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Sustainable Product Development
                                               IDBM | Helsinki | 29102008




Sustainable ...
In today’s matinee, tragic comedy in three acts

1. What is sustainability
2. How to design it
3. Why it’s important
Prelude:

A GOOD IDEA...
Material use

twice the normal
manufacturing

difficult and expensive
design makes the bottle

hard to use and reuse
because of design, the bottle

cannot be recycled
Act One:

WHAT?
We’re running on an enormous

ecological deficit:
By a moderate business-as-usual scenario, by 2050

we spend twice as much
as the Earth can produce.
...but, unfortunately,

right now, we’re running
on 140% capacity
PROFIT



PEOPLE
         SUSTAIN
         ABILITY




                   PLANET
PROFIT

            Equitable
PEOPLE
                SUSTAIN
                ABILITY

                            Viable

...
Ecological modernization:

Our problems have to be
solved by developing
existing society further.
Act Two:

HOW?
Question:

Are people going to
change their habits?
Worldwide,

2% buy green for the
sake of green
To recap,

1. Price
2. Quality
3. Ease of use
4. Availability
5. Eco-friendliness
Traditional thinking says

eco = expensive.
Traditional thinking says

eco = expensive.
Ecologically friendly

ECO x ECO
Economically viable
No matter what you are doing,

materials, energy, transport
cost money
maximizing eco-efficiency
= minimizing expenses
...with one big if:

it must be designed from
the start.
PROFIT



PEOPLE
         SUSTAIN
         ABILITY




                   PLANET
BUSINESS

DESIGN


     ENGINEERING
Two basic strategies:

1) Design for longevity
2) Design for disposal
(if the product is necessary at all)
Design for longevity
•Timeless, classical design
•Long lifespan
•Durability
•Designed for ease of repair and maintenance
•...
Design for disposal
• Fashionable design
• Designed for takeback
• Designed for recycling
• Designed for eco-friendly disp...
Design for longevity      Design for disposal
•Timeless, classical      • Fashionable design
 design                   • D...
LiDS Wheel
        The LiDS Wheel
        What                                                                            ...
Environmental Impact Assessment Methods
      LCA                                                                         ...
Trouble with LCAs

• Life cycle analysis is time-consuming
• Collecting data for the entire life cycle
  can be difficult

...
Single number LCA rides to rescue
Eco-99 takes into account:
•Health effects
•Ecosystem effects
•Resource depletion

Inclu...
What “light” LCA is good for
For initial stages of design & development:
 • Benchmarking
 • Evaluating concepts
 • Testing...
Light LCA: Eco-99 Manual

 • Developed for designers
 • From Netherlands
 • Based on European averages
 • Gives one indica...
Using LCA


1. Establish the purpose of the calculation: product, product component,
   comparing two different products.....
Example: Life cycle of a coffee maker
Coffee beans                   Paper               Polystyrene          Aluminium   ...
Systems view: Coffee maker
Purpose:
• Make coffee and keep it hot

System includes
• All products and processes that are
 ...
Fill in the form...




Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
Fill in the form...



Estimate
energy use                                                   4 MJ
for glass
blowing



Sus...
Fill in the form...


                                                                   Find
                            ...
Fill in the form...


    What
    has the
    biggest
    impact?




Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki |...
Fill in the form...


    What
    has the                                                  Total mfg.
    biggest        ...
If you get stuck:
• Check whether the missing
  value has significant impact
• Use similar indicators
• Analyze from e.g. e...
Complex products

 Analyze in parts, add up
 the results




Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
Complex products

 Analyze in parts, add up
 the results




Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
Uncertainties and how to deal with them
Uncertainties arise from
• correctness of the model:
  assumptions, attitudes, val...
Uncertainties and how to deal with them
Products, materials,
manufacturing processes
• Similar = relative error,
  doesn’t...
Difference matters!



