecules having information such as the DNA molecule for self-replicating life.””
  • 17. Science Education and Academic Freedom Act  “Teachers shall be permitted to help students  understand, analyze, critique, and review in an objective manner the scientific strengths and scientific weaknesses of existing scientific theories pertinent to the course being taught.” “[N]o student in any public school or institution shall  be penalized in any way because the student may subscribe to a particular position on scientific theories.” What theories? “biological evolution, the chemical  origins of life, global warming, and human cloning”
  • 18. [A] The Board “shall allow and assist teachers, principals, and other school administrators to create and foster an environment within public elementary and secondary schools that promotes critical thinking skills, logical analysis, and open and objective discussion of scientific theories being studied including, but not limited to, evolution,the origins of life, global warming, and human cloning” [C] “A teacher shall teach the material presented in the standard textbook supplied by the school system and thereafter may use supplemental textbooks and other instructional materials to help students understand, analyze, critique, and review scientific theories in an objective manner”
  • 19. High school textbook examples of  evolution are full of errors ... These are the best evidence for  evolution … Therefore, there is no real evidence  for evolution. The icons persist because the  evolutionists need to brainwash the students to maintain their naturalistic (atheistic) cultural hegemony.
  • 20. “This is one of the most important books ever written about the evolution controversy. It shows how devotion to the ideology of Darwinism has lead to textbooks which are full of misinformation.” http://www.iconsofevolution.com/press/
  • 21. http://www.public.asu.edu/~jmlynch/ 171/Formattingandsubmittingpapersfo rthisclass.htm
  • 22. Text Origin Homol. Haeckel Archae. Tree of Finches Moths Total of Life Life (pages) A 0.50 1.00 0.25 0.10 0.75 0.50 1.50 4.60 B 1.00 1.00 0.25 0.33 0 0.75 1.00 4.33 C 2.00 1.00 0.50 0.50 1.00 0.10 0.33 5.43 D 0.50 1.00 1.00 0.33 1.00 2.50 1.50 5.58 E 0.25 0.25 0.50 1.00 0 0.50 0.75 3.25 F 0.25 1.00 0.50 0.50 1.00 0.25 0.75 4.25 G 0.25 0.50 0.25 0.25 0 0.75 1.00 3.00 H 0.66 0.25 0.25 1.00 0 2.00 2.00 6.16 I 1.00 0.75 0.75 0.75 0 0.25 0 3.50 J 1.33 2.00 1.50* 1.50 1.00 2.00 0.25 8.58 * historical discussion
  • 23. Text Pages Evolution % of Total “Icons” % of Evol. A 944 44 4.70 4.60 10.40 B 895 99 11.06 4.33 4.37 C 1119 103 9.20 5.43 5.27 D 1214 150 12.36 5.58 3.72 E 920 143 15.54 3.25 2.28 F 1175 200 17.02 4.25 2.13 G 944 109 11.54 3.00 2.75 H 1284 226 17.60 6.16 2.73 I 1175 300 25.53 3.50 1.17 J 761 761 100.00 8.58 1.13
  • 24. WARNING: The Galapagos finches did not inspire Darwin with the idea of evolution, and oscillating natural selection on their beaks produces no observable net change.
  • 25. As example of adaptive radiation  ◦ Compare with cichlid fishes in East Africa and Hawaiian honeycreepers As example of measurable natural selection  in the wild. ◦ Point is not to study (or claim) speciation ◦ Point is to discuss reasonable extrapolations ifdrought trend did continue
  • 26. WARNING: Peppered moths do not rest on tree trunks in the wild; Kettlewell's experiments were flawed, and these photos were staged.
  • 27. WARNING: These pictures make vertebrate embryos look more similar than they really are; it is not true that vertebrate embryos are most similar in their earliest stages.
  • 28. “Darwin was not an embryologist, so he relied for his evidence on the work of others. One of those was … Haeckel. Darwin wrote in The Origin of Species that Professor Haeckel „brought his great knowledge and abilities to bear on what he calls phylogeny, or the lines of descent of all organic beings. In drawing up the several series he trusts chiefly to embryological characters‟.” (Wells, p. 82)
  • 29. “Professor Haeckel in his but receives aid from „GenerelleMorphologie‟ homologous and and in another rudimentary organs, as works, has recently well as from the brought his great successive periods at knowledge and abilities which the various forms to bear on what he calls of life are believed to phylogeny, or the lines of have first appeared in descent of all organic our geological beings. In drawing up the formations. He has thus several series he trusts boldly made a great chiefly to embryological beginning, and shows us characters how classification will in the future be treated.” (Origin, 6th Edition, Chapter 14)
  • 30. No textbook examined  presents the “icons” as the “best evidence” for evolution. The “icons” are discussed in  relation to evolutionary concepts (e.g. selection, adaptive radiation, importance of developmental processes) rather than as evidence.
  • 31. “Describe how scientists continue to investigate  and critically analyze aspects of evolutionary theory.” Examine the “nine aspects used to support and  challenge macroevolution.”
  • 32. Instinct Classification Fossil Record Evolution Embryology Morphology Geographic Distribution