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GLOBALIZATION & SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Strategies for Poverty eradication & Wealth creation

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The role of multinationals CSR strategy, the fortune at the bottom of the pyramid & social entrepreneurs …

The role of multinationals CSR strategy, the fortune at the bottom of the pyramid & social entrepreneurs

Bilbao - April 2009

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  • 1. GLOBALIZATION & SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Strategies for Poverty eradication & Wealth creation The role of multinationals CSR strategy, the fortune at the bottom of the pyramid & social entrepreneurs La Comercial UD – Sustainable development – Bilbao April 2009 Dr. JM Luzarraga –Mondragon University jmluzarraga@gmail.com jmluzarraga@eteo.mondragon.edu Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 2. Index 1. Introduction to “Globalization & Sustainable development”: - Globalization context - Current Global Challenges in a Knowledge Economy - Impact on economic developed countries - Impact on developing & emerging countries 2. Three Paths to Poverty eradication & Wealth Creation - Corporations’ CSR strategy: employment creation (Karnani) - Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid strategy: new customers (Prahalad) - Social Entrepreneurs: new socio-economic agents (Bornstein- Yumus & Schwab) Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 3. First Team Activity – Warming up Who are you and who inspires you? Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 4. 1. Introduction to “Globalization & Sustainable development” - Globalization context - Current Global Challenges in a Knowledge Economy - Impact on economic developed countries - Impact on developing & emerging countries Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 5. Globalization??... One definition might be… “Economic Globalization constitutes integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, direct foreign investment, short-term capital flows, international flows of workers and humanity generally, and flows of technology” (Bhagwati 2007: 13) “The technological revolution seems to be one of the most powerful engines of the glbalization process” (Friedman, 1995: 341) Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 6. Key elementes to take into account while analysing regions in global markets GDP: volumen & growth rate Labour cost & unemployment rate Population Poverty and income per capita Foreign direct investment: – Horizontal integration: HFDI – Vertical Integration: VFDI Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 7. Some of the main impacts of globalization It breakes companies’ local or national dimension: by will or by force It breakes the local community stability in economic developed countries: dilocation, relocation, layoffs & factories shut down It may contribute to socio-economic developmentes of emerging & developing countries Others: – It reduces thevalue of technology – It unifies consuming products globally – It increase the brand value and companies “virtualization” process –… Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 8. Team activity Select a successfull company for you? Why you considere it successfull? What are their main current challenges? And current risks? In which countries are operating? Doing what? Why? Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 9. Challenges of our global knowledge society Labour force global competition: employment threat Compensación medio por hora de trabajadores de línea de producción, 2003–09, USD 40 CHINA INDIA 34.46 35 RUSIA 30.6 30 MEXICO 25.34 POLONIA 23.91 25 23.73 21.86 20.68 BRASIL 21.01 20.31 20.99 20 17.77 R. CHECA 16.68 14.29 ESPAÑA 15 12.32 EUSKADI 10 FRANCIA 5.47 MCC 3.83 3.9 5 3.64 3.28 2.45 2.7 2.75 2.38 JAPON 1.271.68 1.5 0.8 1.12 USA 0 2003 2009 ALEMANIA Fuente: ex novo a partir de Behind the China Kaledoiscope - CH-ina Guide 2005, Eustat y MCC. Nota: se aplica tipo de cambio enero 2003 (1 Euro=1.067USD). Los datos actualizados a III-2007 reflejan un incremento superior de coste hora siendo en MCC= 23.7, Euskadi=20.69 y España 15.43. Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 10. Challenges of our global knowledge society Western Europe production crises: unemployment threat AUTOMOTIVE SECTOR PRODUCTION SUPPORT EUSKADI vs. EASTERN EUROPE LOCATION 0,4 1,6 m 1,7 m Zona A: 0,2 • Cooperativa cubre muy bien 0,5 Posible ubicación de 5,3 m ( 0 - 500 km) 1m un hipotético Zona B: competidor en la zona 0,7 • Cooperativa satisface bien 3,7 m del Este 0,8 (500 – 1000 km) Zona C: Zona A 0,2 0,2 • Cooperativa satisface mal 0,2 (1000 – 1500 Km) 1,6 m Zona D: • Cooperativa no cubre 0,2 2,7 m (+1500 Km) 1m Zona B Zona C Zona D PRODUCTION 2008 (Million Units) Source: Roland Berger Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 11. Challenges of our global knowledge society Presence in Emerging countries: the power of BRIC countries World population by country % 25% CHINA INDIA 20% RUSSIA MEXICO 15% POLAND BRAZIL CZ REP. 10% COLOMBIA JAPAN 5% USA 0% 1975 2003 2015 Source: UN Development Report 2006 Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 12. Challenges of our global knowledge society Presence in Emerging countries: the power of BRIC countries BRIC countries contribution to World GDP growth The BRIC’s race to exceed G6 growth 50% Italy France Germany Brazil 40% Italy France Germany Russia 30% Germany Italy France Japan India 20% UKGermany Japan USA China 10% G8 BRICs 0% 2005 2015 2025 2000 05 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Source: Goldman Sachs BRICS Europe & Asia - May 2007 Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 13. Challenges of our global knowledge society Threat for Local communities: massive urbanization, internal migration & radical social differences among countries Population with less than 1$ income a day by region 60% 1981 50% 1987 40% 30% 1993 20% 1999 10% 0% 2001 WORLD Europe and Latina Middle East South Asia Sub-Saharan Central Asia American & & north Africa the Africa Caribbean Source: Human Development Report - UN 2005 Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 14. Challenges of our global knowledge society Global & interconected economy Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 15. Challenges of our global knowledge society Threat for Local communities: massive urbanization, internal migration & radical social differences among countries Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 16. Challenges of our global knowledge society Global economic recession & “short-term” “speculative”, “wasteful consumer” & “neo-liberal” economic society model in crises: unemployment global threat Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 17. Challenges of our global knowledge society Global economic recession & “short-term” “speculative”, “wasteful consumer” & “neo-liberal” economic society model in crises: emerging countries opportunities Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 18. Challenges of our global knowledge society Sustainability threat due to a fossil energetic model & a wastefull consumer society: green energy & production opportunity Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 19. Challenges of our global knowledge society Reaching “bonsai” consumers: Social entrepreneurs & Bottom of the Pyramid strategies Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 20. Challenges of our global knowledge society Knowledge competitiveness: change management, learning communities, experience economy Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 21. Challenges of our global knowledge society Knowledge competitiveness: social networks, open innovation Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 22. Challenges of our global knowledge society Knowledge competitiveness: social networks, open innovation Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 23. Challenges of our global knowledge society Knowledge competitiveness: learning organizations SELF-REALIZATION SHARED MENTAL SYSTEM VALUES MODELS THINKING LEARNING SELF-MANGED TEAMS FIFTH DISCIPLINE – Peter Senge (MIT) Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 24. Challenges of our global knowledge society Knowledge competitiveness: learning schools Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 25. Team activity Which one is the most surprising/important challenge for you? Why? Is there any challenge missing from the previous list? Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 26. 2. - Three Paths to Poverty eradication & Wealth Creation - Corporations’ CSR strategy: employment creation (Karnani) - Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid strategy: new “bonsai” customers (Prahalad) - Social Entrepreneurs: new socio-economic agents (Bornstein- Yumus & Schwab) Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 27. Corporations’ CSR strategy: employment creation (Karnani) -Case study: MONDRAGON Readings: MCC Harvard BS Case study IRIZAR 2005 Harvard BS Case study Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 28. Theoretical framework – Globalisation impact on the community An industrial migratory phenomenon takes place (N-S, W-E) and new strategies arose challenging local communities stability In emerging countries FDI contributes to socio-economic development and poverty reduction when based on a proper CSR policy abroad, In countries with higher labour costs global competition results in manufacturing firms downsizing and shutting down operations Place-based ownership models are presented as a better counterforce to globalisation’s threats to local community