Before the “Revolution”
Ch. 1 - 3
pp. 11 - 103
Hesiod
 ~700 BCE

In the beginning there was only Chaos, the
Abyss
But then Gaia, the Earth, came into being,
Her broad bo...
Thales of Miletus
                    ~624 to ~546 BCE

“Western philosophy began with
Thales” (Bertrand Russell, 1945)
Na...
Anaximander
  ~610 to ~ 546 BCE


 Accepts material monism but
 not water
 Aperion is in motion and splits
 into hot (fire)...
Anaximander
  ~610 to ~ 546 BCE

 “[T]he first animals were produced
 in moisture, enclosed in thorny
 barks ... they came ...
Anaximenes
                    died 528 BCE




Aer rarefies to become Fire
Aer condenses to form wind
(then cloud, water, ...
Were the Milesian School “scientists”?
Shared Values

Commitment to argument and critical inquiry, together
with a view about the nature of justification
Commitme...
Pythagoras of Samos
       ~570 to ~495 BCE


   Akousmatikoi (“listeners”) saw him as
   a religious and ethical leader
 ...
Heraclitus
 ~535 to ~475 BCE

 “The Riddler”
 Τα Πάντα ῥεῖ - “Everything flows”
 The logos (account, word) was the
 single ...
Parmenides
           Born ~515 BCE?




The world as it appears is false.
Change is impossible, and existence is
timeless...
Democritus
 ~460 to ~370 BCE

   There is no purpose (telos),
   prime mover or final cause
   Mechanistic explanation
   i...
Epicurus & Lucretius
Aristarchus
             310 to ~230 BCE




Proposed heliocentric model of solar system
 Believed stars to be great dista...
Platonic Idealism
Aristotelian
   Cosmology

 Sphere       Change      Composition

Terrestrial    Mutable    Four Elements

Celestial     I...
Ptolemaic Astronomy
Ptolemaic Universe
A Stationary Earth
“The LORD is king, robed with majesty; the LORD is robed,
girded with might. The world will surely stan...
A Mobile Sun
“Then spake Joshua to the LORD in the day when
the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the
children of Isra...
The Kaliphate
   632 to 850 CE
Alchemy
Medieval

  Christianity
  Aristotle & Plato (Timaeus)
  Universities
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
Science Before 1700
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Science Before 1700

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  • Raphael, “School of Athens”, 1510. In the VAtican

  • Mesopotamia / Egypt / Greece / Drama / Gods
  • Mesopotamia / Egypt / Greece / Drama / Gods
  • Mesopotamia / Egypt / Greece / Drama / Gods
  • Mesopotamia / Egypt / Greece / Drama / Gods
  • Mesopotamia / Egypt / Greece / Drama / Gods
  • Theogony - nature and supernatural merge / no natural evidence is required

  • Zeus establishes order - irish accent
  • Zeus establishes order - irish accent
  • Map by Hecataeus of Miletus- under Persian rule - intellectual pluralism

  • apoc pred eclipse in 585. Quakes as earth floating on water (waves). Unity in Difference. Change comes from within.
  • student of thales / aperion is vague boundless chaotic material from which all comes
  • evolution?
  • student of anaximander / earthquakes caused by drying of earth / introduced specific processes


  • student of anaximander / Community of Pythagoreans / “kosmos” means ordered world (cf chaos) / murderous cult / vegetarians / metempsychosis
  • Pythagorean triples probably discovered before pyth
  • Flow = change / “You cannot step twice into the same river”
  • Opinions based on senses (doxa) are untrustworthy
  • The Earth is round / Void was necessary / Developed an ethical theory based on this, as did ...

  • Placement in Vatican!