                                                             Total mfg.
                           ...
Esimerkki: MacBook Pro chassis




Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo
1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun




Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | H...
Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo
1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun
2. Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto




...
Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo
1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun
2. Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto
3. M...
Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo
1.   Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun
2.   Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto
...
Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo
1.   Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun
2.   Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto
...
Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo
1.   Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun
2.   Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto
...
Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo
1.   Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun
2.   Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto
...
Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo
1.   Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun
2.   Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto
...
Act Three:

WHY?
By 2025,

75% reduction
By 2050,

93% reduction
However,

There’s some good news
namely,

everything needs to be
redesigned.
75% reduction means

2 x endurance
2 x less inputs
Question:

What you get when you
have:
a) new technologies
b) new user needs
c) new markets
d) new business plans
If you have:

a) new technologies
b) new user needs
c) new markets
d) new business plans...?
...what you get is

new opportunities to
get cleanly rich
(as opposed to filthy rich)
What qualities are important in consumer goods?
                                   Title




         Innovativeness      ...
In addition,

There’s also some new
sources of inspiration
...like
 biomimicry




Insecta, (c) Shao Yung Yeh 2008
Other hot ideas:

Breaking the cost barrier
Constraint-based design
Cradle to Cradle
Sustainable Product Design Lecture-IDBM
Sustainable Product Design Lecture-IDBM
Sustainable Product Design Lecture-IDBM
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Sustainable Product Design Lecture-IDBM

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What is sustainability?
How to design it?
Why it\'s important?
A handout to a presentation by Janne Korhonen from Seos Design, describing some methodologies that Seos uses for sustainable design. Presented to IDBM class 08-09 in Helsinki, 29.10.08

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Transcript of "Sustainable Product Design Lecture-IDBM"

