Luginbuhl cfsa2013


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Broad leaf plants relished by goats
  • Browse consumed by goats
  • Profitable meat goat production is pasture/browse based. Cost per lb TDN is lowest for grazed pastures.
    Additional losses (fuel, machinery, labor, loss of leaves in the field and due to fermentation) increased costs of stored forages
    Concentrate and by-products vary widely: using byproducts when price is low is the way to go. May need to have it tested for TDN and protein before buying.
  • Same principle applies as for TDN.
  • Summer demonstration of volunteer crabgrass-pigweed
    Sometimes we have to take advantage of opportunities. In 2001, it was too dry to plant pearlmillet on a large field for summer cover. Then it started to rain heavily,
    And we got a beautiful stand of volunteer crabgrass and pigweed
  • Summer demonstration of volunteer crabgrass-pigweed
    Sometimes we have to take advantage of opportunities. In 2001, it was too dry to plant pearlmillet on a large field for summer cover. Then it started to rain heavily,
    And we got a beautiful stand of volunteer crabgrass and pigweed
  • Summer demonstration of volunteer crabgrass-pigweed
  • Recommend holding animal in confinement on arrival. After the animal acclimates to the new conditions and has recovered from the transport, feed should be withheld for 24 hr (but give free-choice water) and a fecal sample collected for a fecal egg count. Animal should then be treated with a full dose of each of the 3 drugs. The drugs should not be mixed together, but can be given one right after the other. After 2 weeks another fecal egg count (FEC) should be done to confirm that no eggs are being shed. If eggs are shed after this triple treatment, then the animal is infected with super-resistant worms. In such a case the animal must remain in confinement until the fecal egg count comes down to 0 – this could take 6 months. If treatment appears to be effective and FEC is 0, then the animal can be placed onto pasture – but always put them out onto a worm-contaminated pasture –NEVER onto a new/clean pasture. This is because a 0 FEC does not mean there are no worms – only that there are too few to detect. If put out onto a clean pasture, the very few eggs shed (from super-resistant worms) will not be diluted and so over time will become the dominant parasite population.
  • RG: annual ryegrass
    CR: Cereal rye
    TT: Triticale
  • USE WITH EXTREME CARE! An overdose can cause neurological problems or be fatal. Call vet immediately if notice foaming of the mouth or incoordination.
  • Luginbuhl cfsa2013

    1. 1. J-M. Luginbuhl NC STATE UNIVERSITY
    2. 2. Diet preferences % of diet Plant Horse Cattle Sheep Goat Grass 90 70 60 20 Weed 4 20 30 20 Browse 6 10 10 60
    3. 3. Dock Dog fennel Lambsquarter Horseweed
    4. 4. Browse • Provides shade in summer • Cannot be grazed too hard: keep as a resource
    5. 5. Multiflora rose: 19% CP Green briar: 16% CP Black locust: 23% CP Sweet gum
    6. 6. Black or Wild Cherry Wilted leaves, twigs, seeds Prussic acid poisoning
    7. 7. FEED COSTS $ per lb of dry matter PASTURES – Permanent……………….. – Annual……………………. .035 – .05 .045 – .06 STORED FORAGES – Hay………………………... – Silage…………………….. BYPRODUCTS and/or CONCENTRATES………… NCSU BUDGETS (2013) .06 - .10 .055 - .085 .09 – .25
    8. 8. Seasonal Distribution of Growth… (lb/acre/day) Cool season plants Alfalfa Bluegrass Brassicas Chicory Clovers, annuals Clovers, perennials* Fescue* Orchardgrass* Prairiegrass Ryegrass, annual* Ryegrass, perennial Cereal grains* 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    9. 9. Seasonal Distribution of Growth… (lb/acre/day) Warm season plants Bahia Bermuda Bluestem Browse Corn Cowpea* Crabgrass Dallisgrass Gamagrass Johnsongrass Millet* Sorghum-Sudan Soybean* Sudan Switchgrass* 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    10. 10. Seasonal Distribution of Growth… (lb/acre/day) Cool and Warm season plants
