Janne M. Korhonen
janne.m.korhonen@aalto.fi / www.slideshare.net/jmkorhonen
Research seminar 29.10.2010, Aalto School of E...
Background
PhD research topic: The effects of resource
scarcity on innovation (prof. Liisa Välikangas)
Research question(s...
Agenda
How the world works - information and evolution
Systems as strings of information
Problem-solving as search process...
Agenda
How the world works - information and evolution
Systems as strings of information
Problem-solving as search process...
Why...
...some technologies get adopted, and others are
discarded?
King (2007)
Copper smelters using particular technologies,
1900-2000
To find out why,
let’s take a look how the world works
The world is information
(c) Warner / Village Roadshow
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast)
TCP1-beta gene from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
...describing a system
1 GATCCTCCAT ATAC...
Agenda
How the world works - information and evolution
Systems as strings of information
Problem-solving as search process...
(c) Hartwall/Kumpula, Jack Daniels
Everything can be coded
Describing a system...
0 1
Material Glass Plastic
Shape Round Square
Contents No pressure Under pressure
Cap Pull Screw
Le...
Describing a system...
0 1
Material
Shape
Contents
Cap
Describing a system...
0 1
Material
Shape
Contents
Cap
...system as strings
Material 0 1
Shape 1 0
Contents 0 1
Cap 0 1
Bottles are thus coded in terms of their
elements and all...
The coding can have multiple levels - single 0/1
alleles can represent entire subsystems!
What can be coded?
In principle,...
Bottles coded with four elements of two alleles;
e.g. Frenken (2001, 2006), Kauffman (1993)
Strings for two bottles:
Jdani...
4-element, 2-allele design space (S) has 24 = 16
possibilities
1 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 1
3 0 0 1 0
4 0 0 1 1
5 0 1 0 0
6 0 1 0 1...
Agenda
How the world works - information and evolution
Systems as strings of information
Problem-solving as search process...
Simon (1969), Rosenberg (1969), Kauffman
(1993, 2000), Frenken et al. (1997, 1999)
Problem solving task:
Following Simon (...
Jdaniels is variation 5, ED is variation 12
1 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 1
3 0 0 1 0
4 0 0 1 1
5 0 1 0 0
6 0 1 0 1
7 0 1 1 0
8 0 1 1 ...
Agenda
How the world works - information and evolution
Systems as strings of information
Problem-solving as search process...
e.g. Simon (1969), Wagner and Altenberg
(1995), Frenken (2001)
Interdependency matters
The system may have interdependent ...
(c) Hartwall/Kumpula
Example:
Example:
(c) Hartwall/Kumpula
Pressurized contents
Example:
This is known as epistasy. Pressure has an
epistatic relationship to the shape of bottle.
Pressurized contents
Ro...
Kauffman (1993), Frenken (2001, 2006)
No epistasy
Material Shape Contents Cap
Material x
Shape x
Contents x
Cap x
Changing the contents of the bottle may mean
that the shape is no longer satisfactory
Epistatic relationship - 1
Material ...
Similarities to e.g. Quality Function
Deployment Matrix are evident.
Epistatic relationship - 2
Material Shape Contents Ca...
This creates difficulties
As epistasy increases, finding the optimal solution
becomes more and more difficult.
This can be...
Agenda
How the world works - information and evolution
Systems as strings of information
Problem-solving as search process...
No epistasy: single solution is the best one for
the task. Optimization is very easy.
!"
!#$"
!#%"
!#&"
!#'"
!#("
!#)"
!#*...
!"#$%&
!"'$!"#&
!"($!"'&
!")$!"(&
!$!")&
Fully correlated
landscape: one
fitness peak.
“Hill-climbing”
optimization
strate...
e.g. Kauffman (1993, 2000); Frenken (2001,
2006)
!"
!#$"
!#%"
!#&"
!#'"
!#("
!#)"
!#*"
!#+"
!#,"
$"
!#,
!#+
!#*
!#)
!#(
!#...
Chaotic landscape: maximum epistasy. No
correlation between difference and fitness.
!"
!#$"
!#%"
!#&"
!#'"
!#("
!#)"
!#*"
...
e.g. Kauffman (1993, 2000); Frenken (2001,
2006)
Chaotic landscape:
no correlation
between difference
and fitness.
Optimiz...
!"
