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05 06   Darwin's Life
 

05 06 Darwin's Life

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  • 1844 - that same year .... \n
  • A hugely evolutionary theory – constant change from the very beginning – lawful process – opposed to the literal dogmatism of the likes of the SGs\n\n
  • Difference Engine\n
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  • Inventor of kaleidoscope \n
  • 1845 - Edinburgh Review - “a filthy abortion”\n\n
  • 1846 - Clearly worried bout ideas being put infront of the public before being examined by scientists\n\n
  • Problem both with public gullibility & inability of scientists to communicate.\n
  • 10th edn 1853 - A radically different beast – corrected by known scientists\n\n
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  • Secondary information\n
  • elite THH & pious Miller / ‘Natural philosopher’ (generalist) versus ‘scientist’ / Natural Theology\n
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05 06   Darwin's Life 05 06 Darwin's Life Presentation Transcript

  • CharlesDarwin 1809 - 1882
  • Origin summary due next Tuesday. electronic submission 10:30am
  • 19th Century BritainAnglican church (acceptance of Thirty-ninearticles for Oxbridge lecturers)Industrial Revolution lead to povertyCalls for suffrage for Catholics, women and thepoor“The rich man in his castle ...”Tory versus Whig
  • Josiah Wedgewood 1730 - 1795 Founder of Wedgwood pottery works in Etruria, Staffordshire. Friend of Joseph Priestly, Joshua Reynolds, Maria Edgeworth Socially respectable - supporter of philanthropic, scientific and artistic causes
  • Erasmus Darwin
  • Robert Darwin 1766 - 1848 Physician Fellow of the Royal Society Investment and broking Whig - critical of aristocracy
  • The Mount, Shrewsbury
  • The Mount, Shrewsbury
  • The Mount, Shrewsbury
  • The Mount, Shrewsbury
  • Charles Robert Darwin Born February 12th 1809 Named after deceased uncle. Marianne Charlotte Sarah Susan Elizabeth Erasmus Alvey Charles Robert Emily Catherine @7
  • “Nothing could have been worse for the developmentof my mind than Dr Butler’s school, as it was strictlyclassical, nothing else being taught except a littleancient geography and history. The school as a meansof education to me was simply a blank. During mywhole life I have been singularly incapable of masteringany language.”
  • “You care for nothing butshooting, dogs, and rat-catching, and you will be adisgrace to yourself and allyour family.”
  • Edinburgh
  • Edinburgh
  • Edinburgh
  • Edinburgh
  • Edinburgh
  • Edinburgh
  • Edinburgh
  • Edinburgh
  • Edinburgh
  • Robert Grant Zoologist & physician, FRS 1836 Professor of Zoology & Comparative Anatomy (UCL 1827 - 1874) Expert on sponges Francophile / Lamarckian
  • Plinian SocietyNov ‘26; Darwin electedApr ‘27; Darwin reads paper on Flustra.“That the ova of Flustra posess organs oflocomotionThat the small black globular body hithertomistaken for the young of Fucus loreus is inreality the ovum of Pontobdella muricata”
  • William Browne’s paper“On organization as connectedwith Life and Mind”“That mind as far as oneindividual sense, &consciousness are concerned,is material”Materialism!
  • Cambridge Christ’s College, Oct 1827 - Jun 1830. Degrees in Classics or Mathematics Honors or hoi polloi
  • Cambridge Purpose of education? Self-contained enclave Gowns as badges or rank Proctors as enforcers of academic law Public hangings (200 crimes)
  • Adam Sedgwick 1785 - 1873 Woodwardian Professor of Geology (1818) A popular lecturer and academic liberal reformer.
  • Taylor and Carlile May 1829 Blasphemy was a capital crime Robert Taylor (1784 - 1844) - “The Devil’s Chaplin” Richard Carlile (1790 – 1843) - Social agitator & radical Republican - Universal sufferage
  • “The Rev. Robert Taylor, A.B., of Carey Street,Lincolns Inn, and Mr. Richard Carlile, of Fleet-street, London, present their complements as infidelmissionaries to … invite discussion on the merits ofthe Christian religion, which they argumentativelychallenge, in the confidence of their competence toprove, that such a person as Jesus Christ, alleged tohave been of Nazareth, never existed; and that theChristian religion had no such origin as has beenpretended; neither is it in any way beneficial tomankind; but that it is nothing more than anemanation from the ancient Pagan religion.”