  1. 1. Sustainable Product Development IDBM | Helsinki | 29102008 Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  2. 2. In today’s matinee, tragic comedy in three acts 1. What is sustainability 2. How to design it 3. Why it’s important
  3. 3. Prelude: A GOOD IDEA...
  4. 4. Material use twice the normal
  5. 5. manufacturing difficult and expensive
  6. 6. design makes the bottle hard to use and reuse
  7. 7. because of design, the bottle cannot be recycled
  8. 8. Act One: WHAT?
  9. 9. We’re running on an enormous ecological deficit:
  10. 10. By a moderate business-as-usual scenario, by 2050 we spend twice as much as the Earth can produce.
  11. 11. ...but, unfortunately, right now, we’re running on 140% capacity
  12. 12. PROFIT PEOPLE SUSTAIN ABILITY PLANET
  13. 13. PROFIT Equitable PEOPLE SUSTAIN ABILITY Viable Bearable PLANET
  14. 14. Ecological modernization: Our problems have to be solved by developing existing society further.
  15. 15. Act Two: HOW?
  16. 16. Question: Are people going to change their habits?
  17. 17. Worldwide, 2% buy green for the sake of green
  18. 18. To recap, 1. Price 2. Quality 3. Ease of use 4. Availability 5. Eco-friendliness
  19. 19. Traditional thinking says eco = expensive.
  20. 20. Traditional thinking says eco = expensive.
  21. 21. Ecologically friendly ECO x ECO Economically viable
  22. 22. No matter what you are doing, materials, energy, transport cost money
  23. 23. maximizing eco-efficiency = minimizing expenses
  24. 24. ...with one big if: it must be designed from the start.
  25. 25. PROFIT PEOPLE SUSTAIN ABILITY PLANET
  26. 26. BUSINESS DESIGN ENGINEERING
  27. 27. Two basic strategies: 1) Design for longevity 2) Design for disposal (if the product is necessary at all)
  28. 28. Design for longevity •Timeless, classical design •Long lifespan •Durability •Designed for ease of repair and maintenance • Designed for modularity •Possibilities for reuse •Possibility to upgrade with latest technology
  29. 29. Design for disposal • Fashionable design • Designed for takeback • Designed for recycling • Designed for eco-friendly disposal
  30. 30. Design for longevity Design for disposal •Timeless, classical • Fashionable design design • Designed for takeback •Long lifespan • Designed for recycling •Durability • Designed for eco- •Designed for ease of friendly disposal repair and maintenance • Designed for modularity •Possibilities for reuse •Possibility to upgrade with latest technology
  31. 31. LiDS Wheel The LiDS Wheel What 7. Optimized •Also known as Eco-design End-of-life Strategy wheel 1. Innovation •Generative ideation tool, 6. Optimized subjective lifetime 7 6 1 When to use 5. Low 5 2 2. Low •when there is little hard data impact use impact materials 4 3 available •as a tool to stimulate ideation 4. Efficient 3. Optimized •for evaluating the relative distribution manufacturing impact of two different products SOURCE: Modified from the Lids Wheel, HanBrezet, et al, Promise Manual, Delft Universityof Technology / Okala Design Guiden 2007 Vastuullinen & Poikkitieteellinen Tuotekehitys | IDBMPro | Lahti | 161008-17102008
  32. 32. Environmental Impact Assessment Methods LCA Comprehensive (Complete impact types Comprehensive method to Qualitative and all lifecycle phases) assess all impacts over all Matrix LCA Life Cycle Depends on lifecycle. the knowledge Assessment of users Qualitative Matrix LCA Pharos Based on technical expertise Not yet fully to evaluate impacts through developed Subjective Objective out the Lifecycle. (guessing, with often (physical measurement, unrepeatable results) With repeatable results) Pharos Ecological Footprint Based on health pollution, LiDS Not yet fully resource use, social and wheel developed MBDC community indices Deficient global Warning, Total Beauty Missing lifecycle Total phases Five-topic method based on Beauty subjective judgement. Incomplete (few impact types And/or missing lifecycle phases) Vastuullinen & PoikkitieteellinenIDSA SOURCE: Okala Design Guide 2007 / Tuotekehitys | IDBMPro | Lahti | 161008-17102008
  33. 33. Trouble with LCAs • Life cycle analysis is time-consuming • Collecting data for the entire life cycle can be difficult Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  34. 34. Single number LCA rides to rescue Eco-99 takes into account: •Health effects •Ecosystem effects •Resource depletion Including •Materials usage •Production processes •Energy generation •Disposal & recycling ...and gives a single number Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  35. 35. What “light” LCA is good for For initial stages of design & development: • Benchmarking • Evaluating concepts • Testing assumptions • Comparing products, firms and industries DO NOT USE FOR • Marketing claims • Greenwashing • Any public claims Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  36. 36. Light LCA: Eco-99 Manual • Developed for designers • From Netherlands • Based on European averages • Gives one indicator value(Single-score LCA) • In “Points” = 1/1000 of average European consumer’s yearly environmental footprint • FREELY DOWNLOADABLE, www.pre.nl Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  37. 37. Using LCA 1. Establish the purpose of the calculation: product, product component, comparing two different products... 2. Define the life cycle: draw a diagram 3. Quantify materials and processes; make assumptions where needed 4. Fill in the data 5. Interpret the results; MAKE A STRESS TEST! Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  38. 38. Example: Life cycle of a coffee maker Coffee beans Paper Polystyrene Aluminium Steel Glass Transport & Injection Press Filters Extrusion Blowing processing molding forming Assembly & Water transport Electricity USE Packaging Package Coffee Filter Device disposal disposal disposal disposal Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  39. 39. Systems view: Coffee maker Purpose: • Make coffee and keep it hot System includes • All products and processes that are needed to produce coffee in a home during the lifetime of the device. Assumptions: • Lifetime 5 years • 5 cups of coffee twice a day • Kept warm for 30 minutes Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  40. 40. Fill in the form... Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  41. 41. Fill in the form... Estimate energy use 4 MJ for glass blowing Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  42. 42. Fill in the form... Find 5.3 indicator value for 4 megajoules of electricity Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  43. 43. Fill in the form... What has the biggest impact? Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  44. 44. Fill in the form... What has the Total mfg. biggest 536 mPts impact? Electricity 13 875 mPts Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  45. 45. If you get stuck: • Check whether the missing value has significant impact • Use similar indicators • Analyze from e.g. electricity usage • Get help Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  46. 46. Complex products Analyze in parts, add up the results Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  47. 47. Complex products Analyze in parts, add up the results Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  48. 48. Uncertainties and how to deal with them Uncertainties arise from • correctness of the model: assumptions, attitudes, values • data uncertainties: absolute and relative uncertainties Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  49. 49. Uncertainties and how to deal with them Products, materials, manufacturing processes • Similar = relative error, doesn’t hurt (by much) • Different = results uncertain! Rule of thumb: • Similar processes: 10-50% difference in results • Different processes: at least 100% difference required! Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  50. 50. Difference matters! Total mfg. 536 mPts Electricity 13 875 mPts Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  51. 51. Esimerkki: MacBook Pro chassis Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  52. 52. Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo 1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  53. 53. Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo 1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun 2. Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  54. 54. Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo 1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun 2. Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto 3. Materiaalit ja menetelmät • Oletetaan 6061-alumiini, josta neitseellistä materiaalia 70% • Menetelminä lastuava työstö vs. prässääminen • Lastut kierrätetään Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  55. 55. Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo 1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun 2. Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto 3. Materiaalit ja menetelmät 4. Lasketaan materiaalit ja menetelmät, tehdään oletukset • 1,133 kg alumiinia, josta poistetaan 1 kg, vs. 0,25 kg alumiinilevyä • Oletus: 30 % kierrätettyä = valmistuksen ympäristövaikutus (780 * 0,7 + 60 * 0,3) = 564 mPts/kg • Lastuavan työstön ympäristövaikutus 800 mPts/dm3 poistettua materiaalia • Alumiinin tilavuus 2,7 kg/dm3 joten lastutaan 1 kg / 2,7 kg/dm3 = 0,37 dm3 1. Prässäämisen ympäristövaikutus 23 mPts/kg muokattua materiaalia 2. Oletetaan että lastuista kierrätetään 95 %, vaikutus -720 mPts/kg Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  56. 56. Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo 1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun 2. Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto 3. Materiaalit ja menetelmät 4. Lasketaan materiaalit ja menetelmät, tehdään oletukset 5. Tehdään laskelmat: lastuava työstö • Alumiinin valmistus: 564 mPts/kg * 1,133 kg = 639 mPts • Työstö: 0,37 dm3 * 800 mPts/dm3 = 296 mPts • Lastujen kierrätys: (95 %): 1 kg * 0,95 * -720 mPts/kg = - 684 mPts 1. Yhteensä 639 mPts + 266 mPts - 684 mPts = 257 mPts Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  57. 57. Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo 1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun 2. Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto 3. Materiaalit ja menetelmät 4. Lasketaan materiaalit ja menetelmät, tehdään oletukset 5. Tehdään laskelmat: prässääminen • Alumiinin valmistus: 564 mPts/kg * 0,25 kg = 141 mPts • Prässääminen: 23 mPts/kg * 0,25 kg = 6 mPts • Yhteensä 147 mPts Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  58. 58. Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo 1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun 2. Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto 3. Materiaalit ja menetelmät 4. Lasketaan materiaalit ja menetelmät, tehdään oletukset 5. Tehdään laskelmat 6. Vertaillaan: • Lastuava työstö 257 mPts • Prässääminen 147 mPts • Eroa 57 % Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  59. 59. Esimerkki: MacBook Pro-kotelo 1. Rajataan tehtävä pelkän kotelon vertailuun 2. Määritetään elinkaari: pelkkä tuotanto 3. Materiaalit ja menetelmät 4. Lasketaan materiaalit ja menetelmät, tehdään oletukset 5. Tehdään laskelmat 6. Vertaillaan 7. Tarkastetaan oletukset • Onko tulos realistinen? • Mitä puuttuu? • Mitä vaikutuksia oletusten muuttamisella on? • Onko ero riittävän suuri? Sustainable Product Development | IDBM | Helsinki | 291008
  60. 60. Act Three: WHY?
  61. 61. By 2025, 75% reduction
  62. 62. By 2050, 93% reduction
  63. 63. However, There’s some good news
  64. 64. namely, everything needs to be redesigned.
  65. 65. 75% reduction means 2 x endurance 2 x less inputs
  66. 66. Question: What you get when you have:
  67. 67. a) new technologies
  68. 68. b) new user needs
  69. 69. c) new markets
  70. 70. d) new business plans
  71. 71. If you have: a) new technologies b) new user needs c) new markets d) new business plans...?
  72. 72. ...what you get is new opportunities to get cleanly rich (as opposed to filthy rich)
  73. 73. What qualities are important in consumer goods? Title Innovativeness 73% Environmentally friendly 70% Quality design 56% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80%
  74. 74. In addition, There’s also some new sources of inspiration
  75. 75. ...like biomimicry Insecta, (c) Shao Yung Yeh 2008
  76. 76. Other hot ideas: Breaking the cost barrier Constraint-based design Cradle to Cradle
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