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Into The Abyss of Time
 

Into The Abyss of Time

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  • Lyell, Smith, Hutton <br />
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  • Resemblance to teeth - 1667 Nils Stensen (Steno) - were teeth <br />
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  • On fossils <br />
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  • Note that this gives *relative* age &#x2013; not actual &#x2013; that would come later. No assumption of age. <br /> <br />
  • Note that this gives *relative* age &#x2013; not actual &#x2013; that would come later. No assumption of age. <br /> <br />
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  • Under the influence of Principia &#x2013; succeeded Newton as Lucasian prof &#x2013; also an Arian &#x2013; expelled in 1710 - Naturalistic - Deistic <br /> <br />
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  • By 1830&#x2019;s map of Europe <br />
  • Member of Scottish Enlightenment &#x2013; friend of Hume and Adam Smith. <br /> Hutton&#x2019;s PLUTONISM vs NEPTUNISM <br /> <br />
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  • Jedburgh 1787 / Siccar Point (1788) Greywacke: 425 myo deep sea deposit (VERTICAL) <br /> Sandstone: 345 myo flooded coastal plain (HORIZONTAL) / <br />
  • Evidence of volcanic rock penetrating through sedimentary as it was being laid down ~350myo <br />
  • natural processes - land rising from sea <br />
  • Megatherium - South America - 1790&#x2019;s <br />
  • Monsters of the Deep <br />
  • Monsters of the Deep <br />
  • Monsters of the Deep <br />
  • Monsters of the Deep <br />
  • Coast of Dorset / collectors / impoverished -> lead to charity printing <br /> <br />
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  • 1831 Scene from the Jura&#x2019;s. 1836 Dinotherii <br />
  • 1821 - Kirkdale Cave, Yorkshire <br />
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  • Later shifted to the idea of a local flood. <br />
  • Buckland in Oxford - Hyenas - bat urine <br />
  • Drawing by local amateur naturalist, Mary Morland, who would become Mrs Buck. <br />
  • Obgyn - 1822 - <br />
  • quarry in Sussex - some megalsaur - &#x201C;The Country of the Iguanodon&#x201D; John Martin (1838) <br />
  • quarry in Sussex - some megalsaur - &#x201C;The Country of the Iguanodon&#x201D; John Martin (1838) <br />
  • quarry in Sussex - some megalsaur - &#x201C;The Country of the Iguanodon&#x201D; John Martin (1838) <br />
  • Coins dinosaur / ig as mammal-like lumbering / great exhibition 1851 <br />
  • Coins dinosaur / ig as mammal-like lumbering / great exhibition 1851 <br />
  • Coins dinosaur / ig as mammal-like lumbering / great exhibition 1851 <br />
  • Coins dinosaur / ig as mammal-like lumbering / great exhibition 1851 <br />
  • M against O that Ig was as we see it today. M carriage accident in 1841, died of opium overdose in 1852. O had spine collected for the Hunterian. Destroyed in 1969. <br /> <br /> <br />
  • Mastodon / Giant Irish / Coprolites <br />
  • Mastodon / Giant Irish / Coprolites <br />
  • Comparative method <br />
  • Buckland compared with modern reptiles <br />
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  • &#x201C;The Present is Key to the Past&#x201D; <br />
  • 1830 reaction to Lyell - De La Beche - lack of progress, cyclical nature, <br />
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Into The Abyss of Time Into The Abyss of Time Presentation Transcript

  • “Into The Abyss of Time” The Development of Geology
  • Leonardo da Vinci Surveyor for Duke of Milan, 1482 - 1499 Marine shells in mountain strata over 300 miles inland. “[I]f the shells had been carried by the muddy deluge they would have been mixed up, and separated from each other amidst the mud, and not in regular steps and layers - as we see them now in our time.”
  • Conrad Gesner 1565
  • Agostino Scilla, 1670 “I have no idea how the sea could reach so far into the land; I do not know whether this happened during the universal Deluge or during other special floods. ... I do not know, neither do I know the way to find out. Nor do I care. What I do know is that the corals, the shells, the sharks' teeth, the dogfish teeth, the echinoids, etc., are real corals, real shells, real teeth; shells and bones that have indeed been petrified.”
  • Nils Stensen (“Steno”) Preliminary discourse to a dissertation on a solid body naturally contained within a solid (1669) Superimposition: Layers of rock are arranged in a time sequence, with the oldest on the bottom and the youngest on the top, unless later processes disturb this arrangement. Original Horizontality: most sediments, when originally formed, were laid down horizontally. Original Lateral Continuity: the sediment will not only be deposited in a flat layer, it will be a layer that extends for a considerable distance in all directions. In other words, the layer is laterally continuous.
  • Thomas Burnett 1680
  • William Whiston 1698
  • William “Strata” Smith 1815
  • James Hutton 1726 - 1797
  • Hutton’s Unconformity Horizontal Red Sandstone Vertical Grey shale
  • Hutton’s Unconformity Red Sandstone Grey Shale
  • Hutton’s Section Igneous Sedimentary
  • Theory of the Earth Theory of the Earth, or an Investigation of the Laws Observable in the Composition, Dissolution and Restoration of Land upon the Globe. (1785 / 88 / 95) The Earth had a long history and that this history could be interpreted in terms of processes currently observed. “The result, therefore, of this physical inquiry is, that we find no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end.”
  • Mary Anning Plesiosaurs (1811)
  • 'Duria Antiquior - a more ancient Dorsetshire' by Henry Thomas de la Beche, 1830
  • Kirkdale Cave 1821
  • William Buckland 1784 - 1856 Reliquiae Diluvianae, 1823 Geology was not inherently irreligious and confirmed the occurrence of a global flood. Miraculous forces were not required - natural law was applied
  • "Notice on the Megalosaurus or Great Fossil Lizard of Stonesfield." (1824)
  • "Notice on the Megalosaurus or Great Fossil Lizard of Stonesfield." (1824)
  • Gideon & Mary Mantell
  • Richard Owen
  • Richard Owen
  • Richard Owen
  • Richard Owen
  • Richard Owen
  • Charles Lyell 1797 - 1875 Principles of Geology (1830-33) Elements of Geology (1838) Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man (1863)
  • “An attempt to explain the former changes of the Earth's surface by reference to causes now in operation”
  • Normative Rules Basic laws of nature have not changed over time No causes other than those we can see operating now can be employed in explanations (actualism) The intensity of these causes does not change over time (uniformitarianism)