    11. 11. Ideal Grazing Plan on Your Farm 75% cool season forages 25% warm season forages 30% Legume mix
    12. 12. Black locust Mulberry Honey Locust Mimosa
    13. 13. Forage Quality & Goat Requirements PROTEIN 20 Protein, % 15 10 Weanling Does in Early Lactation Yearling Dry and Early Pregnant Does 5 0 Vegetative Pasture Mature Pasture Browse
    14. 14. Forage Establishment Jean-Marie Luginbuhl NC STATE UNIVERSITY
    15. 15. Soil Testing is Key • • • • • Test 6 months before establishment Gives you time to apply lime Grasses need pH 5.8-6.3 Legumes prefer pH 6.0-6.5 Some forages like lespedeza grow well in low fertile soils • Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K) can be incorporated into soil before planting – needed for legumes
    16. 16. Establishment failures caused by: • • • • • • • • • Poor seedbed preparation Incorrect seed depth Incorrect planting date Pests (weeds, insects, diseases) Soil/plant incompatibility Stress factors (drought) Herbicide carry over Incorrect seeding rate Poor germination
    17. 17. Establishment issues
    18. 18. Excellent stand
    19. 19. Spraying Round-up
    20. 20. No-till drill planting into existing sod
    21. 21. Prepared seedbed
    22. 22. Prepare a smooth, firm seedbed to drill seeds These seedbeds are firm and have no large hard clods. The shoe impression did not sink into the soil (firm) yet it made a clear impression. Your footprint should never go deeper than ½” For a sandy soil, more small clods would be desirable to inhibit wind erosion. When you plant onto soft soil, the seeds will go too deep and never break through the soil
    23. 23. Tech. Bull. 305, Chap 11 Broadcasting seeds • Seeding rates are 25-50% higher than drilling • Lower soil-seed contact • Run over field with cultipacker, drag, animal hooves
    24. 24. Cultipackers
    25. 25. Seeding Depth is Critical Soil level ¼“-½” Small seeds like legumes Grass seeds 1-2” Plant seeds a little bit deeper in sandy soils because of moisture stress Large seeds like corn, millet, sudangrass
    26. 26. Establishing Warm Season Annuals •Plant Pearlmillet, Sorghumsudan hybrids, Sudangrass, Soybeans, Cowpea, Crabgrass, Sun Hemp in late April – early May •Earlier = less weed competition •Apply N to grasses •Graze June – Aug/Sept
    27. 27. Establishing Warm Season Perennials • • • • • Plant Sericea Lespedeza – Late February – Early March Plant Bluestem, Gamagrass, Switchgrass - March/April Graze May – Aug (not during year of establishment) Plant into a fallow field or winter annual field grazed down • Bermudagrass sprigs – March • Bermudagrass seeds – April/May
    28. 28. Establishing Cool Season Grasses Tall Fescue, Orchardgrass • Ideally plant in Sept 1 – Oct 15 • Insect problems – army worms, grasshoppers • • • • • Kill existing sod 2 weeks prior No till drill into a thin stand Planting too late = freezing Plants need 3-4 leaves before frost Fertilize with N or add clovers
    29. 29. Establishing Cool Season Grasses Tall Fescue, Orchardgrass • Plant in March • Problems with annual weeds (mow) • Plant early so seedlings can handle summer heat and drought • Kill sod the previous fall • Plant a winter annual prior to spring planting
    30. 30. Establishing Legumes • 30% mix of legumes in cool-season pastures can replace 150 lb N/yr/acre • Sow clovers (ladino, crimson, red, others) Sept-Oct • Possibly band spray roundup before fall planting of clovers • Frost seed clovers in late winter (Feb-March) • Plant Austrian winter pea, vetches in Sept – Oct • Alfalfa - Sept-Oct
    31. 31. Establishing Legumes • If you drill into fescue sod make sure stubble is <2” tall • If you broadcast seeds, could have animals press seeds into the ground with hooves • Inoculate seeds or use inoculated seeds
