Published on

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. The Great WestChapter 26<br />
  2. 2. Tragedy for Native Americans<br /><ul><li>President Andrew Jackson signs 1st Indian Removal Act
  3. 3. Worcester v. Georgia 1832
  4. 4. “John Marshall made his decision, now let him enforce it”
  5. 5. Open up land for farming</li></li></ul><li>
  6. 6. Cultures Clash<br />Dislocated tribes like Sioux and Cheyenne adapted to new life on Plains quickly<br />White settlers bring hardships prior to Civil War<br />Treaties such as Fort Laramie 1851 and Fort Atkinson 1853 begin reservation system<br />Why did treaties fail?<br />
  7. 7. Promised Land<br /><ul><li>Given most of Oklahoma, “as long as grass shall grow and rivers run.”
  8. 8. Provided $$$ from sale of Eastern lands
  9. 9. $$$ later taken to pay for their care
  10. 10. Boomers pressured government to take away promised land:
  11. 11. Railroad
  12. 12. Farming
  13. 13. Increased amounts of settlers caused tension with existing Plains Indians
  14. 14. Growing need for military protection (US Cavalry)</li></li></ul><li>Systematic Destruction of Bison<br />1871 to 1875, the US supported the extermination of 11 million buffalo.<br />
  15. 15. Vanishing Way Of Life<br /><ul><li>Settlers moving into the West saw buffalo as a profitable resource
  16. 16. killed them mainly for their skins
  17. 17. Railroad crews slaughtered buffalo for sport
  18. 18. Full-time hunters made quick money: Billy Dixon and Bill Cody</li></li></ul><li>Sand Creek Massacre<br />Gold discoveries in 1850’s and 1860s led to population growth in Colorado Territory<br />Violence against wagon trains, mining camps, and others <br />Colorado Governor John Evans asked Colonel John Chivington to end Indian attacks <br />Black Kettle’s band of Cheyenne were destroyed<br />Army killed over 200<br />~½ women and children<br />&quot;All we ask is that we have peace with the whites. We want to hold you by the hand. You are our father… These braves who are with me are willing to do what I say. We want to take good tidings home to our people, that they may sleep in peace. I want you to give all these chiefs of the soldiers here to understand that we are for peace, and that we have made peace, that we may not be mistaken by them for enemies. <br />
  19. 19. Sand Creek Massacre<br />“Damn any man who sympathizes with Indians…’had come to kill Indians, and believed it to be honorable to kill Indians under any and all circumstances” <br />-Col. Chivington to a young officer questioning orders to kill +200 <br />&quot;THEY WERE SCALPED, THEIR BRAINS KNOCKED OUT; THE MEN USED THEIR KNIVES, RIPPED OPEN WOMEN, CLUBBED LITTLE CHILDREN, KNOCKED THEM IN THE HEAD WITH THEIR RIFLE BUTTS, BEAT THEIR BRAINS OUT, MUTILATED THEIR BODIES IN EVERY SENSE OF THE WORD.&quot; <br />-Testimony given against Col. Chivington during Congressional investigation<br />
  20. 20. Battle of Little Big Horn<br />George Armstrong Custer was sent to force the Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho back to their reservations.<br />Commander of the 7th Calvary<br />June 26, 1876<br />He was heavily outnumbered and trapped.<br />Custer & all 220 of his men died<br />“Custer’s Last Stand” outraged Americans and led to govt. retribution.<br />The Sioux and Cheyenne were crushed within a year<br />
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Reservation Life<br /><ul><li>Government promised basic food and necessities in return for moving to reservations
  24. 24. Bureau of Indian Affairs set up to manage supplies and their distribution
  25. 25. Corrupt officials
  26. 26. $1,500 salary skimmed $50,000 in 1yr.
  27. 27. Purchased sub-standard food and supplies that often arrived spoiled</li></li></ul><li>Ghost Dance<br />Religious ceremony performed on reservations<br />United various tribes who were suffering from mistreatment<br />Banned by Bureau of Indian Affairs<br />Sioux still practiced<br />Massacre at Wounded Knee<br />
  28. 28. Ghost Dance<br /><ul><li>Violence erupted, 300 Indians and 25 whites lay dead.