!#$"
!#%"
!#&"
!#'"
!#("
!#)"
!#*"
!#+"
!#,"
$"
Intermediate epistasy: multiple options, local
and global optima.
!"
!#$"
!#%"
!#&"
!#'"
!#("
!#)"
!#*"
!#+"
!#,"
!"#$%&
!"'$!"#&
!"($!"'&
!")$!"(&
!$!")&
Roughly correlated
landscape: fitness
peaks and valleys.
Simple hill-climbing
may...
!"
!#$"
!#%"
!#&"
!#'"
!#("
!#)"
!#*"
!#+"
!#,"
!#+-
!#*-
!#)-
!#(-
!#'-
!#&-
!#%-
!#$-
!-!#
Hello, real-life problem! Thi...
For simulating social systems, see e.g. Gilbert &
Troitzsch (2005), Gilbert (2008)
The neat thing:
We can simulate various...
Arbitrarily large solution spaces
1 000000
2 000001
3 000010
4 000011
5 000100
6 000101
7 000110
8 000111
9 001000
10 0010...
Agenda
How the world works - information and evolution
Systems as strings of information
Problem-solving as search process...
Copper smelting furnaces 1900-2000.
Design space size S = 3 981 312.
Back to real life!
R 0000 0000 0000 0000
R1930 0000 0...
In 1900, blast (BF) and reverberatory (R)
furnaces are widespread.
Development of flash smelting
BF 1100 2000 0010 0200 R ...
R 0000 0000 0000 0000BF 1100 2000 0010 0200
PY 1120 2000 0010 0200
Development of flash smelting
In 1902, pyritic process ...
In the 1930s, electric furnaces (E1930) spread
(incl. Imatra), and reverberatories are improved.
BF 1100 2000 0010 0200
PY...
Electricity shortage after WW2 focuses search
for alternative sources of smelting energy.
BF 1100 2000 0010 0200
PY 1120 2...
First flash furnace in 1949; integrates roasting,
uses concepts proven in fluid bed reactors.
BF 1100 2000 0010 0200
PY 11...
Agenda
How the world works - information and evolution
Systems as strings of information
Problem-solving as search process...
Search & constraints:
The effect of constraints: focuses search on
improving attributes that are affected by scarcity.
Con...
Measuring differences
When artefacts (or systems) are coded as strings,
measuring their differences is easy!
Hamming dista...
Hamming distance measures the number of
different elements in a “design.”
BF 1100 2000 0010 0200
PY 1120 2000 0010 0200 R1...
Hamming distance can be used e.g. to measure
radicalness of innovation, creativity, novelty...
BF 1100 2000 0010 0200
PY 1...
Architectures can be decomposable or non-
decomposable (Frenken et al. 1999; Simon 1969)
Epistasy, revisited
n1 n2 n3 n4 n...
Non-decomposable architecture: exhaustive
search requires 2N trials (512)
n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7 n8 n9
w1 x x
w2 x x
w3 x x
...
Decomposable architecture requires 23 + 23 +
23 = 24 trials, which can be done in parallel!
Why e.g. distributed teams wor...
Most real life problems are nearly
decomposable - they can be solved in parallel
Near-decomposable:
n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7 n...
Sukuraman et al. (2008)
Low epistasy technology
Figure 2: Revised Design7
Marketing
At the beginning of the spring semeste...
Scarcity causes search activity; focuses search
on certain dimension (energy, in this case)
The effects of scarcity (?)
Alternative energy solutions are found.
The effects of scarcity (?)
However, wood gas was not an integrated,
efficient system - flash smelting was.
+
-
Integration
(≈epistasy)
The effects of...
Agenda
How the world works - information and evolution
Systems as strings of information
Problem-solving as search process...
Other implications...
The theories used here are applicable to a large variety of
complex systems, and have interesting im...
Computing organizations
“Computational organization theory?” Based on
theory of computation, organizations as
computationa...
One more thing...
The question “why we have so much variety” is
much less interesting than the question
why the lack of va...
Current variety?
How many organizational forms there are in
≤ 50 person firms today?
Possible variety?
Exercise: how many different organizational forms
could a 1-50 person company have, if there are
just th...
1.077 x 1024
If you started at the Big Bang (≈ 13,8 billion years
ago), you’d have to go through
solutions per second to find all the p...
References (1)
Baum (1999). Whole-part coevolutionary competition in organizations. pp. 113-136
in Baum, McKelvey (eds.) V...