  • Plato based on Da Vinci
    Platonic forms / Aristotelean empiricism

  • Fire, water, air, earth

  • Perfect and Unchanging
  • Mars 2009/2010




  • Preservation of Greek texts

  • Rise in 12th C / Aristotle: Not infallible indeed some ideas condemned in 1277 / MESSAGE: Speculate but don’t claim access to the truth about the Creation

  • Universities - centers of orthodoxy

  • Court appointments - astrology

  • Transcript of "Science Before 1700"

    1. 1. Before the “Revolution”
    2. 2. Ch. 1 - 3 pp. 11 - 103
    3. 3. Hesiod ~700 BCE In the beginning there was only Chaos, the Abyss But then Gaia, the Earth, came into being, Her broad bosom the ever-firm foundation of all, And Tartaros, dim in the underground depths, And Eros, loveliest of all the Immortals, who Makes their bodies (and men’s bodies) go limp, Mastering their minds and subduing their wills.
    4. 4. Thales of Miletus ~624 to ~546 BCE “Western philosophy began with Thales” (Bertrand Russell, 1945) Natural explanations for observed events, e.g. earthquakes What is the “first principle” (arche) from which all things are made? Is change real? What causes it?
    5. 5. Anaximander ~610 to ~ 546 BCE Accepts material monism but not water Aperion is in motion and splits into hot (fire) and cold (air & earth) Change occurs due to law-like forces
    6. 6. Anaximander ~610 to ~ 546 BCE “[T]he first animals were produced in moisture, enclosed in thorny barks ... they came out onto the drier part” “Humans were born from other kinds of animals” “[T]here arose from heated water and earth either fish of animals very like fish. In these, humans grew ...”
    7. 7. Anaximenes died 528 BCE Aer rarefies to become Fire Aer condenses to form wind (then cloud, water, earth & stone)
    8. 8. Were the Milesian School “scientists”?
    9. 9. Shared Values Commitment to argument and critical inquiry, together with a view about the nature of justification Commitment to the idea that the natural world could be explained in terms that do not refer to anything beyond nature itself
    10. 10. Pythagoras of Samos ~570 to ~495 BCE Akousmatikoi (“listeners”) saw him as a religious and ethical leader Mathematikoi (“learners”) studied philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, music Mathematics was key to understanding the kosmos
    11. 11. Heraclitus ~535 to ~475 BCE “The Riddler” Τα Πάντα ῥεῖ - “Everything flows” The logos (account, word) was the single divine law of the universe that governs all change and we can come to understand it. Logos manifests itself as fire, always changing yet always the same.
    12. 12. Parmenides Born ~515 BCE? The world as it appears is false. Change is impossible, and existence is timeless, uniform, and unchanging. Clear influence on Plato.
    13. 13. Democritus ~460 to ~370 BCE There is no purpose (telos), prime mover or final cause Mechanistic explanation involving indestructible atoms. The universe is composed of nothing but tiny atoms churning which collide together to form larger units.
    14. 14. Epicurus & Lucretius
    15. 15. Aristarchus 310 to ~230 BCE Proposed heliocentric model of solar system Believed stars to be great distances away
    16. 16. Platonic Idealism
    17. 17. Aristotelian Cosmology Sphere Change Composition Terrestrial Mutable Four Elements Celestial Immutable Quintessence
    18. 18. Ptolemaic Astronomy
    19. 19. Ptolemaic Universe
    20. 20. A Stationary Earth “The LORD is king, robed with majesty; the LORD is robed, girded with might. The world will surely stand in place, never to be moved.” [Psalms 93:1] “The LORD is king. The world will surely stand fast, never to be moved. God rules the peoples with fairness.” [Psalms 96: 10] “You fixed the earth on its foundation, never to be moved.” [Psalms 104: 5] “Tremble before him, all the earth; he has made the world firm, not to be moved.” (1 Chronicles 16: 30]
    21. 21. A Mobile Sun “Then spake Joshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.”
    22. 22. The Kaliphate 632 to 850 CE
    23. 23. Alchemy
    24. 24. Medieval Christianity Aristotle & Plato (Timaeus) Universities

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