Develop your Purpose Determine your REASON for speaking: General purposes: inform, persuade, entertain Specific purpose: Complete sentence that begins with ―After listening to my speech, my audience will….‖ If you don’t know your purpose, DON’T start writing your speech yet!
Start…and Finish The introduction and conclusion: Are vitally important Occupy less than 20% of speaking time Help listeners form impressions early Leave lasting impressions
Introduction Four basic functions: Refer to the audience, occasion , something Get audience attention familiar Cite a startling fact or opinion Ask a yes/no, raise-your- hand, or rhetorical question Tell a brief story Use a quote Tell a relevant joke
Attention Getters Examples: ―Did you know that adults who began volunteering as youth are twice as likely to volunteer as those who did not volunteer when they were younger?‖-Ask a question/pose a statistic ―Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison, Steve Jobs. These are all great inventors and innovators that have had an enormous effect on everyone living in the world today.‖ – Refer to something familiar ―Trick or Treat! Smell my feet! Give me something good to eat!‖ – Use a quote
Introduction Four basic functions: Your thesis is one sentence that tells your Get audience attention audience what the entire State your thesis or speech is about. proposition It is NOT an English paper thesis. Be direct. A proposition is used in a persuasive speech. It states your POSITION on the topic, as well as what you hope to accomplish with the speech.
Thesis or Proposition Statement Examples: ―I plan to convince you to start volunteering as well by demonstrating the benefits it has for everyone involved.‖ - Proposition ―Steve Jobs had an interesting life and contributed greatly to the world, which is why I plan to share more about his life with you today.‖ - Thesis ―Today, I want to inform you all of the history and traditions behind this spooky holiday.‖ - Thesis
Introduction Four basic functions: Why are you an Get audience attention authority on the topic? State your thesis or Why did you choose proposition this topic? Establish your State if you have credibility experience with the topic or if you have done research.
Credibility Statements Examples: ―Volunteering is something that has been a huge part of my life for about 5 years.‖ - Experience ―Steve Jobs had a personal impact on my own life by inspiring me to major in technology innovation. I’ve also read his biography recently.‖ – Reason for choosing/Authority on Topic “Like me, I am sure all of you have celebrated Halloween in some way or another—but as a great enthusiast of Halloween, I researched more about this holiday to understand where it started.‖ – Reason for choosing/Authority on Topic
Introduction Four basic functions: Directly state or list the Get audience attention 3-5 main points State your thesis or BRIEFLY that you plan proposition to make. Establish your This should be a clear credibility list. Preview your main It should correspond points exactly with your main points.
Preview Statements Examples: ―I’ll begin with why volunteering first and foremost improves the lives of those being helped, then why it personally changes and benefits the person volunteering, and lastly I will convince you that the long term impacts of volunteering are high.‖ ―To begin, I will tell you about the early life of Steve Jobs with his childhood and education. Then, I’ll tell you about his professional achievements, and lastly about his death.‖ ―First, I will tell you what Halloween is and where it came from; Second, I will tell you about the traditions and customs that go along with this holiday; and lastly, I will tell you about the activities that people like to participate in during this day.‖
Another Example: Attention getter: How many people in here have a hard time balancing school work, working, family, and personal time? Thesis: For many of you in here, time management can be a major struggle, but it doesn’t have to be. Credibility: I’ve been effectively using time management strategies for years now, and it has made my life much easier to balance. Preview: First, I’ll discuss how to manage your school time, then work time, and lastly family and personal time.
Transitions Shift the speech from one point to another Provide a brief recap or forecast Occur between EVERY PARAGRAPH and sometimes between main points and sub points You will VERBALLY state every transition clearly. These are not subtle, English paper transitions. They are direct and clear statements that can be audibly detected by your audience.
Transition Examples ―Let me begin with the first people who benefit from volunteer work.‖ – Shifts the point ―This brings me to next point: Steve Jobs’ professional achievements.‖ – Forecasts the next point ―Now that I’ve told you the origins and traditions of Halloween night, I’ll discuss how fun it is to go take part in the freaky and creepy parts of Halloween.‖ – Provides a recap and forecast
Conclusion Transition over completely to conclusion ―So as you can see…‖ or ―To conclude…‖ Then SUMMARIZE THE POINTS AGAIN. ―First I told you about (point 1), then I discussed (point 2) and lastly, I explained (point 3).‖ In persuasive speaking only, Call to Action is here End with a memorable thought
Tips for an Effective Conclusion Do not end abruptly Don’t ramble Don’t introduce new points Don’t apologize
Conclusion Example #1 Transition statement: ―With that in mind, let me conclude.‖Conclusion ―First, I told you about the positive impact it has on the person being helped, then I told you about how it affects the volunteer and lastly I told you about the long term benefits of volunteering. - Recap I hope this inspires all of you to begin volunteering today! – Call to Action This is our time—let’s make a difference.‖ – Memorable thought
Conclusion Example #2 Transition statement: ―Let me conclude by recapping my points.‖Conclusion ―I began by telling you of his humble beginnings, how he progressed to change the modern world with his cutting-edge products and left a mark on the computer industry, and his tragic death. - Recap Some of you may not realize it, but every one of you has personally been affected by this pioneer of the computer industry.‖ – Memorable thought
Conclusion Example#3 Transition statement: ―With such a fun-filled holiday, there’smuch more to say, but for now I must conclude.‖Conclusion ―First, I told you where the day Halloween came from and what the meaning behind it is, second, I told you what traditions are practiced on this night, and lastly, I explained what amusing activities come along with Halloween. - Recap Now that you all are more informed about this fun filled holiday, I would like to share a little piece of Halloween with you.‖ (Pass out Candy and play ―Thriller‖ by Michael Jackson) – Memorable thought and action