Online Research and CitingSources for Speeches Verbally and on your outline
Internet Research Internet research is an easy way to obtain information about your topic. However, not everything online is college-level quality Evaluating the quality of a website involves looking at: Credibility Objectivity Currency
Criteria for Internet Research Credibility Can you establish who wrote the article? Do they have the necessary credentials? Objectivity Is the author presenting an objective point of view or a biased opinion? Currency Is this information current? For some topics like technology, the environment, and medical advances, you should use only the most current information.
Determining Website Credibility We‟ll look at six websites Try to determine if they meet the criteria for internet research or not. What principle of internet research might they violate? Note: these websites may contain copyrighted material and are used only for educational purposes
Verdict: Not Credible Why not? Wikipedia is a great source of general information for personal use. However, for college level research, you should use primary resources where you can check the validity and credibility of the information directly. Shhh! Sometimes these primary sources can be found at the bottom of the Wikipedia page! Click on them to view!
Verdict: Not Objective Why not? Blogs can be created by anyone who wants one. Just because someone writes something doesn‟t mean they are qualified to do so or that they are presenting a balanced view. Most people use blogs to share their personal views. Most blogs are not research based or peer reviewed.
Verdict: Not current Why not? There is NO DATE on this website, so it‟s impossible to tell how current the information is. When it comes to a scientific topic, it‟s best to find the most current information possible, as the information is constantly evolving. It‟s a good rule of thumb that if you can‟t find an author or date, don‟t use the website.
Verdict: Credible Journal Articles are usually upfront about who wrote them and the credentials of that person. Most journals note up front as well whether or not they are peer-reviewed and scholarly. If you can find all the information about the author and date, there‟s a good chance it‟s a credible source of information.
Verdict: Objective Empirical studies tend to be objective and contain vast amounts of information Anything contained on a Research Network as well will probably be peer-reviewed and deemed scholarly as well.
Verdict: Current The date is clearly stated on this document. As I created this PowerPoint activity during 2012, one can safely assume a 2012 document is a current source of information for Global Warming. Other information on this website would also indicate that this is a scholarly source of information.
Where do I find these bettersources? Instead of going straight to Google, try Google Scholar OR Go to your college library‟s website
Check out: Resources for you Research Assistance Search Magazines and Articles Search Databases (I recommend Academic Search Complete, Opposing Viewpoints, or CQ Researcher!) Use the LibGuides—many for persuasive speeches are already in there! Email the Librarians for specific help
Works Cited A list of sources used in a presentation Use a uniform style APA MLA Designed to enable someone else to locate the supporting material you used
Which citation is which? Harter, L. A. (2008). Human Internal Communication (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill Publications. references “According to James Darnell, a researcher for the Institute of Higher Learning…” Bibliographic Reference At the same time, their levels of absenteeism declined (Oyserman, Beebe, & Terry, 2006) Verbal Citations
Were you correct? Harter, L. A. (2008). Human Internal Communication (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill Publications. references “According to James Darnell, a researcher for the Institute of Higher Learning…” Bibliographic Reference At the same time, their levels of absenteeism declined (Oyserman, Beebe, & Terry, 2006) Verbal Citations
Help with MLA Use these helpful websites to find out more about citing sources for your Bibliography/ Works Cited and Internal references. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/search.php http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/74 7/2/ http://www.easybib.com/
Why should I verbally cite? Verbal citations: Tell listeners WHO the source is and that s/he is reliable, credible, and qualified Verify how CURRENT the information is Ensure that you are not PLAGIARIZING Leave a PATH for listeners to find your research later
Where are my verbal citations? When you research for your speeches, you are already taking down the information about the source for your Bibliography/Works Cited. You‟ll also reference the source in your outline, wherever the information is But a verbal citation is when you say it OUT LOUD, DURING your speech, wherever the information is
Examples Ineffective: “Margaret Brownwell writes in her book Dieting Sensibly that fad diets telling you „eat all you want‟ are dangerous and misguided.” (Although the speaker cites and author and book title, who is Margaret Brownwell? No information is presented to establish her authority on the topic.) Better: “Margaret Brownwell, professor of nutrition at the University of New Mexico , writes in her book, Dieting Sensibly, that …” (The author’s credentials are clearly described.) Note: some of the above examples are quoted from: Metcalfe, Sheldon. Building a Speech. 7th ed. Boston: Wadsworth, 2010. Google Books. Web. 17 Mar. 2012.
Examples Ineffective: “An article titled „Biofuels Boom‟ from the ProQuest database notes that Midwestern energy companies are building new factories to convert corn to ethanol.” (Although ProQuest is the database tool used to retrieve the information, the name of the newspaper or journal and publication date should be cited as the source.) Better: “An article titled „Biofuels Boom‟ in a September 2010 issue of Journal of Environment and Development” notes that midwestern energy companies…” (Name and date of the source provides credibility and currency of the information as well as giving the audience better information to track down the source.) Note: some of the above examples are quoted from: Metcalfe, Sheldon. Building a Speech. 7th ed. Boston: Wadsworth, 2010. Google Books. Web. 17 Mar. 2012.
Examples Ineffective: “According to generationrescue.org, possible recovery from autism includes dietary interventions.” (No indication of the credibility or sponsoring organization or author of the website is given) Better: “According to pediatrician Jerry Kartzinel, consultant for generationrescue.org, an organization that provides information about autism treatment options, possibly recovery from autism includes dietary interventions.” (author and purpose of the website is clearly stated.) Note: some of the above examples are quoted from: Metcalfe, Sheldon. Building a Speech. 7th ed. Boston: Wadsworth, 2010. Google Books. Web. 17 Mar. 2012.
Help with Verbal Citations For more help with Verbal Citations, go to this website: http://libguides.greenriver.edu/content.php? pid=53310&sid=2604145