References (2)
Morel and Ramanujam (1999). Through the looking glass of complexity: the
dynamics of organizations as adapt...
Explaining the evolution of technologies, firms, and industries: how complexity and constraints can be simulated
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Explaining the evolution of technologies, firms, and industries: how complexity and constraints can be simulated

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A brief presentation of some key concepts of information theory, complex systems, and evolutionary models as applied to technological evolution. Explains the informational nature of technologies as artefacts, the effects of interdependency (epistatic connections) on problem solvability, and makes some preliminary hypotheses about scarcity-induced innovation.

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Explaining the evolution of technologies, firms, and industries: how complexity and constraints can be simulated

  1. 1. Janne M. Korhonen janne.m.korhonen@aalto.fi / www.slideshare.net/jmkorhonen Research seminar 29.10.2010, Aalto School of Economics Explaining the evolution of technologies, firms, and industries: How complexity and constraints can be simulated
  2. 2. Background PhD research topic: The effects of resource scarcity on innovation (prof. Liisa Välikangas) Research question(s): why scarcities sometimes result to significant innovations, but not always? Framework: evolutionary theory and complex, non-linear behavior (complexity); information theory; theory of computation; simulation models Unit of analysis: technology/system as artefact Why I’m here: to outline some ideas!
  3. 3. Agenda How the world works - information and evolution Systems as strings of information Problem-solving as search process Why interdependency matters Fitness landscapes Development of flash smelting Effects of scarcity, and measuring innovation Some implications
  4. 4. Agenda How the world works - information and evolution Systems as strings of information Problem-solving as search process Why interdependency matters Fitness landscapes Development of flash smelting Effects of scarcity, and measuring innovation Some implications
  5. 5. Why... ...some technologies get adopted, and others are discarded?
  6. 6. King (2007)
  7. 7. Copper smelters using particular technologies, 1900-2000
  8. 8. To find out why, let’s take a look how the world works
  9. 9. The world is information
  10. 10. (c) Warner / Village Roadshow
  11. 11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast) TCP1-beta gene from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ...describing a system 1 GATCCTCCAT ATACAACGGT ATCTCCACCT CAGGTTTAGA TCTCAACAAC GGAACCATTG 61 CCGACATGAG ACAGTTAGGT ATCGTCGAGA GTTACAAGCT AAAACGAGCA GTAGTCAGCT 121 CTGCATCTGA AGCCGCTGAA GTTCTACTAA GGGTGGATAA CATCATCCGT GCAAGACCAA 181 GAACCGCCAA TAGACAACAT ATGTAACATA TTTAGGATAT ACCTCGAAAA TAATAAACCG 241 CCACACTGTC ATTATTATAA TTAGAAACAG AACGCAAAAA TTATCCACTA TATAATTCAA 301 AGACGCGAAA AAAAAAGAAC AACGCGTCAT AGAACTTTTG GCAATTCGCG TCACAAATAA 361 ATTTTGGCAA CTTATGTTTC CTCTTCGAGC AGTACTCGAG CCCTGTCTCA AGAATGTAAT 421 AATACCCATC GTAGGTATGG TTAAAGATAG CATCTCCACA ACCTCAAAGC TCCTTGCCGA 481 GAGTCGCCCT CCTTTGTCGA GTAATTTTCA CTTTTCATAT GAGAACTTAT TTTCTTATTC 541 TTTACTCTCA CATCCTGTAG TGATTGACAC TGCAACAGCC ACCATCACTA GAAGAACAGA 601 ACAATTACTT AATAGAAAAA TTATATCTTC CTCGAAACGA TTTCCTGCTT CCAACATCTA 661 CGTATATCAA GAAGCATTCA CTTACCATGA CACAGCTTCA GATTTCATTA TTGCTGACAG 721 CTACTATATC ACTACTCCAT CTAGTAGTGG CCACGCCCTA TGAGGCATAT CCTATCGGAA 781 AACAATACCC CCCAGTGGCA AGAGTCAATG AATCGTTTAC ATTTCAAATT TCCAATGATA 841 CCTATAAATC GTCTGTAGAC AAGACAGCTC AAATAACATA CAATTGCTTC GACTTACCGA 901 GCTGGCTTTC GTTTGACTCT AGTTCTAGAA CGTTCTCAGG TGAACCTTCT TCTGACTTAC 961 TATCTGATGC GAACACCACG TTGTATTTCA ATGTAATACT CGAGGGTACG GACTCTGCCG 1021 ACAGCACGTC TTTGAACAAT ACATACCAAT TTGTTGTTAC AAACCGTCCA TCCATCTCGC 1081 TATCGTCAGA TTTCAATCTA TTGGCGTTGT TAAAAAACTA TGGTTATACT AACGGCAAAA 1141 ACGCTCTGAA ACTAGATCCT AATGAAGTCT TCAACGTGAC TTTTGACCGT TCAATGTTCA
