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  • @ 7; born feb 12th / second son of Robert & Susannah / mother died / father whig / doctor / investments

  • Shrewsbury - wasted education - “You care for nothing but shooting, dogs, and rat-catching, and you will be a disgrace to yourself and all your family.”

  • Shrewsbury - wasted education - “You care for nothing but shooting, dogs, and rat-catching, and you will be a disgrace to yourself and all your family.”

  • Edinburgh 1825; Athens of the North
  • Edinburgh 1825; Athens of the North
  • Christ’s College Cambridge - 1827 - Paley’s rooms -
  • Christ’s College Cambridge - 1827 - Paley’s rooms -
  • Christ’s College Cambridge - 1827 - Paley’s rooms -
  • Christ’s College Cambridge - 1827 - Paley’s rooms -

  • BEagle - 1832 to 1836 - Harriet dies in 2006
  • BEagle - 1832 to 1836 - Harriet dies in 2006
  • BEagle - 1832 to 1836 - Harriet dies in 2006
  • BEagle - 1832 to 1836 - Harriet dies in 2006
  • BEagle - 1832 to 1836 - Harriet dies in 2006
  • BEagle - 1832 to 1836 - Harriet dies in 2006
  • Marriage - Geology - Elected GSL

  • Downe House Kent - 43 to 51 BArnacles
  • Downe House Kent - 43 to 51 BArnacles
  • Downe House Kent - 43 to 51 BArnacles
  • Shares essay with Joe Hooker

  • An abstract ...
  • NS as agent; Chapter 1; Appl to Humans; 1st bk to use photos

  • 2) What is the big idea?

  • Not “survival of the fittest”

  • E. coli. with 30 minute division would weigh more than the earth in less than a week. Elephants ... 19 million in 750 years

  • Fitness applies to the here-and-now, not the future.

  • Evolution by natural selection need not occur.

  • Natural selection acts on individuals but its consequence occur in populations. It does not, however, work for “the good of the species.”

  • Natural selection is not forward looking and does not lead to perfection or necessarily progress. Adaptations need not be “perfect” in any sense.

  • 3) Was there a Darwinian Revolution

  • Charles Bell, Presidential Address, Linnaean Society

  • Malthus / Paley

  • So what did CD provide? A mechanism ... but that was ...

  • Rej NS / Lamarckian

  • London / Joyce / Wharton / Wells / Shaw / Hurston

  • Common thread of replacing religion in public life with scientific rationalism. Science has somehow “disproved” religion.