stability But the traditional local structure of worker cooperatives’ was not adequately prepared to compete in a capitalistic global market Worker Co-operatives most important social commitment is its commitment to create employment Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 29. Theoretical framework – Globalisation impact on the community GLOBALISATION IMPACTS ANALYSED Local Worker Co- Economic Emerging & non communities operative developed & industrialised and citizens : structures: industrialised countries: countries: Urban, Hybridisation, Foreign Direct Massification, de- Downsizing Investment, internal mutualisation, and closing industrial migration, and factories, employment greater unemployment creation and inequalities in increased local and across competition countries Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 30. Mondragon background, vision &values A worker cooperative network started by Father Arizmendiarrieta in 1956 in Mondragon, a 5.000 people village in the Basque Country (Spain) Named by several academics as one of the best examples of democracy at the work place (Macleod, Vanek, Williamson, Malone, Whyte & Whyte,…) ViSION: The companies that make up MONDRAGON share their commitment to cooperation and democracy in the workplace, backed by a unique system of worker participation. VALUES: Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 31. Mondragon background, vision &values A worker cooperative network started by Father Arizmendiarrieta in 1956 in Mondragon, a 5.000 people village in the Basque Country (Spain) Named by several academics as one of the best examples of democracy at the work place (Macleod, Vanek, Williamson, Malone, Whyte & Whyte,…) ViSION: The companies that make up MONDRAGON share their commitment to cooperation and democracy in the workplace, backed by a unique system of worker participation. MONDRAGON CO-OPERATIVE PRINCIPLES: 1. Open membership 6. Incomes/wages solidarity 2. Democratic member control 7. Inter-cooperation 3. Work over ownership 8. Social transformation 4. Capital as a tool 9. Universal character 5. Management participation 10. Education and training Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 32. Highlights at Dec 2006 Mondragon Group Mondragon Congress/ Permanent Commission Number of worker co- Mondragon Presidency/ General Council operatives: 107 Financial Industrial Division Distribution Division Division Industrial Automatisation Workforce: 83.601 Automotive – Worker members: 80% Body Builders Components – Abroad: 14.261 Construction Elevation Total sales: 13.390 M.euros Equipment Business Ranking if listed: HouseholdGoods Engineering & Services – Spain: 7th Machine Tools – Europe: 32th Industrial Systems Tools & Systems – Forbes 500: 462 Group activities: Mondragon University, 12 Technology Centers & Garaia Innovation Park Source: MCC 2006 - Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 33. Context of Research – Mondragon Industrial Division 45,000 40,000 1) First production plant abroad 2) MCC holding structure creation 35,000 3) 26 Production plants abroad 30,000 4) 65 Production plants abroad Total employees 25,000 Employees abroad (since 99) 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 Years 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Source: ex novo - Adaptation from MCC - 2007 1) 2) 3) 4) Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 34. Context of Research – Mondragon Industrial Division To remain competitive Mondragon assumed the global production dimension, opting to use FDI on private companies abroad Mondragon Industrial Division – Employment growth NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES at 31/12 2003 2004 2005 2006 1999 2000 2001 2002 Total Employees (PT) 21913 25593 27050 31166 32597 33640 40121 41810 Net-growth 9.54% 16.79% 5.69% 15.22% 4.59% 3.20% 19.27% 4.21% Local employees 19954 21516 22217 25225 25888 26533 27263 27594 Net-growth 7.83% 3.26% 13.54% 2.63% 2.49% 2.75% 1.21% Employees abroad (PEX) 1959 4077 4833 5941 6709 7107 12858 14216 Incremento 108.12% 18.54% 22.93% 12.93% 5.93% 80.92% 10.56% % PEX / PT 8.94% 15.93% 17.87% 19.06% 20.58% 21.13% 32.05% 34.00% (*) Source: ex novo BRANDT Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 35. Context of Research – Mondragon Industrial Division GLOBAL COOPS by regions PRODUCTION PLANTS ABROAD PEOPLE WORKING ABROAD (65) (14. 