  12. 12. Agenda How the world works - information and evolution Systems as strings of information Problem-solving as search process Why interdependency matters Fitness landscapes Development of flash smelting Effects of scarcity, and measuring innovation Some implications
  13. 13. (c) Hartwall/Kumpula, Jack Daniels Everything can be coded
  14. 14. Describing a system... 0 1 Material Glass Plastic Shape Round Square Contents No pressure Under pressure Cap Pull Screw Leftmost column represents elements, 0 and 1 columns represent alleles of an element
  15. 15. Describing a system... 0 1 Material Shape Contents Cap
  16. 16. Describing a system... 0 1 Material Shape Contents Cap
  17. 17. ...system as strings Material 0 1 Shape 1 0 Contents 0 1 Cap 0 1 Bottles are thus coded in terms of their elements and alleles (e.g. Frenken 2001, 2006)
  18. 18. The coding can have multiple levels - single 0/1 alleles can represent entire subsystems! What can be coded? In principle, everything that is definable by information ≈ everything! Applications include • Organization theory (Kauffman and Macready 1995; Westhoff et al 1996; Levinthal 1997; Marengo 1998; Baum 1999; Levinthal and Warglien 1999; McKelvey 1999a, 1999b; Gavetti and Levinthal 2000; Ghemawat and Levinthal 2000; Marengo et al. 2000; Rivkin 2000; Dosi et al. 2001; Frenken 2001, 2006; Morel and Ramanujam 1999) • Political science (Schrodt 1994; Post and Johnson 2000) • Scientometrics (Scharnhorst 1998)
  19. 19. Bottles coded with four elements of two alleles; e.g. Frenken (2001, 2006), Kauffman (1993) Strings for two bottles: Jdaniels 0 1 0 0 ED 1 0 1 1
  20. 20. 4-element, 2-allele design space (S) has 24 = 16 possibilities 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 1 5 0 1 0 0 6 0 1 0 1 7 0 1 1 0 8 0 1 1 1 9 1 0 0 0 10 1 0 0 1 11 1 0 1 0 12 1 0 1 1 13 1 1 0 0 14 1 1 0 1 15 1 1 1 0 16 1 1 1 1 All possible strings:
  21. 21. Agenda How the world works - information and evolution Systems as strings of information Problem-solving as search process Why interdependency matters Fitness landscapes Development of flash smelting Effects of scarcity, and measuring innovation Some implications
  22. 22. Simon (1969), Rosenberg (1969), Kauffman (1993, 2000), Frenken et al. (1997, 1999) Problem solving task: Following Simon (1969), can be conceptualized as searching for the right solution in a solution (“design”) space. New variations can be considered as “new combinations” (cf. Schumpeter 1934). Due to practical limitations - the size of design space - this search is boundedly rational. It thus requires heuristics.
  23. 23. Jdaniels is variation 5, ED is variation 12 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 1 5 0 1 0 0 6 0 1 0 1 7 0 1 1 0 8 0 1 1 1 9 1 0 0 0 10 1 0 0 1 11 1 0 1 0 12 1 0 1 1 13 1 1 0 0 14 1 1 0 1 15 1 1 1 0 16 1 1 1 1
  24. 24. Agenda How the world works - information and evolution Systems as strings of information Problem-solving as search process Why interdependency matters Fitness landscapes Development of flash smelting Effects of scarcity, and measuring innovation Some implications
  25. 25. e.g. Simon (1969), Wagner and Altenberg (1995), Frenken (2001) Interdependency matters The system may have interdependent elements; “mutating” one may have an effect on another’s “fitness” for purpose. This defines the system’s architecture.
