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Eugenics

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  • <br />
  • Implications - no is/ought confusion <br />
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  • Mendel &#x201C;Experiments in Plant Hybridization&#x201D;, published in 1866 <br /> <br />
  • Clearly predates Darwin, e.g. Plato <br />
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  • Max Nordau (1892); egoism, apathy, hysteria, impulsiveness &#x2026; / Bilogy said we&#x2019;re as likely to degenerate as improve <br />
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  • People Mag 1931 / &#x201C;Yea I have Goodly HEritage / Couple / Small / Medium / &#x201C;Fitter&#x201D; / &#x201C;Average&#x201D; <br />
  • People Mag 1931 / &#x201C;Yea I have Goodly HEritage / Couple / Small / Medium / &#x201C;Fitter&#x201D; / &#x201C;Average&#x201D; <br />
  • People Mag 1931 / &#x201C;Yea I have Goodly HEritage / Couple / Small / Medium / &#x201C;Fitter&#x201D; / &#x201C;Average&#x201D; <br />
  • People Mag 1931 / &#x201C;Yea I have Goodly HEritage / Couple / Small / Medium / &#x201C;Fitter&#x201D; / &#x201C;Average&#x201D; <br />
  • People Mag 1931 / &#x201C;Yea I have Goodly HEritage / Couple / Small / Medium / &#x201C;Fitter&#x201D; / &#x201C;Average&#x201D; <br />
  • People Mag 1931 / &#x201C;Yea I have Goodly HEritage / Couple / Small / Medium / &#x201C;Fitter&#x201D; / &#x201C;Average&#x201D; <br />
  • People Mag 1931 / &#x201C;Yea I have Goodly HEritage / Couple / Small / Medium / &#x201C;Fitter&#x201D; / &#x201C;Average&#x201D; <br />
  • People Mag 1931 / &#x201C;Yea I have Goodly HEritage / Couple / Small / Medium / &#x201C;Fitter&#x201D; / &#x201C;Average&#x201D; <br />
  • People Mag 1931 / &#x201C;Yea I have Goodly HEritage / Couple / Small / Medium / &#x201C;Fitter&#x201D; / &#x201C;Average&#x201D; <br />
  • People Mag 1931 / &#x201C;Yea I have Goodly HEritage / Couple / Small / Medium / &#x201C;Fitter&#x201D; / &#x201C;Average&#x201D; <br />
  • People Mag 1931 / &#x201C;Yea I have Goodly HEritage / Couple / Small / Medium / &#x201C;Fitter&#x201D; / &#x201C;Average&#x201D; <br />
  • Thalassophilia was sex-linked and recessive as it was found only in naval officers <br />
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  • Justification of action came from family studies <br />
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  • Environment? <br />
  • Action <br />
  • 20,000 forced sterilizations by 1936 / AES wanted to sterilize 10% of US population. <br /> <br />
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  • 1982 <br />
  • 1982 <br />
  • 1982 <br />
  • Worry about immigration / fecundity <br />
  • Worry about immigration / fecundity <br />
  • Worry about immigration / fecundity <br />
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  • 600 Jewish passengers denied entry because of quota - 250 died in Auschwitz and other camps. <br />
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  • Embraced by Soviets / His book was credited by many Nazis for awakening their anti-Semitism /Hitler had his photo hanging behind his desk / Hitler said that his policies were simply an implementation of the author&#x2019;s vision / Death Camps / Efficiency <br />
  • Embraced by Soviets / His book was credited by many Nazis for awakening their anti-Semitism /Hitler had his photo hanging behind his desk / Hitler said that his policies were simply an implementation of the author&#x2019;s vision / Death Camps / Efficiency <br />
  • Embraced by Soviets / His book was credited by many Nazis for awakening their anti-Semitism /Hitler had his photo hanging behind his desk / Hitler said that his policies were simply an implementation of the author&#x2019;s vision / Death Camps / Efficiency <br />
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  • Guess what? Neither does Newtonian dynamics! <br />
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  • Hadamar &#x2013; 10,000 &#x201C;undesirables&#x201D; died Jan & Aug 1941; Lest that be too subtle ... Eugenicists were geneticists at a time when natural selection was largely an unproven idea / Darwinismus meant evolution not NS and the biggest Darwinian (Haeckel) was more of a Lamarckian. DAchau w/ Weikart / Culture of death/ birthplace of idea <br />
  • Hadamar &#x2013; 10,000 &#x201C;undesirables&#x201D; died Jan & Aug 1941; Lest that be too subtle ... Eugenicists were geneticists at a time when natural selection was largely an unproven idea / Darwinismus meant evolution not NS and the biggest Darwinian (Haeckel) was more of a Lamarckian. DAchau w/ Weikart / Culture of death/ birthplace of idea <br />