  • Darwin @ Cambridge Erasmus Darwin William Darwin Fox The Glutton Club “But no pursuit at Cambridge was followed with nearly so much eagerness or gave me so much pleasure as collecting beetles.”
  • Beetles
  • John Stevens Henslow 1796 - 1861 Professor of Mineralogy (1822-’27) and Botany (1827-’61) Hosted Friday evening gatherings (Sedgwick, Whewell etc) Darwin was “the man who walked with Henslow”
  • 1831 Received BA (Classics), ranking tenth in hoi polloi (of 178) August 1831; geological tour of Wales with Adam Sedgwick Future?@ 21
  • Alexander von Humbolt
  • Robert Fitzroy 1805 - 1865 Hydrographer & meteorologist Commanded HMS Beagle after suicide of Captain Stokes (1828 - ‘30) Nephew of Lord Castlereagh
  • Time of Change1830 - Whigs come to power1832 - First Reform Bill1833 - Abolition of Slavery1834 - New Poor Law
  • After the Voyage Secretary of Geological Society Describe zoology of Beagle expedition Networking John Gould (Birds) Charles Bell (Reptiles) Richard Owen (Mammals) Member of Athenaeum
  • Darwin’s Rhea
  • Mylodon darwinii
  • Toxodon
  • Toxodon
  • Toxodon
  • Toxodon
  • Toxodon
  • Toxodon
  • Darwin in London Lived near Erasmus Whig intelligentsia Charles Babbage George Elliot Thomas Malthus Harriet Martineau
  • Publications The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle (1838-’42) Journal of Researches (1839) Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs (1842) Geological Observations on Volcanic Islands (1844) Geological Observations on South America (1846)
  • Origin summary due Tuesday. electronic submission 10:30am
  • Political Change1837 - The People Charter1837 – Victoria ascends to the throne1839 - Newport Rising1842 - Chartists march on London1845 - Irish Potato Famine1847 - Ten Hour Factory Act1848 - Cholera epidemic
  • “Parallel roads” of Glen Roy
  • “Mental Rioting”Series of notebooks startedin July ‘37 (Zoonomia)“Life sprawled through time,budding and branching like atree - erupting in newspecies adapted to slowlychanging environments.”
  • Mind and Man“man, wonderful man … with divine face, turned towardsheaven … he is not a deity, his end under present formwill come … he is no exception … he possesses some ofthe same general instincts and feelings as animals”Thoughts are “as much a function of organ as bile of liver”“Love of the deity [is the] effect of organization, oh youmaterialist!”“Once grant that species may pass into each other andthe whole fabric totters and falls”
  • Marry Children (if it Please God) Constant companion (and friend in old age) who will feel interested in one Object to be beloved and played with. Better than a dog anyhow Home, & someone to take care of house Charms of music and female chit-chat These things good for one’s health—but terrible loss of time My God, it is intolerable to think of spending one’s whole life, like a neuter bee, working, working, and nothing after all—No, no, won’t do Imagine living all one’s day solitary in smoky dirty London HouseOnly picture to yourself a nice soft wife on a sofa with good fire and books and music perhaps Compare this vision with the dingy reality of Great Marlboro Street, London
  • Not Marry Freedom to go where one liked Choice of Society and little of it Conversation of clever men at clubs Not forced to visit relatives and bend in every trifle Expense and anxiety of children Perhaps quarrelling Loss of Time Cannot read in the evenings Fatness and idleness Anxiety and responsibility Less money for books etc.If many children forced to gain one’s bread (But then it is very bad for one’s health to work too much) Perhaps my wife won’t like London; then the sentence is banishment and degradation into indolent, idle fool Marry, Marry, Marry Q.E.D.
  • Emma Wedgewood Married 1839 William Erasmus (1839) Anne Elizabeth (1841) Mary Eleanor (1842) Henrietta Emma (1843) George Howard (1845) Elizabeth (1847) Francis (1848) Leonard (1850) Horace (1854) Charles Waring (1856)
  • With William (1842)
  • Move to Down, 1842
  • Move to Down, 1842
  • Barnacles 1843 – 1851 Monograph of the Ciripedia (1851, 1854) Monograph of the Lepadidae (1851, 1854) Deviant barnacle sex Why barnacles?