  26. 26. (c) Hartwall/Kumpula Example:
  27. 27. Example: (c) Hartwall/Kumpula Pressurized contents
  28. 28. Example: This is known as epistasy. Pressure has an epistatic relationship to the shape of bottle. Pressurized contents Round shape
  29. 29. Kauffman (1993), Frenken (2001, 2006) No epistasy Material Shape Contents Cap Material x Shape x Contents x Cap x
  30. 30. Changing the contents of the bottle may mean that the shape is no longer satisfactory Epistatic relationship - 1 Material Shape Contents Cap Material x Shape x x Contents x x Cap x
  31. 31. Similarities to e.g. Quality Function Deployment Matrix are evident. Epistatic relationship - 2 Material Shape Contents Cap Material x x x Shape x x x Contents x x x x Cap x x
  32. 32. This creates difficulties As epistasy increases, finding the optimal solution becomes more and more difficult. This can be represented using a fitness landscape: 1) assign a fitness to each solution 2) order the solutions based on their differences Theoretically, three different landscapes can be identified:
  33. 33. Agenda How the world works - information and evolution Systems as strings of information Problem-solving as search process Why interdependency matters Fitness landscapes Development of flash smelting Effects of scarcity, and measuring innovation Some implications
  34. 34. No epistasy: single solution is the best one for the task. Optimization is very easy. !" !#$" !#%" !#&" !#'" !#(" !#)" !#*" !#+" !#," $" !#, !#+ !#* !#) !#( !#' !#& !#% !#$ !-!
  35. 35. !"#$%& !"'$!"#& !"($!"'& !")$!"(& !$!")& Fully correlated landscape: one fitness peak. “Hill-climbing” optimization strategy works every time.
  36. 36. e.g. Kauffman (1993, 2000); Frenken (2001, 2006) !" !#$" !#%" !#&" !#'" !#(" !#)" !#*" !#+" !#," $" !#, !#+ !#* !#) !#( !#' !#& !#% !#$ !-
  37. 37. Chaotic landscape: maximum epistasy. No correlation between difference and fitness. !" !#$" !#%" !#&" !#'" !#(" !#)" !#*" !#+" !#," $" !#,-$" !#+-!#, !#*-!#+ !#)-!#* !#(-!#) !#'-!#( !#&-!#' !#%-!#& !#$-!#% !-!#$"
  38. 38. e.g. Kauffman (1993, 2000); Frenken (2001, 2006) Chaotic landscape: no correlation between difference and fitness. Optimization impossible; random search only viable search strategy. !"#$%& !"'$!"#& !"($!"'& !")$!"(& !$!")&
  39. 39. !" !#$" !#%" !#&" !#'" !#(" !#)" !#*" !#+" !#," $"
  40. 40. Intermediate epistasy: multiple options, local and global optima. !" !#$" !#%" !#&" !#'" !#(" !#)" !#*" !#+" !#,"
  41. 41. !"#$%& !"'$!"#& !"($!"'& !")$!"(& !$!")& Roughly correlated landscape: fitness peaks and valleys. Simple hill-climbing may get stuck to local optima; random search too inefficient. Random mutation hill climbing works! e.g. Kauffman (1993, 2000); Frenken (2001, 2006); Dennett (1995)
  42. 42. !" !#$" !#%" !#&" !#'" !#(" !#)" !#*" !#+" !#," !#+- !#*- !#)- !#(- !#'- !#&- !#%- !#$- !-!# Hello, real-life problem! This is what they tend to look like.
  43. 43. For simulating social systems, see e.g. Gilbert & Troitzsch (2005), Gilbert (2008) The neat thing: We can simulate various problem-solving situations without having to know the details of the situation; We just need to estimate the epistasy and solution space.
