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Writing your introduction, transitions, and conclusion

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  • 1. Preparation is the best medicine!
  • 2. Develop your Purpose Determine your REASON for speaking:  General purposes: inform, persuade, entertain  Specific purpose: Complete sentence that begins with ―After listening to my speech, my audience will….‖ If you don’t know your purpose, DON’T start writing your speech yet!
  • 3. Start…and Finish  The introduction and conclusion:  Are vitally important  Occupy less than 20% of speaking time  Help listeners form impressions early  Leave lasting impressions
  • 4. Introduction  Four basic functions:  Refer to the audience, occasion , something  Get audience attention familiar  Cite a startling fact or opinion  Ask a yes/no, raise-your- hand, or rhetorical question  Tell a brief story  Use a quote  Tell a relevant joke
  • 5. Attention Getters  Examples:  ―Did you know that adults who began volunteering as youth are twice as likely to volunteer as those who did not volunteer when they were younger?‖-Ask a question/pose a statistic  ―Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison, Steve Jobs. These are all great inventors and innovators that have had an enormous effect on everyone living in the world today.‖ – Refer to something familiar  ―Trick or Treat! Smell my feet! Give me something good to eat!‖ – Use a quote
  • 6. Introduction  Four basic functions:  Your thesis is one sentence that tells your  Get audience attention audience what the entire  State your thesis or speech is about. proposition  It is NOT an English paper thesis. Be direct.  A proposition is used in a persuasive speech. It states your POSITION on the topic, as well as what you hope to accomplish with the speech.
  • 7. Thesis or Proposition Statement  Examples: ―I plan to convince you to start volunteering as well by demonstrating the benefits it has for everyone involved.‖ - Proposition ―Steve Jobs had an interesting life and contributed greatly to the world, which is why I plan to share more about his life with you today.‖ - Thesis ―Today, I want to inform you all of the history and traditions behind this spooky holiday.‖ - Thesis
  • 8. Introduction  Four basic functions:  Why are you an  Get audience attention authority on the topic?  State your thesis or  Why did you choose proposition this topic?  Establish your  State if you have credibility experience with the topic or if you have done research.
  • 9. Credibility Statements  Examples:  ―Volunteering is something that has been a huge part of my life for about 5 years.‖ - Experience  ―Steve Jobs had a personal impact on my own life by inspiring me to major in technology innovation. I’ve also read his biography recently.‖ – Reason for choosing/Authority on Topic  “Like me, I am sure all of you have celebrated Halloween in some way or another—but as a great enthusiast of Halloween, I researched more about this holiday to understand where it started.‖ – Reason for choosing/Authority on Topic
  • 10. Introduction  Four basic functions:  Directly state or list the  Get audience attention 3-5 main points  State your thesis or BRIEFLY that you plan proposition to make.  Establish your  This should be a clear credibility list.  Preview your main  It should correspond points exactly with your main points.
  • 11. Preview Statements  Examples:  ―I’ll begin with why volunteering first and foremost improves the lives of those being helped, then why it personally changes and benefits the person volunteering, and lastly I will convince you that the long term impacts of volunteering are high.‖  ―To begin, I will tell you about the early life of Steve Jobs with his childhood and education. Then, I’ll tell you about his professional achievements, and lastly about his death.‖  ―First, I will tell you what Halloween is and where it came from; Second, I will tell you about the traditions and customs that go along with this holiday; and lastly, I will tell you about the activities that people like to participate in during this day.‖
  • 12. Another Example:  Attention getter: How many people in here have a hard time balancing school work, working, family, and personal time? Thesis: For many of you in here, time management can be a major struggle, but it doesn’t have to be. Credibility: I’ve been effectively using time management strategies for years now, and it has made my life much easier to balance. Preview: First, I’ll discuss how to manage your school time, then work time, and lastly family and personal time.
  • 13. Transitions   Shift the speech from one point to another  Provide a brief recap or forecast  Occur between EVERY PARAGRAPH and sometimes between main points and sub points You will VERBALLY state every transition clearly. These are not subtle, English paper transitions. They are direct and clear statements that can be audibly detected by your audience.
  • 14. Transition Examples  ―Let me begin with the first people who benefit from volunteer work.‖ – Shifts the point ―This brings me to next point: Steve Jobs’ professional achievements.‖ – Forecasts the next point ―Now that I’ve told you the origins and traditions of Halloween night, I’ll discuss how fun it is to go take part in the freaky and creepy parts of Halloween.‖ – Provides a recap and forecast
  • 15. Conclusion  Transition over completely to conclusion  ―So as you can see…‖ or ―To conclude…‖ Then SUMMARIZE THE POINTS AGAIN.  ―First I told you about (point 1), then I discussed (point 2) and lastly, I explained (point 3).‖ In persuasive speaking only, Call to Action is here End with a memorable thought
  • 16. Tips for an Effective Conclusion  Do not end abruptly Don’t ramble Don’t introduce new points Don’t apologize
  • 17. Conclusion Example #1 Transition statement: ―With that in mind, let me conclude.‖Conclusion ―First, I told you about the positive impact it has on the person being helped, then I told you about how it affects the volunteer and lastly I told you about the long term benefits of volunteering. - Recap I hope this inspires all of you to begin volunteering today! – Call to Action This is our time—let’s make a difference.‖ – Memorable thought
  • 18. Conclusion Example #2  Transition statement: ―Let me conclude by recapping my points.‖Conclusion ―I began by telling you of his humble beginnings, how he progressed to change the modern world with his cutting-edge products and left a mark on the computer industry, and his tragic death. - Recap Some of you may not realize it, but every one of you has personally been affected by this pioneer of the computer industry.‖ – Memorable thought
  • 19. Conclusion Example#3 Transition statement: ―With such a fun-filled holiday, there’smuch more to say, but for now I must conclude.‖Conclusion  ―First, I told you where the day Halloween came from and what the meaning behind it is, second, I told you what traditions are practiced on this night, and lastly, I explained what amusing activities come along with Halloween. - Recap  Now that you all are more informed about this fun filled holiday, I would like to share a little piece of Halloween with you.‖ (Pass out Candy and play ―Thriller‖ by Michael Jackson) – Memorable thought and action

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