  • Carl Ackley’s “Chrysalis” - Human evolution

  • Last decade

  • Darwin

    1. 1. Darwin’s life & work Darwin’s “big idea” A revolution?
    2. 2. Charles Darwin 1809 - 1882
    3. 3. Shrewsbury
    4. 4. Shrewsbury
    5. 5. Shrewsbury
    6. 6. Edinburgh
    7. 7. Edinburgh
    8. 8. Edinburgh
    9. 9. Cambridge
    10. 10. Cambridge
    11. 11. Cambridge
    12. 12. Cambridge
    13. 13. Cambridge
    14. 14. John Stevens Henslow Adam Sedgwick
    15. 15. HMS Beagle, 1832 - 1836
    16. 16. HMS Beagle, 1832 - 1836
    17. 17. HMS Beagle, 1832 - 1836
    18. 18. HMS Beagle, 1832 - 1836
    19. 19. HMS Beagle, 1832 - 1836
    20. 20. HMS Beagle, 1832 - 1836
    21. 21. HMS Beagle, 1832 - 1836
    22. 22. The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle (1838-’42) Journal of Researches (1839) Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs (1842) Geological Observations on Volcanic Islands (1844) Geological Observations on South America (1846)
    23. 23. 1837: Notebooks 1842: Pencil Sketch (35 pp.) 1844: Essay (240 pp.) 1856 – 58: Natural Selection (unfinished) 1858 ...
    24. 24. 1862 - On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects 1868 - Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication 1872 - Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex 1872 - Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals 1875 - Insectivorous Plants 1875 – Movement and Habits of Climbing Plants (orig, 1865) 1876 - The Effects of Cross- and Self-Fertilization 1876 – Autobiography (pub. 1888) 1877 - The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species 1880 - Power of Movement in Plants 1881 - The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms
    25. 25. Implications Mechanism Pathway Fact
    26. 26. Evolution “Biological (or organic) evolution is change in the properties of populations of organisms or groups of such populations, over the course of generations. The development, or ontogeny, of an individual organism is not considered evolution: individual organisms do not evolve. The changes in populations that are considered evolutionary are those that are ‘heritable' via the genetic material from one generation to the next. Biological evolution may be slight or substantial” Douglas J. Futuyma (1998) Evolutionary Biology
    27. 27. 7mya! 6mya! 5mya! 4mya! 3mya! 2mya! 1mya! Now! Kenyanthropus! platyops! Homo erectus! Homo ergaster! A. garhi! Homo! “Archaic”! rudolfensis! Homo! sapiens! Ardipithecus! Ardipithecus! Australopithecus! kadabba! ramidus! afarensis! Sahelanthropus! tchadensis! Homo! habilis! Modern! Humans! Australopithecus! anamensis! Australopithecus! Orrorin! africanus! tugenesis! Paranthropus! robustus! Neandertals! Paranthropus! aethiopicus! Paranthropus! boisei!
    28. 28. Evolution as Path Degree of relatedness of modern species Timing of splits among lineages Characteristics of extinct ancestors
    29. 29. “Lawn of life”
    30. 30. “Orchard of Life”
    31. 31. Darwin’s Big Idea Descent with modification through natural selection
    32. 32. Darwin’s viewpoint Fact Pathway: Establishment of genealogical relationship (“tree thinking”) with common descent and multiplication of species via splitting or budding Mechanism: Natural selection and other mechanisms
    33. 33. Fact #1 Potential exponential increase of populations (“superfecundity”) Source: Thomas Malthus (1798), William Paley (1802), observation
    34. 34. E. coli
    35. 35. Fact #2 Steady-state stability of most populations Source: observation
    36. 36. Fact #3 Limitation of resources Source: observation
    37. 37. Inference #1 Struggle for existence among individuals Author of inference: Malthus (1798)
    38. 38. Linear Growth Food Production Exponential Growth Population Growth Malthusian Catastrophe
    39. 39. Fact #4 Variation between individuals Source: observation
    40. 40. Fact #5 Heritability of much of this variation Source: animal breeders
    41. 41. Inference #2 Some of this variation is advantageous in certain environments therefore differential survival, i.e. natural selection, will occur. Inference held by: Darwin, Alfred Russel Wallace, and others
    42. 42. Inference #3 Over many generations, provided selection pressure is maintained, evolution will occur Inference unique to Darwin & Wallace
    43. 43. Fitness Fitness is a measure of the reproductive output of an organism with a particular genotype with respect to that of other genotypes in a particular environment. For a trait to be evolutionarily relevant, it must affect reproduction - it is not enough to affect survival.
    44. 44. Analyzing Selection Is the population variable? Is some of the variation among individuals within the population heritable? Do individuals vary in their success as surviving or reproducing? Are survival and reproduction non-random? Did the population change over time?
    45. 45. Alternatively If there are variations in a replicating entity, and If these are inherited, and If one variant is more suited to some task than the others, and If that task directly affects survival and therefore reproduction of the entities, Then selection will result in evolutionary change in the population of entities.
    46. 46. Non- Random Random Variation Selection Natural Selection is not a Random Process
    47. 47. Non- Random Random Variation Selection Natural Selection is not a Random Process
    48. 48. Non- Random Random Variation Selection Natural Selection is not a Random Process
    49. 49. Predicting the Future No need to be able to predict long-term course of evolution. Evolution is analogous to a poker tournament.
    50. 50. Darwin “I have just been writing an audacious little discussion, to show that organic beings are not perfect, only perfect enough to struggle with their competitors.” Letter to J.D. Hooker, 9/11/1857
    51. 51. Natural Selection Nature “cares not for mere external appearances; she may be said to scrutinize with a severe eye, every nerve, vessel & muscle; every habit, instinct, shade of constitution, - the whole machinery of the organization. There will be here no caprice, no favoring: the good will be preserve[d] & the bad rigidly destroyed.” “By nature, I mean the laws ordained by God to govern the Universe.”
    52. 52. Origin, 2nd ed. “A celebrated author and divine has written to me that ‘he has gradually learnt to see that it is just as noble a conception of the Deity to believe that He created a few original forms capable of self-development into other and needful forms, as to believe that He required a fresh act of creation to supply the voids caused by the action of His laws.’”