261) 7% EUROPE 15 14% 7 9 R.CZECH & SLO 9 POLAND 9% INDIA 36% CHINA 17 10% 6 MEXICO BRAZIL 10% 7 OTHERS 1 8% 6% 9 Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 36. Theoretical framework – Globalisation impact on emerging & developing countries & CSR policy CSR has been broadly study and recently blooming Fortune at the bottom of the pyramid: Prahalad “It’s clear for us that prosperity can come to the poorest regions only through the direct and sustained involvement of multinational companies. And it’s equally clear that the multinationals can enhance their own prosperity in the process” The best antidote to poverty is employment creation at a reasonable wages, Karnani: “Creating opportunities of steady employment at reasonable wages is the best way to eradicate poverty” Reasonable wages?: two criteria: 1) the principle of reciprocal benefits: the value provided by the employee must be equal to that of the monetary settlement received 2) “principle of the obligatory family living wage” Application of worker co-operative principles as a CSR policy Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 37. Theoretical framework – Globalisation impact on emerging & developing countries & CSR policy Application of worker co-operative principles as a CSR policy MONDRAGON CO-OPERATIVE PRINCIPLES AT RISK: 1. Open membership 6. Incomes/wages solidarity 2. Democratic member control 7. Inter-cooperation 3. Work over ownership 8. Social transformation 4. Capital as a tool 9. Universal character 5. Management participation 10. Education and training Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 38. Research methodology - framework Context: “Social enterprises operating in global markets” Case study: Mondragon Group Secondary source gathering & systematic review: Mondragon Group & Globalisation Globalisation impact on Mondragon Group net job growth 1996-2006 International strategy & mapping subsidiaries by countries and timing Case studies: best practices in CSR management in production plants abroad FAGOR INTERNATIONAL IRIZAR TVS MASTERCOOK CLUSTERS FAGOR ORKLI CH COPRECI CZ (India) (Poland) (China, Mexico EDERLAN (China) (Czech R.) Czech R. Slovak R.) (Brazil) Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 39. Field work – interviews conducted People interviewed (N=176) Interview Location Nationality Basque country 2% 4% 4% 4% 6% Basque country 12% Spain (rest) India 15% India China 20% China Mexico 5% 49% Mexico 20% Brazil Brazil Poland 5% Poland Czech Republic others Slovak Republic 16% 21% 13% 4% Coop membership Based abroad Job activity Works at Mondragon 7% 18% 37% 65% 93% 82% YES YES MOI 35% YES NO NO MOD NO 63% Source: ex novo Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 40. Field work – production plants visits & analysis June 2007 Feb – Mar 2007 Mar – Dec 2006 July 2007 Oct – Nov 2006 Jan – Feb 2007 Mondragon representative offices 6 (4 visited) Production plants abroad 65 (40 visited) Source: ex novo Source: Luzarraga, 2006 Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 41. Research methodology – main characteristics 1) MONDRAGON EMPLOYMENT DATABASE: For the first time a merged database of Mondragon GLOBAL COOPS exists, allowing us to compare their performance with other cooperatives. The sample has been constructed from MCC annual reports. This database includes co-operative activity reports during 1996-2006 for Mondragon industrial co-operatives. 2) PRODUCTION PLANTS ABROAD ANALYSIS: For the first time Mondragon production plants abroad have been analyzed. It has been visited, studied and analysed 40 factories in developing countries 3) EMPLOYEES AND MANAGERS ABROAD INTERVIEWS: For the first time a wide survey on production plants abroad has been conducted interviewing 135 people working on Mondragon production plants abroad Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 42. Responsible at home: multi vs. de-localisation Mondragon International multi-localisation is a successful strategy to deal with globalisation’s threats to community stability (downsizing and de-localization) Mondragon GLOBAL CO-OPS have a bigger net job growth than Local Co- ops in parent cooperative (28% > 14%), in the local community (52%>25%) and in total (141% >21%) FDI has a direct positive impact on employment growth in the local community (21%>12%) and a similar behaviour in the parent cooperative (7,8% = 7,5%) In the parent co-operative the percentage of voting members has increased (from 78% to 84%). In the parent co-operative the percentage of voting members is higher on GLOBAL CO-OPS than LOCAL CO-OPS (84% >75%) Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 43. Responsible abroad: objectives 2005-08 Co-operative structure international extension OBJETIVE STRATEGY INDICATORS • Communicate, develop & support • % employees with ownership participation on subsidiaries where • To study ways of people cooperative TO MOVE FORWARD parent cooperative has 100% control integration ON • % employees participation on profits • Economic resources for training and COOPERATIVE education on subsidiaries • % subsidiary profits dedicated to local INTERNATIONAL environment • Own & clear salary policy on EXTENSION subsidiaries • Existence of employees participation & systems • Health, security and ecological GLOBAL CSR guidelines • To define a corporative guideline to POLICY apply international