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Sustainable Product Design Lecture-IDBM
 

Sustainable Product Design Lecture-IDBM

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What is sustainability? ...

What is sustainability?
How to design it?
Why it\'s important?
A handout to a presentation by Janne Korhonen from Seos Design, describing some methodologies that Seos uses for sustainable design. Presented to IDBM class 08-09 in Helsinki, 29.10.08

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    Sustainable Product Design Lecture-IDBM Sustainable Product Design Lecture-IDBM Presentation Transcript

    • Sustainable Product Development IDBM | Helsinki | 29102008 Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • In today’s matinee, tragic comedy in three acts 1. What is sustainability 2. How to design it 3. Why it’s important
    • Prelude: A GOOD IDEA...
    • Material use twice the normal
    • manufacturing difficult and expensive
    • design makes the bottle hard to use and reuse
    • because of design, the bottle cannot be recycled
    • Act One: WHAT?
    • We’re running on an enormous ecological deficit:
    • By a moderate business-as-usual scenario, by 2050 we spend twice as much as the Earth can produce.
    • ...but, unfortunately, right now, we’re running on 140% capacity
    • PROFIT PEOPLE SUSTAIN ABILITY PLANET
    • PROFIT Equitable PEOPLE SUSTAIN ABILITY Viable Bearable PLANET
    • Ecological modernization: Our problems have to be solved by developing existing society further.
    • Act Two: HOW?
    • Question: Are people going to change their habits?
    • Worldwide, 2% buy green for the sake of green
    • To recap, 1. Price 2. Quality 3. Ease of use 4. Availability 5. Eco-friendliness
    • Traditional thinking says eco = expensive.
    • Traditional thinking says eco = expensive.
    • Ecologically friendly ECO x ECO Economically viable
    • No matter what you are doing, materials, energy, transport cost money
    • maximizing eco-efficiency = minimizing expenses
    • ...with one big if: it must be designed from the start.
    • PROFIT PEOPLE SUSTAIN ABILITY PLANET
    • BUSINESS DESIGN ENGINEERING
    • Two basic strategies: 1) Design for longevity 2) Design for disposal (if the product is necessary at all)
    • Design for longevity •Timeless, classical design •Long lifespan •Durability •Designed for ease of repair and maintenance • Designed for modularity •Possibilities for reuse •Possibility to upgrade with latest technology
    • Design for disposal • Fashionable design • Designed for takeback • Designed for recycling • Designed for eco-friendly disposal
    • Design for longevity Design for disposal •Timeless, classical • Fashionable design design • Designed for takeback •Long lifespan • Designed for recycling •Durability • Designed for eco- •Designed for ease of friendly disposal repair and maintenance • Designed for modularity •Possibilities for reuse •Possibility to upgrade with latest technology
    • LiDS Wheel The LiDS Wheel What 7. Optimized •Also known as Eco-design End-of-life Strategy wheel 1. Innovation •Generative ideation tool, 6. Optimized subjective lifetime 7 6 1 When to use 5. Low 5 2 2. Low •when there is little hard data impact use impact materials 4 3 available •as a tool to stimulate ideation 4. Efficient 3. Optimized •for evaluating the relative distribution manufacturing impact of two different products SOURCE: Modified from the Lids Wheel, HanBrezet, et al, Promise Manual, Delft Universityof Technology / Okala Design Guiden 2007 Vastuullinen & Poikkitieteellinen Tuotekehitys | IDBMPro | Lahti | 161008-17102008
    • Environmental Impact Assessment Methods LCA Comprehensive (Complete impact types Comprehensive method to Qualitative and all lifecycle phases) assess all impacts over all Matrix LCA Life Cycle Depends on lifecycle. the knowledge Assessment of users Qualitative Matrix LCA Pharos Based on technical expertise Not yet fully to evaluate impacts through developed Subjective Objective out the Lifecycle. (guessing, with often (physical measurement, unrepeatable results) With repeatable results) Pharos Ecological Footprint Based on health pollution, LiDS Not yet fully resource use, social and wheel developed MBDC community indices Deficient global Warning, Total Beauty Missing lifecycle Total phases Five-topic method based on Beauty subjective judgement. Incomplete (few impact types And/or missing lifecycle phases) Vastuullinen & PoikkitieteellinenIDSA SOURCE: Okala Design Guide 2007 / Tuotekehitys | IDBMPro | Lahti | 161008-17102008
    • Trouble with LCAs • Life cycle analysis is time-consuming • Collecting data for the entire life cycle can be difficult Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Single number LCA rides to rescue Eco-99 takes into account: •Health effects •Ecosystem effects •Resource depletion Including •Materials usage •Production processes •Energy generation •Disposal & recycling ...and gives a single number Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • What “light” LCA is good for For initial stages of design & development: • Benchmarking • Evaluating concepts • Testing assumptions • Comparing products, firms and industries DO NOT USE FOR • Marketing claims • Greenwashing • Any public claims Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Light LCA: Eco-99 Manual • Developed for designers • From Netherlands • Based on European averages • Gives one indicator value(Single-score LCA) • In “Points” = 1/1000 of average European consumer’s yearly environmental footprint • FREELY DOWNLOADABLE, www.pre.nl Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Using LCA 1. Establish the purpose of the calculation: product, product component, comparing two different products... 2. Define the life cycle: draw a diagram 3. Quantify materials and processes; make assumptions where needed 4. Fill in the data 5. Interpret the results; MAKE A STRESS TEST! Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Example: Life cycle of a coffee maker Coffee beans Paper Polystyrene Aluminium Steel Glass Transport & Injection Press Filters Extrusion Blowing processing molding forming Assembly & Water transport Electricity USE Packaging Package Coffee Filter Device disposal disposal disposal disposal Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Systems view: Coffee maker Purpose: • Make coffee and keep it hot System includes • All products and processes that are needed to produce coffee in a home during the lifetime of the device. Assumptions: • Lifetime 5 years • 5 cups of coffee twice a day • Kept warm for 30 minutes Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Fill in the form... Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Fill in the form... Estimate energy use 4 MJ for glass blowing Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Fill in the form... Find 5.3 indicator value for 4 megajoules of electricity Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Fill in the form... What has the biggest impact? Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Fill in the form... What has the Total mfg. biggest 536 mPts impact? Electricity 13 875 mPts Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • If you get stuck: • Check whether the missing value has significant impact • Use similar indicators • Analyze from e.g. electricity usage • Get help Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Complex products Analyze in parts, add up the results Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Complex products Analyze in parts, add up the results Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Uncertainties and how to deal with them Uncertainties arise from • correctness of the model: assumptions, attitudes, values • data uncertainties: absolute and relative uncertainties Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Uncertainties and how to deal with them Products, materials, manufacturing processes • Similar = relative error, doesn’t hurt (by much) • Different = results uncertain! Rule of thumb: • Similar processes: 10-50% difference in results • Different processes: at least 100% difference required! Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Difference matters! Total mfg. 536 mPts Electricity 13 875 mPts Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Esimerkki: MacBook Pro chassis Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo 1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo 1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun 2. Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo 1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun 2. Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto 3. Materiaalit ja menetelmät • Oletetaan 6061-alumiini, josta neitseellistä materiaalia 70% • Menetelminä lastuava työstö vs. prässääminen • Lastut kierrätetään Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo 1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun 2. Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto 3. Materiaalit ja menetelmät 4. Lasketaan materiaalit ja menetelmät, tehdään oletukset • 1,133 kg alumiinia, josta poistetaan 1 kg, vs. 0,25 kg alumiinilevyä • Oletus: 30 % kierrätettyä = valmistuksen ympäristövaikutus (780 * 0,7 + 60 * 0,3) = 564 mPts/kg • Lastuavan työstön ympäristövaikutus 800 mPts/dm3 poistettua materiaalia • Alumiinin tilavuus 2,7 kg/dm3 joten lastutaan 1 kg / 2,7 kg/dm3 = 0,37 dm3 1. Prässäämisen ympäristövaikutus 23 mPts/kg muokattua materiaalia 2. Oletetaan että lastuista kierrätetään 95 %, vaikutus -720 mPts/kg Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo 1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun 2. Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto 3. Materiaalit ja menetelmät 4. Lasketaan materiaalit ja menetelmät, tehdään oletukset 5. Tehdään laskelmat: lastuava työstö • Alumiinin valmistus: 564 mPts/kg * 1,133 kg = 639 mPts • Työstö: 0,37 dm3 * 800 mPts/dm3 = 296 mPts • Lastujen kierrätys: (95 %): 1 kg * 0,95 * -720 mPts/kg = - 684 mPts 1. Yhteensä 639 mPts + 266 mPts - 684 mPts = 257 mPts Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo 1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun 2. Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto 3. Materiaalit ja menetelmät 4. Lasketaan materiaalit ja menetelmät, tehdään oletukset 5. Tehdään laskelmat: prässääminen • Alumiinin valmistus: 564 mPts/kg * 0,25 kg = 141 mPts • Prässääminen: 23 mPts/kg * 0,25 kg = 6 mPts • Yhteensä 147 mPts Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo 1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun 2. Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto 3. Materiaalit ja menetelmät 4. Lasketaan materiaalit ja menetelmät, tehdään oletukset 5. Tehdään laskelmat 6. Vertaillaan: • Lastuava työstö 257 mPts • Prässääminen 147 mPts • Eroa 57 % Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo 1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun 2. Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto 3. Materiaalit ja menetelmät 4. Lasketaan materiaalit ja menetelmät, tehdään oletukset 5. Tehdään laskelmat 6. Vertaillaan 7. Tarkastetaan oletukset • Onko tulos realistinen? • Mitä puuttuu? • Mitä vaikutuksia oletusten muuttamisella on? • Onko ero riittävän suuri? Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
    • Act Three: WHY?
    • By 2025, 75% reduction
    • By 2050, 93% reduction
    • However, There’s some good news
    • namely, everything needs to be redesigned.
    • 75% reduction means 2 x endurance 2 x less inputs
    • Question: What you get when you have:
    • a) new technologies
    • b) new user needs
    • c) new markets
    • d) new business plans
    • If you have: a) new technologies b) new user needs c) new markets d) new business plans...?
    • ...what you get is new opportunities to get cleanly rich (as opposed to filthy rich)
    • What qualities are important in consumer goods? Title Innovativeness 73% Environmentally friendly 70% Quality design 56% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80%
    • In addition, There’s also some new sources of inspiration
    • ...like biomimicry Insecta, (c) Shao Yung Yeh 2008
    • Other hot ideas: Breaking the cost barrier Constraint-based design Cradle to Cradle