  • Birth of a Theory Notebooks of 1837 – 1840 Pencil Sketch (1842, 35 pages) Joseph Hooker suggests study of variation Essay (1844, 240 pages) Show to Hooker and Lyell Natural Selection (1856 - 1858)@ 40
  • Vestiges Universal law of development Spontaneous generation gave rise to life which transmuted due to simple protraction of gestation, along paths pre-programmed by a Divine programmer.
  • Charles Babbage
  • FetalDevelopment
  • Platypus “[B]elongs to a class at the bottom of the mammalia, and approximating to birds, and in it behold the bill and web- feet of that order!” Changes could occur “in a goose to give its progeny the body of a rat, and produce” the platypus
  • Reaction“An assemblage of all that is most venturous andmost fanciful in modern speculation” (W.H. Smith)“As a work of science [it] is on a par with theMetamorphoses of Ovid. It is equally absurd,unnatural, and illogical.” (Edward Newman)“a breath of fresh air to the workmen in acrowded factory” (Edward Forbes)
  • David Brewster“Prophetic of infidel times, and indicating theunsoundness of our general education, [Vestiges]has started into public favour with a fair chanceof poisoning the fountains of science, and sappingthe fountains of religion.”Had the author “performed one single chemicalexperiment, and endeavoured to understand itsimport ... he would never have presumed towrite this book”
  • Sedgwick Against Vestiges [T]he world cannot bear to be turned upside down; and we are ready to wage an internecine war with any violation of our modest principles and social manners. It is our maxim, that things must keep their proper places if they are to work together for any good
  • William Whewell “Hypotheses which have, thus been advantageous to science have been tentative hypotheses admitted into the mind for trial and rejected, if the facts were found to contradict them; not dogmatic hypotheses published to the world.”
  • Popularizing Science“If the mere combining chemistry, geology,physiology, and the like, into a nominal system, whileyou violate the principles of each at every step ofyour hypothesis, be held a philosophical merit [bythe general public], because the spectator is seekinga wilder law than gravitation, I do not see what we[scientists], whose admiration of the discovery ofgravitation arises from its truth, and the soundnessof every step to the truth, have to do, except seekanother audience.”
  • Thomas Henry Huxley ‘Time was, that when the brains were out, the man would die.” ‘once attractive and still notorious work of fiction … shown to be a mass of pretentious nonsense’ yet survived due to the ‘utter ignorance of the public mind as to the methods of science and the criterion of truth.’
  • Darwin“Mr Vestiges” has “in his absurd though cleverwork ... done the subject [of mutability ofspecies] harm”Sedgwick’s review was “a grand piece ofargument against mutability of species, and I readit with fear and trembling, but was well pleasedto find that I had not overlooked any of thearguments”
  • Fear of PopularizationDarwin asked Asa Gray “not to mention mydoctrine; the reason is, if anyone like the Authorof the Vestiges, were to hear of them, he mighteasily work them in, & then I [should] have toquote from a work perhaps despised bynaturalists & this would greatly injure anychances of my views being received by thosealone whose opinions I value.”
  • Robert Chambers 1802 - 1871 Authorship revealed in 1854 Publisher of Chambers’ Edinburgh Journal
  • Robert Chambers 1802 - 1871 Popularizer (c.f. Huxley & Miller) Old-fashioned views Amateur at a period when specialization was on the rise
  • Annie Darwin 1841 - 1851
  • 1856 “What a book a devil’s chaplain could write on the clumsy, wasteful, blundering, low and horridly cruel works of nature”
  • On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects (1862)
  • Darwin @ 59 (1868)Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication 1868
  • 1872 Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals
  • 1875 - Insectivorous Plants1875 – Movement and Habits ofClimbing Plants (orig, 1865)1876 - The Effects of Cross- and Self-Fertilization1876 – Autobiography (pub. 1888)1877 - The Different Forms of Flowerson Plants of the Same Species1877 - “A Biographical Sketch of anInfant” Mind1880 - Power of Movement in Plants1881 - The Formation of VegetableMould through the Action of Worms
  • “Happy is the man who findswisdom, and the man who gainsunderstanding;For her proceeds are better thanthe profits of silver, and her gainthan fine gold;She is more precious thanrubies, and all things you maydesire cannot compare with her;Her ways are ways ofpleasantness, and all her pathsare peaceShe is the tree of life to those whotake hold of her, and happy arethose who retain her.” Proverbs 3: 13 - 17 & 18
  • British Museum - 1885
  • British Museum - 1885
  • British Museum - 1885
  • British Museum - 1885
  • British Museum - 1885
  • British Museum - 1885