  • Hadamar &#x2013; 10,000 &#x201C;undesirables&#x201D; died Jan & Aug 1941; Lest that be too subtle ... Eugenicists were geneticists at a time when natural selection was largely an unproven idea / Darwinismus meant evolution not NS and the biggest Darwinian (Haeckel) was more of a Lamarckian. DAchau w/ Weikart / Culture of death/ birthplace of idea <br />
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  • Luther &#x201C;On the Jews and their Lies) <br />
  • But blaming Xianity is as simpleminded as blaming Darwin. We could always blame ... <br />
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  • Pasteur and Robert Koch <br />
  • Henry Ford / Visited Germany / Probably illegally funded the Nazi&#x2019;s / mechanization / efficiency / labor camps / death camps / &#x2026; and death camps / Should we scrub the history books and teach the kiddies the dangers of Fordism and Ford&#x2019;s Capitalism??? <br /> Luther? Christianity? Sparta? <br /> <br />
  • Henry Ford / Visited Germany / Probably illegally funded the Nazi&#x2019;s / mechanization / efficiency / labor camps / death camps / &#x2026; and death camps / Should we scrub the history books and teach the kiddies the dangers of Fordism and Ford&#x2019;s Capitalism??? <br /> Luther? Christianity? Sparta? <br /> <br />
  • Henry Ford / Visited Germany / Probably illegally funded the Nazi&#x2019;s / mechanization / efficiency / labor camps / death camps / &#x2026; and death camps / Should we scrub the history books and teach the kiddies the dangers of Fordism and Ford&#x2019;s Capitalism??? <br /> Luther? Christianity? Sparta? <br /> <br />
  • Henry Ford / Visited Germany / Probably illegally funded the Nazi&#x2019;s / mechanization / efficiency / labor camps / death camps / &#x2026; and death camps / Should we scrub the history books and teach the kiddies the dangers of Fordism and Ford&#x2019;s Capitalism??? <br /> Luther? Christianity? Sparta? <br /> <br />
  • Henry Ford / Visited Germany / Probably illegally funded the Nazi&#x2019;s / mechanization / efficiency / labor camps / death camps / &#x2026; and death camps / Should we scrub the history books and teach the kiddies the dangers of Fordism and Ford&#x2019;s Capitalism??? <br /> Luther? Christianity? Sparta? <br /> <br />
  • If only history were this easy&#xA1; <br />

Eugenics Eugenics Presentation Transcript

  • Eugenics “science of the well-born”
  • Evolution Implications Philosophy } Mechanism Pathway Science Fact
  • Darwin - Descent “Man scans with scrupulous care the character and pedigree of his horses, cattle, and dogs before he matches them; but when he comes to his own marriage he rarely, or never, takes any such care. … Both sexes ought to refrain from marriage if they are in any marked degree inferior in body or mind; but such hopes are Utopian and will never be even partially realised until the laws of inheritance are thoroughly known. Everyone does good service, who aids towards this end.”
  • The “science” of breeding “better” humans. Take decisions about reproduction out of the hands of individuals Positive and negative eugenics
  • Assumptions “Inferior” and “superior” can be objectively ascertained Differences are genetic rather than environmental Stockbreeding and human reproduction are analogous
  • Background Pauperization of urban workers Differential birth rate Weakness of Whig laissez-faire policies Concern with degeneration among the intelligentsia
  • Cesare Lombroso
  • Francis Galton Coined “eugenics” (1883) Emphasis on positive measures. Hereditary Genius (1869) British National Eugenics Laboratory (1904)
  • International German Race Hygiene Society (1905) Eugenics Education Society (1907) American Eugenics Society (1910) French Eugenics Society (1912) First International Eugenics Congress (1912)
  • Charles Davenport PhD (Harvard, biology) Believed that virtually all human traits were heritable Formed Eugenics section of American Breeders Association (1906) Station for Experimental Genetics (Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island) Eugenics Record Office (1910 - 1939)
  • Charles Davenport PhD (Harvard, biology) Believed that virtually all human traits were heritable Formed Eugenics section of American Breeders Association (1906) Station for Experimental Genetics (Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island) Eugenics Record Office (1910 - 1939)
  • The Poor White Rural, poor, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant descendants of the colonial settlers “It is impossible to calculate what even one feeble-minded woman may cost the public, when her endless line of descendants in considered”
  • David Starr Jordan “The social classes, therefore, that you seek to abolish by law, are ordained by nature; that it is … not the slums which make slum people, but slum people which make the slums … godly people are born and not made.”