    32. 32. Establishing other Winter Annuals • Plant small grains (rye, oats, wheat), annual ryegrass and brassicas/turnips in Aug and Sept • Graze late winter/early spring • If you drill into bermuda grass/existing sod make sure stubble is <2” tall
    33. 33. Grazing animals after establishment • Be very careful not to weaken your stand the 1st year! • Let the plants build up root mass • Don’t graze seedling legumes until 6” tall • Don’t graze seedling grasses until 8” tall
    34. 34. What grows in sandy/low fertility soil? • • • • Sericea lespedeza Pearlmillet Bahiagrass Prairiegrass (Rescuegrass/Matua) • Native warm season grasses adapted to a wide variety of soils (Gamagrass, big bluestem, switchgrass) Brassicas (turnip, kale, mustard)
    35. 35. Summer Annual Forages Volunteer stand of •Crabgrass •Pigweed Crabgrass: 17+% CP Pigweed: 20 – 27% CP
    36. 36. Average availability: 1960 lb DM/a Range: 1020 - 3336 kg DM/ha
    37. 37. Rotationally Grazing • Extend grazing season • Stronger pasture stands • More uniform grazing • Higher quality forage • Less weeds • Make hay on extra land? • Soil & water conservation
    38. 38. Continuous Grazing Continuous Grazing with fenced-off area during surplus growth period Strip Grazing Rotational Grazing
    39. 39. Winter Annual Forages – Experimental Site 4.5 a– 9 paddocks, 0.5 a each Water connections Each plot is ~72’ x 302’ Lane CR TT RG CR RG TT TT RG CR P9 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 R2 R2 R2 R1 R1 P6 R1 Road P7 R3 P8 R3 R3
    40. 40. Fence Types Physical Barrier – woven wire (traditional, high tensile) – wood – barbed wire (not recommended) Mental Barrier – any fence that distributes an electric shock when animal comes in contact
    41. 41. Components of an Electric Fence Wire Posts Insulators Connectors and Switches Charger or Energizer Grounding System (Ground Rods) Surge Protector, lightening diverter
    42. 42. Perimeter Fence 12 1/2 gauge high tensile, class 3 galvanize steel d wire Distance from soil surface (inches) 6, 14, 22 (24), 32, 42
    43. 43. Perimeter Fence High tensile woven wire Comes with different apertures
    44. 44. Predator control Good bond between small ruminants and cattle: may not need predator control
    45. 45. Integrated GI Parasite Management Program Goal is not to create parasite-free animals. It is normal for sheep and goats to have parasites. Goal is to prevent clinical disease and production losses Part II – Management tips & alternatives Jean-Marie Luginbuhl NC STATE UNIVERSITY
    46. 46. Management Tips Do NOT buy resistant worms All new additions should be quarantined and aggressively dewormed upon arrival Deworm with 3 dewormers from different drug classes – Moxidectin (cydectin), levamisole (prohibit), and albendazole (valbazen) upon arrival – Follow recommendations about use of dewormers Should remain in quarantine for 10 - 14 days – Perform FEC to confirm that no eggs are shed Place animals onto pasture
    47. 47. Management Tips Selective Treatment NO blanket deworming • FAMACHA© – For H. contortus only – (barber pole worm) • For other GI worms – FEC (fecal egg count analysis)
    48. 48. Healthy goat Anemic goat
    49. 49. Management Tips Nutritional Management Animals on a high plane of nutrition and in better body condition are better able to withstand worm burdens. Nutrition in early pregnancy can affect the immune response to internal parasites. Sheep receiving higher levels of protein prior to lambing have lower fecal egg counts. Supplementing grazing lambs with protein has been shown to reduce fecal egg counts. Nutritional supplementation is most likely to be beneficial when pregnant females and young animals are below optimal body condition at a time when pasture quality and/or quantity is limited.