    53. 53. Letter to Asa Gray (1860) “There seems to me too much misery in the world. I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent and omnipotent God would have designedly created the Ichneumonidae with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of caterpillars or that a cat should play with mice... On the other hand, I cannot anyhow be contented to view this wonderful universe, and especially the nature of man, and to conclude that everything is the result of brute force. I am inclined to look at everything as resulting from designed laws, with the details, whether good or bad, left to the working out of what we may call chance.”
    54. 54. Darwin “The old argument of design in nature, as given by Paley, which formerly seemed to me to me so conclusive, fails, now that the law of natural selection has been discovered. We can no longer argue that, for instance, the beautiful hinge of a bivalve shell must have been made by an intelligent being, like the hinge of a door by a man. There seems to be no more design in the variability of organic beings and in the action of natural selection, than in the course which the wind blows. Everything in nature is the result of fixed laws.”
    55. 55. Paley A: X is intricate and well suited to a task T W1: X is a product of intelligent design W2: X is a product of random physical forces Paley claims that the likelihood of W1 given A exceeds that of W2, i.e. P(A|W1) >> P(A|W2)
    56. 56. Darwin A: X may or may not be intricate or well-suited to a task T. W1: X is a product of intelligent design W2: X is a product of a non-random natural mechanism Darwin claims that the likelihood of W2 given A exceeds that of W1, i.e. P(A|W2) >> P(A|W1)
    57. 57. 12,%#'3( ! "#$%&'()*+,#$$((-(.%*/,0#( 9%'/0( ! 45*)+$#(6'+7'(3+(8#$%&'#*(
    58. 58. /0+1*.$( ! "#$%&#'()*'*+,-.( 31.#'( ! )%&212#'(
    59. 59. Sexual Selection Inter-male competition Female choice
    60. 60. 1/2",%&,2,34' !)8"$&' 5,67/8/09"' >?#"89/0,%' :%/&,64' !"#$"%&' ()&*' +,-).$/0,%' 5,67/8/09"' !"9"2,76"%&/2' ="%,6)$#' ;),2,34' +,2"$<2/8' ;),2,34'
    61. 61. 1858 was not “marked by any of those striking discoveries which at once revolutionize, so to speak, the department of science on which they bear.”
    62. 62. “When the ideas advanced by me in this volume, or when analogous views on the origin of species are generally admitted, we can dimly foresee that there will be a considerable revolution in natural history”
    63. 63. Some Questions What was before? What happened? What was after? How quickly did the change happen
    64. 64. Some Questions What was before? Transmutation of Species ‘Struggle’ with biosphere & other organisms Natural Selection
    65. 65. Classical Precursors Anaximader (~600 BCE): Humans from fish Empedocles (~450 BCE): Combination of parts Lucretius (~75 BCE): From atoms to humans
    66. 66. Buffon Limited Variation Speciation due to Environment
    67. 67. Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, le chevalier de Lamarck a believer in the great age of the Earth a gradualist a strong supporter of the importance of behavior and the environment a believer in branching evolution the first modern evolutionist
    68. 68. The “Escalator of Life”
    69. 69. Erasmus Darwin
    70. 70. Robert Chambers
    71. 71. The Struggle for Existence
    72. 72. Natural Selection 1818 - William Wells: Two essays: On Upon Single Vision with Two Eyes;The Other on Dew…and An Account of a Female of the White Race…Part of Whose Skin Resembles That of a Negro…By the Late W.C. Wells…with a Memoir of His Life,Written by Himself. 1831 - Patrick Matthew: Naval Timber and Arboriculture. 1835 - Edward Blyth: “An Attempt to Classify the ‘Varieties’ of Animals, with Observations on the Marked Seasonal and Other Changes Which Naturally Take Place in Various British Species, and Which Do Not Constitute Varieties“ Magazine of Natural History
    73. 73. Alfred Russel Wallace
    74. 74. Some Questions What happened? Accumulation of evidence, but for what? Consilience of inductions (Whewell)
    75. 75. Instinct Classification Fossil Record Evolution Embryology Morphology Geographic Distribution
    76. 76. Direct Evidence
    77. 77. Direct Evidence
    78. 78. Some Questions What was after? Acceptance of evolution and of naturalistic mechanism but rejection of natural selection
    79. 79. Cohen’s Stages The “intellectual revolution” or “revolution-in- itself” (private) Written commitment to the new method, concept or theory (private) Dissemination of the ideas (public) Adoption by a critical mass of individuals or groups (public)
    80. 80. Alfred Russel Wallace
    81. 81. T.H. Huxley Ernst Haeckel
    82. 82. Some Questions How quickly did the change? Not very!
    83. 83. A 75 Year “Revolution” 1859 - Origin of Species 1870’s - Rise of Neo-Lamarckianism 1899 - Herman Bumpus’ evidence for natural selection 1900 - Re-discovery of Mendel 1901- WFR Wheldon’s evidence for natural selection. 1930’s - “The Modern Synthesis”
    84. 84. Darwin’s Legacy We have a professional, discipline and an entirely convincing, naturalistic explanation of the design-like appearance of the natural world.
    85. 85. Natural Selection Economy of Tree Thinking Nature Gradual Genealogical Change Classification Darwin Biogeographic Coevolution Distribution Sexual Selective Selection Extinction Deep Time
    86. 86. “Darwinists” do not exist Evolution ≠ “Darwinism”
    87. 87. No Revolution? “Evolution had become respectable. No revolution took place, no pyrotechnics, just a quiet change at the top – a palace coup. Society would never be the same.” James Moore
    88. 88. Taking Darwin Seriously
    89. 89. Taking Darwin Seriously
    90. 90. Taking Darwin Seriously
    91. 91. Taking Darwin Seriously
    92. 92. Taking Darwin Seriously
    93. 93. Taking Darwin Seriously
    94. 94. Teleology & Design
    95. 95. Do you think that Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is ... 1% 29% 35% Suported by evidence Not supported by evidence Don’t know enough No Opinion 35% Gallup 11/19/04
    96. 96. Theistic Naturalistic Non-Evolutionary 38% 47% 15% 2010
    97. 97. “America’s moral decline is a product of the Darwinian worldview - which, in turn, is a revival of ancient materialist philosophy.” Nancy Pearcy, Discovery Institute
    98. 98. Darwin “There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having originally been breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.