extension model • To analyse current experience inside Mondragon Group; to analyse its adaptation and new formulas Source: MECI 2005 – 2008 – MCC International Department Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 44. Case studies database Coops involved Location Date Case study Orkli CH Orkli CHINA - Ningbo Jun 2006 Irizar TVS Irizar INDIA-Tamil Nadu Oct 2006 Ederlan Br Fagor Ederlan BRASIL - Extrema Jan 2007 Wrozamet MasterCook POLAND - Wroclaw Jun 2007 Fagor Electrodomesticos CZECH R.Olomouc Jul 2007 Copreci CZ Copreci Dikar Wingroup, Orbea, CHINA - Kunshan Nov 2006 International Mondragon Orkli, Oiarso international Irizar, Eika, Matz Erreka, production MEXICO -Queretaro Feb 2007 Mondragon Assembly clusters plants Fagor Electrodomesticos, Tajo, POLAND - Wroclaw Jun 2007 clusters Eika, Embega, Coinalde Cikautxo, Fagor Ederlan, CZECH R. Olomouc July 2007 Maier, Batz, Copreci Spain – France – Alidis/Gespa Dec 2005 Eroski, Mosqueteros, Egasa Source: ex novo Germany - Asia Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 45. Case studies database 5) Fagor MasterCook 1) Orkli China 3) Copreci CZ 2) Irizar TVS 4) Fagor Ederlan Brasileira Production plants case studies Mondragon international clusters Source: ex novo Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 46. Mondragon plants best practices 1) Orkli Ch (China): a proactive strategy as a response to the future threat of China, its management model and commitment to quality control, as well as its innovative capacity in the combination of automated production at the parent co-operative with the manual and flexible of China. 2) Irizar-TVS (India): the international transfer and assimilation of a participative management model with a high commitment to communication, its own remuneration system and profit sharing schemes. This model features significant progress of success in productivity, quality, sales, innovation and financial results. 3) Copreci CZ (Czech Republic): a global organisational model has been formulated, involving international professional careers with internationally experienced managers at the parent co- operatives and local managers at the production plants abroad, thus commencing development of the figure of collaborator co-operative member. 4) Fagor Ederlan Brasileira (Brazil): a social equity with annual monitoring indicators at the subsidiary, its employee health and safety policy, its proximity to the local co-operative movement, and the fact that it is the sole Mondragon production plant abroad where the possibility of transforming it into a second level mixed co-operative has been studied. 5) Fagor MasterCook (Poland): stands out as the sole example that includes union representatives in the board of directors, the positive consequences of organisational change (towards a global model with local autonomy) on account of the acquisition of Brandt in 2005, as well as its process of adaptation-integration of business culture. Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 47. Main best practices already implemented 1) Business management that optimises the synergies between the global and local dimensions of the co-operative 2) Working conditions: Social equity 3) Employee participation in management: 4) Employee participation in profits: 30% 5) Employee participation in ownership: “collaborator member” 6) Communication and awareness policy: 7) Inter-cooperation between subsidiaries: Mondragon international clusters 8) Commitment to the local region: Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 48. Still many issues to be solved and implemented 1) Dealing with the local-global socio-economic synergies 2) Replicate commitment with education within the factories 3) Explore further collaboration with local communities stakeholders on the location where the subsidiaries are placed 4) Increase profits at subsidiaries and keep on sharing them with local employees 5) Implement a common supplier ethical code among the whole group 6) Implement further experiences on employees ownership: from conventional to worker cooperative structures 7) Reinforce and replicate factories clustering abroad Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 49. Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid strategy: new “bonsai” customers (Prahalad) - Readings: The Fortune at the bottom of the pyramid (Article &/or book) – Prahalad The Fortune at the bottom of the pyramid- A Mirage - Karnani Case studies: - Hindustan Lever (India) - Jaipur Foot Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 50. Eskerrik asko Muchas gracias Thank you 谢谢你 “Nuestra fortaleza no se traduce en lucha sino en cooperación” P. JM Arizmendiarrieta - 1956 Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009
  • 51. Dr. JM Luzarraga – ETEO-MU – Sustainable Development - April 2009

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