    50. 50. Management Tips  To greatly reduce pasture contamination in the spring – Treat during mid-winter (December or January or February) to destroy dormant larvae in the GIT of goats
    51. 51. Management Tips  Dewormers effective against dormant larvae – Avermectin – Ivomec – Fenbendazole – Panacur, Safeguard – Albendazole – Valbazen – Oxfendazole – Synantic
    52. 52. Management Tips Periparturient egg rise Temporary loss of immunity to parasites at the time of parturition. Egg counts ↑ Often coincides with hypobiotic (dormant) larvae resuming their life cycles in the spring Dams are the primary source of infection to their offspring Consider deworming with an anthelmintic effective against hypobiotic larvae (valbazen, ivomec, panacur, safeguard, synantic) at kidding Increase protein in late gestation ration to counter egg rise
    53. 53. Consider host resistance Most susceptible Weaned lambs and kids Orphan lambs and kids Yearlings High producing females Late-born lambs and kids Geriatric animals Goats more than sheep Unadapted breeds Less susceptible Mature animals Males Dry does and ewes Pets Mature wethers
    54. 54. Management Tips  Put weanlings and lactating animals on cleaner pastures  Separate growing animals from older animals  younger animals are more susceptible
    55. 55. Management Tips  80:20 rule Approximately 20 percent of the herd/flock sheds most (~80 percent) of the GIT parasite eggs  Cull animals that regularly show signs of heavy worm infestation  These animals may re-infest your entire herd/flock on a regular basis  Culling worm-susceptible animals will increase herd/flock resistance and reduce pasture contamination
    56. 56. Comparison of Genetic and Non-genetic Control Strategies Strategy Reduction in FEC’s Genetic Selection 69% Protein supplementation 35% Strategic deworming 28% Experimental vaccine 0% Australia, 2002 •Monitor sheep, run in the plots after the end of the experiment had lower FEC’s when run in the plots previously grazed by supplemented sheep (35%) or selected sheep (46%). •The largest and most persistent effect on FEC’s and worm contamination of pasture was achieved by genetic selection.
    57. 57. Additional Management Tips  Fix water leaks around tanks  Avoid grassy pens  Fence off moist areas  GIT nematode larvae thrive under moist, shady and warm conditions
    58. 58. Continuous Grazing Continuous Grazing with fenced-off area during surplus growth period Strip Grazing Rotational Grazing
    59. 59. “Zero” grazing bedded pens, dry lot with no green vegetation, slatted floors Sheep/goats put in confinement or dry lot do not usually get reinfected with GIT worms. Coccidiosis could still be a problem, if preventative measures are not taken. – Good sanitation – Proper feeders – Coccidiostats
    60. 60. “Resistant” Breeds Some sheep and goat breeds are more resistant to worms. Sheep Gulf Coast Native Hair sheep Goats Spanish/Brush Myotonic/Tennessee Fainting goat Kiko St. Croix Barbados Blackbelly Katahdin NOT Traditional wooled breeds NOT Boer goats Dairy goats Angora goats Maybe Dorper Royal white Other breeds? ? Pygmy Savanna
    61. 61. “Resistant” Breeds Myotonic Kiko Spanish
    62. 62. “Resistant” Breeds Barbados Blackbelly Katahdin St. Croix Gulf Coast native
    63. 63. Boer goats in South Africa Strikingly different environments Boer goats imported to humid southeast US
    64. 64. Graze multiple species Sheep and goats share the same internal parasites, but they are different from the parasites that affect cattle and horses. Producers who graze multiple species of livestock report fewer parasite problems. Cattle and horses “vacuum” sheep/goat pastures of infective worm larvae. There are other benefits to mixed species grazing, such as complimentary grazing habits.