  • Positive Tax preferences Education Negative Restrictive marriage laws Anti-miscegenation laws Compulsory sterilization
  • Buck v. Bell 1927 Members of the Buck family “belong to the shiftless, ignorant, and worthless class of anti-social whites of the South” and “three generations of imbeciles are enough.” The Supreme Court concurred “that Carrie Buck is the probable potential parent of socially inadequate offspring, likewise afflicted, that she may be sexually sterilized without detriment to her general health and that her welfare and that of society will be promoted by her sterilization”
  • Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) “Gentleman's Agreement” vs Japanese (1906)
  • Committee on Eugenics 1910 “The time is ripe for a strong public movement to stem the tide of threatened racial degeneracy … America needs to protect herself against indiscriminate immigration, criminal degenerates, and … race suicide [which will result in the] complete destruction of the white race.”
  • Justifications Urbanization & Industrialization Worker organization and unrest Haymarket Square Riot (1886) Nativism
  • Charles Davenport “The population of the United States will, on account of the great influx of blood from South-eastern Europe, rapidly become darker in pigmentation, smaller in stature, more mercurial, more attached to music and art [and] more given to crimes of larceny, kidnapping, assault, murder, rape, and sex- immorality.”
  • Harry Laughlin Appointed “Expert Eugenics Agent” to the “House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization” Immigration Restriction Act (1924) put entry quotas at 1880 population level.
  • MS St Louis (1939)
  • Harry Laughlin “Our ancestors drove Baptists from Massachusetts Bay into Rhode Island but we have no place to drive the Jews to. Also, they burned the witches but it seems to be against the mores to burn any considerable part of our population.”
  • “Darwinism explains so little. It doesn’t explain how life began. It doesn’t explain how gravity works to keep the planets in their orbits. It doesn’t explain how thermodynamics works. It doesn’t explain how physics or the laws of motion work.”
  • “Love of God and compassion and empathy leads you to a very glorious place, and science leads you to killing people.”
  • “Anyway, I don’t give a [profanity] whether a person calls himself a scientist. It doesn’t earn any extra respect from me, because it’s not as if science had covered itself with glory, morally, in my time. Scientists were the people in Germany telling Hitler that it was a good idea to kill all the Jews.”
  • “If you’re a purely materialistic naturalist you would have no objection [to the Holocaust] because no human life has any meaning.” “Darwinism led – in a pretty much straight line – to Nazism and the Holocaust.”
  • Quoting Darwin “With savages, the weak in body or mind are soon eliminated. We civilized men, on the other hand, do our utmost to check the process of elimination. We build asylums for the imbecile, the maimed and the sick. Thus the weak members of civilized societies propagate their kind. No one who has attended to the breeding of domestic animals will doubt that this must be highly injurious to the race of man. Hardly anyone is so ignorant as to allow his worst animals to breed.”
  • Darwin With savages, the weak in body or mind are soon eliminated; and those that survive commonly exhibit a vigorous state of health. We civilized men, on the other hand, do our utmost to check the process of elimination. We build asylums for the imbecile, the maimed and the sick; we institute poor-laws; and our medical men exert their utmost skill to save the life of every one to the last moment. There is reason to believe that vaccination has preserved thousands, who from a weak constitution would formerly have succumbed to small-pox. Thus the weak members of civilized societies propagate their kind. No one who has attended to the breeding of domestic animals will doubt that this must be highly injurious to the race of man. It is surprising how soon a want of care, or care wrongly directed, leads to the degeneration of a domestic race; but excepting in the case of man himself, hardly anyone is so ignorant as to allow his worst animals to breed.
  • Darwin The aid which we feel impelled to give to the helpless is mainly an incidental result of the instinct of sympathy, which was originally acquired as part of the social instincts, but subsequently rendered, in the manner previously indicated, more tender and more widely diffused. Nor could we check our sympathy, even at the urging of hard reason, without deterioration in the noblest part of our nature. The surgeon may harden himself whilst performing an operation, for he knows that he is acting for the good of his patient; but if we were intentionally to neglect the weak and helpless, it could only be for a contingent benefit, with an overwhelming present evil. Hence we must bear without complaining the undoubtedly bad effects of the weak surviving and propagating their kind.
  • “Hence today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord.” (MK)
  • Sparta! “Sparta must be regarded as the first Völkisch State. The exposure of the sick, weak, deformed children, in short, their destruction, was more decent and in truth a thousand times more humane than the wretched insanity of our day which preserves the most pathological subject, and indeed at any price, and yet takes the life of a hundred thousand healthy children in consequence of birth control or through abortions, in order subsequently to breed a race of degenerates burdened with illnesses.”
  • Sparta! “Sparta must be regarded as the first Völkisch State. The exposure of the sick, weak, deformed children, in short, their destruction, was more decent and in truth a thousand times more humane than the wretched insanity of our day which preserves the most pathological subject, and indeed at any price, and yet takes the life of a hundred thousand healthy children in consequence of birth control or through abortions, in order subsequently to breed a race of degenerates burdened with illnesses.”
  • Darwin Haeckel Hitler