  44. 44. Arbitrarily large solution spaces 1 000000 2 000001 3 000010 4 000011 5 000100 6 000101 7 000110 8 000111 9 001000 10 001001 11 001010 12 001011 13 001100 14 001101 15 001110 16 001111 17 010000 18 010001 19 010010 20 010011 21 010100 22 010101 23 010110 24 010111 25 011000 26 011001 27 011010 28 011011 29 011100 30 011101 31 011110 32 011111 33 100000 34 100001 35 100010 36 100011 37 100100 38 100101 39 100110 40 100111 41 101000 42 101001 43 101010 44 101011 45 101100 46 101101 47 101110 48 101111 49 110000 50 110001 51 110010 52 110011 53 110100 54 110101 55 110110 56 110111 57 111000 58 111001 59 111010 60 111011 61 111100 62 111101 63 111110 64 111111
  45. 45. Agenda How the world works - information and evolution Systems as strings of information Problem-solving as search process Why interdependency matters Fitness landscapes Development of flash smelting Effects of scarcity, and measuring innovation Some implications
  46. 46. Copper smelting furnaces 1900-2000. Design space size S = 3 981 312. Back to real life! R 0000 0000 0000 0000 R1930 0000 0001 0001 0110 Rdry 0000 1100 0000 0100 ROX 0001 0000 0000 0100 E1930 0010 0110 1101 0000 E1950 0010 0110 1100 0000 F1950 1120 1121 2121 0111 F1970 1121 1121 2121 0111 F1990 1131 1121 2121 0101 IF1950 0022 1120 2110 0101 IF1990 0022 1121 2111 3001 T 0121 0010 1010 0200 Tdry 0131 1110 2110 2200 C 0021 1121 2101 1101 IS 1121 0020 2101 0300 V 0022 0020 2110 0200 M 1121 1121 2110 0300 BF 1100 2000 0010 0200 PY 1120 2000 0010 0200
  47. 47. In 1900, blast (BF) and reverberatory (R) furnaces are widespread. Development of flash smelting BF 1100 2000 0010 0200 R 0000 0000 0000 0000
  48. 48. R 0000 0000 0000 0000BF 1100 2000 0010 0200 PY 1120 2000 0010 0200 Development of flash smelting In 1902, pyritic process (PY) is tested. It’s autogenous, but limited by lack of suitable ores.
  49. 49. In the 1930s, electric furnaces (E1930) spread (incl. Imatra), and reverberatories are improved. BF 1100 2000 0010 0200 PY 1120 2000 0010 0200 R1930 0000 0001 0001 0110 R 0000 0000 0000 0000 E1930 0010 0110 1101 0000 Development of flash smelting
  50. 50. Electricity shortage after WW2 focuses search for alternative sources of smelting energy. BF 1100 2000 0010 0200 PY 1120 2000 0010 0200 R1930 0000 0001 0001 0110 R 0000 0000 0000 0000 E1930 0010 0110 1101 0000 Development of flash smelting
  51. 51. First flash furnace in 1949; integrates roasting, uses concepts proven in fluid bed reactors. BF 1100 2000 0010 0200 PY 1120 2000 0010 0200 R1930 0000 0001 0001 0110 R 0000 0000 0000 0000 F1950 1120 1121 2121 0111 E1930 0010 0110 1101 0000 Development of flash smelting
  52. 52. Agenda How the world works - information and evolution Systems as strings of information Problem-solving as search process Why interdependency matters Fitness landscapes Development of flash smelting Effects of scarcity, and measuring innovation Some implications
  53. 53. Search & constraints: The effect of constraints: focuses search on improving attributes that are affected by scarcity. Constraints act as a focusing device (Rosenberg 1969); focusing search to certain attributes. This is known as function space search after Bradshaw (1992) and Frenken (2001).
  54. 54. Measuring differences When artefacts (or systems) are coded as strings, measuring their differences is easy! Hamming distance measures the differences between two solutions: Hamming (1950)
  55. 55. Hamming distance measures the number of different elements in a “design.” BF 1100 2000 0010 0200 PY 1120 2000 0010 0200 R1930 0000 0001 0001 0110 R 0000 0000 0000 0000 Hamming distance 1 Hamming distance 4 Measuring differences
  56. 56. Hamming distance can be used e.g. to measure radicalness of innovation, creativity, novelty... BF 1100 2000 0010 0200 PY 1120 2000 0010 0200 F1950 1120 1121 2121 0111 Hamming distance 11 Measuring innovation
  57. 57. Architectures can be decomposable or non- decomposable (Frenken et al. 1999; Simon 1969) Epistasy, revisited n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7 n8 n9 w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 w8 w9
  58. 58. Non-decomposable architecture: exhaustive search requires 2N trials (512) n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7 n8 n9 w1 x x w2 x x w3 x x w4 x x w5 x x w6 x x w7 x x w8 x x w9 x x Epistasy, revisited
  59. 59. Decomposable architecture requires 23 + 23 + 23 = 24 trials, which can be done in parallel! Why e.g. distributed teams work n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7 n8 n9 w1 x x x w2 x x x w3 x x x w4 x x x w5 x x x w6 x x x w7 x x x w8 x x x w9 x x x
  60. 60. Most real life problems are nearly decomposable - they can be solved in parallel Near-decomposable: n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7 n8 n9 w1 x x x w2 x x x w3 x x x w4 x x x x w5 x x x w6 x x x w7 x x x x w8 x x x w9 x x x
  61. 61. Sukuraman et al. (2008) Low epistasy technology Figure 2: Revised Design7 Marketing At the beginning of the spring semester, the Rowan University Business Department showed interest in working with the project through the Entrepreneurial course. The engineering team met with a group o business students to show them the drawings and explain the concept of the project after which they decided to work on the marketing side of the project. At present, the business team is doing research on areas the finished project can be marketed to. They are also presenting to a group of possible Technologies developed for use in the developing world tend to be highly modular to accommodate variety in components, i.e. they are near/fully decomposable, such as this bicycle-powered grain crusher
  62. 62. Scarcity causes search activity; focuses search on certain dimension (energy, in this case) The effects of scarcity (?)