    65. 65. Leader-Follower System
    66. 66. When Are Larva On Pasture A Problem? Why & How Do Seasonal Increases Occur? ( If No Treatment) How did these larva get here From here? Kidding/Lambing Rise Spring Rise J F M A M J J A S O N D J
    67. 67. Fecal Egg Counts (What happens in ewes and lambs) Ewes Lambs Lambing Weaning F M A Spring M J J A Summer S O Fall N D J Winter F
    68. 68. Consider marketing animals before summer rise in FEC Winter lambing/kidding Market by July 1 Lambing Kidding J F Winter Weaning M A Spring M J J A Summer S O Fall N D
    69. 69. Consider marketing animals before summer rise in FEC Fall lambing or kidding Weaning J F Winter Lambing Kidding Early marketing M A Spring M J J A Summer S O Fall N D
    70. 70. Evaluation of Sericea lespedeza as a summer forage and natural gastrointestinal parasite control for grazing goats J-M. Luginbuhl, J.E. Miller, T.H. Terrill and H.M. Glennon NC STATE UNIVERSITYGlennon Heather
    71. 71. Sericea lespedeza Lespedeza cuneata (high tannin variety) Warm season legume that grows in acidic soils with low fertility and tolerates drought well. Will produce more biomass if fertility is higher. Fed as . . . – Fresh forage – Loose or ground hay Goats readily eat it Sheep will eat it For control of barber pole worm only
    72. 72. S. lespedeza AU Grazer: 35 lb/a No-till drill Planting date: 3/22/07 Sims Brothers, Inc. 3924 County Rd. 87 Union Springs, AL 36089 (334) 738-2619 FAX: (334) 738-2620 email: Tifleaf III Pearlmillet: 25 lb/a No-till drill + urea at 50 lb N/a Planting date: 5/6/08
    73. 73. Field Set-up for Strip-Grazing Lespedeza Study S. Lespedeza PM SL S. Lespedeza Plot size: 0.12 ha Grazing treatments Sericea lespedeza (SL) Pearlmillet (PM) Alternating PM-SL-PM (MIX) Plot 9 Plot 3 Pearlmillet PM SL Plot 4 Plot 8 Plot 2 Plot 7 Plot 1 Plot 6 S. Lespedeza Plot 5 Pearlmillet Pearlmillet SL PM 81 weaned goats: 9 goats/plot
    74. 74. L09-2 Fecal Egg Counts S. lespedeza Mix Pearlmillet 6000 Eggs/g feces 5000 Switched mix goats to lespedeza 4000 Put all goats in barn 3000 2000 Switched mix goats to millet 1000 0 d0 d11 1 LES 4Mix 8Mil d 18 d 25 d 32 3LES 1Mix 0Mil d 39 0LES 1Mix 1Mil d 46 d 53 1LES 0Mix 0Mil 3LES 1Mix 1Mil d 60 d 67 0LES 1Mix 0Mil
    75. 75. L09-2 Larval Counts S. lespedeza Mix Pearlmillet 1600 No. larvae/g feces 1400 MIX goats eating PM MIX goats eating SL MIX goats eating PM All goats in barn 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 d0 d11 d 18 d 25 d 32 d 39 d 46 d 53 d 60
    76. 76. L09-2 Larval Identification Difference from 100% are Trichostrongylus S. lespedeza Mix Pearlmillet Haemonchus, % 100 80 60 40 20 0 Mix goats eating millet d0 d11 Mix goats eating lespedeza Mix goats eating millet All kids in barn d 18 d 25 d 32 d 39 d 46 d 53 d 60
    77. 77. Aggregate of tanniferous extracts found around buccal capsule and female vulva which might affect access to nutrition and egg excretion Adult H. contortus worm: control Adult H. contortus worm: tzalam extracts Credit: Mrs Martinez Ortiz de Montellano Adult H. contortus were in contact with tzalam tanniferous extracts for 24 hours in vitro. Same effects were seen with sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.), a temperate legume.
    78. 78. Trichostrongylus (Black Scour Worm) • Burrow into the wall of the abomasum (destroy stomach). • Symptoms: scouring and weight loss, ill thrift; appetite?
    79. 79. Field Set-up for Strip-Grazing Lespedeza Study Lespedeza Plot 4 Plot 9 Lespedeza Millet Plot 7 Lespedeza Lespedeza Lespedeza Plot size: 0.12 ha Grazing treatments Sericea lespedeza (SL) Pearlmillet (PM) Free choice SL and PM Millet Plot 8 Plot 2 Millet Plot 3 Millet Plot 1 Plot 6 Plot 5 Millet Lespedeza Millet 81 weaned goats: 9 goats/plot
    80. 80. L10 – 3 Fecal Egg Counts 4000 Dewormed 2 millet goats Dewormed 5 millet goats All goats into the barn [d35] 3000 1 lesp goat Dewormed 1 millet, 1 lesp, 1 mix goat Dewormed 1000 0 Mix Millet Dewormed 1 millet, 2000 Lespedeza 1 lesp goat, 1 mix goat
    81. 81. Average daily gain, lb/d 0.30 0.20 0.27 0.22 0.14 0.10 0.00 Lesp-Millet Lespedeza Millet
    82. 82. Do not underdose Know the weight of your animals
    83. 83. Dewormer Savvy Give the Right Dose • Goats: 2X sheep dose • Exception • Levamisole • 1.5X sheep dose
    84. 84. Questions?