  63. 63. Alternative energy solutions are found. The effects of scarcity (?)
  64. 64. However, wood gas was not an integrated, efficient system - flash smelting was. + - Integration (≈epistasy) The effects of scarcity (?)
  65. 65. Agenda How the world works - information and evolution Systems as strings of information Problem-solving as search process Why interdependency matters Fitness landscapes Development of flash smelting Effects of scarcity, and measuring innovation Some implications
  66. 66. Other implications... The theories used here are applicable to a large variety of complex systems, and have interesting implications, e.g. • Systems with moderate complexity have the highest fitness (Schilling 2000) • The more complex a problem is, the more solutions differ from each other (Kauffman 1993) • The speed of evolution is inversely related to the complexity of system’s architecture (Kauffman 1993) • Imitation strategies are less successful, the more complex the system being imitated is (Rivkin 2000) • S-curves are easy to explain: local/global optima!
  67. 67. Computing organizations “Computational organization theory?” Based on theory of computation, organizations as computational systems (e.g. Saraceno and Barr 2002; also Wolfram 2002; Sipser 2006) e.g. showing the limits of theory: the fastest way to determine what an organization will do is to let the organization do it; thus, “shortcuts” (=theories) are limited, thus, the predictive power of our theories is inherently limited. ☐
  68. 68. One more thing... The question “why we have so much variety” is much less interesting than the question why the lack of variety?
  69. 69. Current variety? How many organizational forms there are in ≤ 50 person firms today?
  70. 70. Possible variety? Exercise: how many different organizational forms could a 1-50 person company have, if there are just three levels in hierarchy? e.g. possible positions are 1) top management, 2) middle management, 3) worker?
  71. 71. 1.077 x 1024
  72. 72. If you started at the Big Bang (≈ 13,8 billion years ago), you’d have to go through solutions per second to find all the possible combinations 2 500 000
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  74. 74. References (2) Morel and Ramanujam (1999). Through the looking glass of complexity: the dynamics of organizations as adaptive and evolving systems. Organization Science 10, pp. 278-293. Post and Johnson (2000). "Chaos prevailing on every continent": towads a newtheory of decentralized decision-making in complex systems. Chicago-Kent Law Review. Rivkin (2000). Imitation of complex strategies. Management Science 46, pp. 824-844. Rosenberg (1969). The direction of technical change: inducement mechanisms and focussing devices. Economic Development and Cultural Change 18, pp 1-24. Scharnhorst (1998). Citation networks, science landscapes and evolutioniary strategies. Scientometrics 43, pp. 95-106. Saraceno and Barr (2002). A computational theory of the firm. Journal of Economic behavior and Organization. Schilling (2000). Toward a general modular systems theory and its application to interfirm product modularity. Academy of Management Review 25(2) pp. 312-334 Schrodt (1994). A landscape model of rule-based co-adaptation in international behavior. Schumpeter (1934). The Theory of Economic Development. Simon (1969). The Sciences of the Artificial. Sipser (2006). Introduction to the Theory of Computation. Second Edition. Sukuraman et al. (2008). Teaching Engineering Design with a focus on the developing world. Proceedings of the ASEE 2008. Wagner and Altenberg (1996). Perspective: Complex adaptations and the evolution of evolvability. Evolution 50(3), pp. 967-976 Westhoff et al. (1996). Complexity, Organization, and Stuart Kauffman's The Origins of Order. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 29, pp. 1-25 Wolfram (2002). A New Kind of Science.

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