  29. 29. This is the last of the Indian conflicts.</li></li></ul><li>Dawes Severalty Act 1887<br /><ul><li>Helen Hunt Jackson writes A Century of Dishonor to expose the poor treatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government
  30. 30. Sent copy to all members of Congress
  31. 31. Sen. Henry Dawes gets act passed to mainstream Native Americans into white culture in order to “save” them</li></li></ul><li>
  32. 32. Dawes Act of 1887<br /><ul><li>Quicker Americanization
  33. 33. Assimilate, mainstreamed and absorbed into US society
  34. 34. Adopt Christianity and White education
  35. 35. Individual land ownership
  36. 36. 1924 Voting rights granted
  37. 37. Abandon tribe, culture and become farmers
  38. 38. Male claimed 160 acres of land
  39. 39. Farm land for 25 years
  40. 40. Children would be sent to Indian schools
  41. 41. Carlisle, PA
  42. 42. Failed policy</li></li></ul><li>
  43. 43. Mining Frontier<br />James Marshall and (John) Sutter’s Mill <br />President Polk announces strike 49ers<br />California statehood 1850<br />Thousands come to prospect for gold<br />Others look to mine-miners<br />59ers<br />Nevada statehood 1864<br />
  44. 44.
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
  47. 47. &quot;A smart woman can do very well in this country. ... It is the only country I ever was where a woman received anything like a just compensation for work.&quot;-- A woman pioneer<br />Men outnumbered women 20x-1 in some places<br />Opportunities for women increased: <br />Economically<br />Socially<br />Politically<br />
  48. 48. The<br />Cowboys<br />
  49. 49. The Bronc BusterFrederick Remington<br />
  50. 50.
  51. 51. Joseph McCoy<br />Solved problem of moving the cattle from Texas to cities of the East.<br />Post-Civil War boom in railroad construction connects east and west<br />Starting in 1867 cattle are loaded onto train cars in Abilene, Kansas and shipped back east…soon other towns begin to compete<br />Cattle worth less than $5 in Texas might fetch $30 in Kansas<br />
  52. 52. Cattle needed to be driven in large numbers from Texas to railheads in Kansas<br />Trails utilized to drive cattle herds to market<br />Large scale operation required several cowboys working ‘round the clock<br />Cowboys, what good are they?<br />
  53. 53. Long Drives to Railheads<br /><ul><li>Cattle shipped to slaughter houses.
  54. 54. Rise of the beef and meatpacking industry.
  55. 55. Development of the “Cowboy Culture”</li></li></ul><li>End of an Era<br />Joseph Glidden invents barbed wire 1874<br />Harsh winter 1886-1887<br />Over expansion of industry<br />
  56. 56. Does This Look Like A Safety Valve?<br />Farmer’s Frontier<br />
  57. 57. <ul><li> The Homestead Act of 1862 gave the homesteaders 160 acres of land each (a quarter square mile plot)
  58. 58. Change in policy: revenue to stimulus “backbone of democracy”
  59. 59. By 1900: 500,000 people took advantage
  60. 60. However: 5x more bought land from other sources
  61. 61. Why? </li></ul>Stimulus Plan<br />
  62. 62. <ul><li>Transported people and products to and from West
  63. 63. Made land available
  64. 64. Offered own financing
  65. 65. Helped tame the West of Indians and Buffalo</li></ul>The Role of the Railroad<br />
  66. 66. <ul><li> To sell their land the railroad companies sent agents across America and Europe to encourage people to buy their lands
  67. 67. Many of the ads were gross exaggerations of the quality of the land
  68. 68. Ads referred to the Plains with such phrases as ‘The Golden Belt of Kansas’ and ‘The Best Prairie Lands’ (Iowa and Nebraska)
  69. 69. one company claimed that winter in Nebraska lasted less than one month, and that the growing season was over nine months!</li></li></ul><li>Primary Sources: Letters and Diaries<br />What can we learn from Uriah Oblinger and his family about life as a homesteader?<br />
  70. 70.
  71. 71.
  72. 72. Farmers Woes and Response<br />Low prices…why?<br />Static money supply<br />Foreclosure: mortgage rates as high as 40%<br />Railroad monopolies<br />
  73. 73. Farmers Organize<br />People’s Party (a.k.a. Populist Party)<br /><ul><li>Response to concerns over low prices and tight money supply
  74. 74. Comprised mostly of farmers
  75. 75. Born out of Farmer’s Alliance (Granges)
  76. 76. Attacked railroad industry
  77. 77. Formed co-op’s to reduce expenses</li></li></ul><li>Populist Platform:<br /><ul><li>Bi-metallic Supporters
  78. 78. Direct Election of Senators
  79. 79. Low Tariffs
  80. 80. Government ownership of railroads, telephones, and telegraphs
  81. 81. Women’s suffrage
  82. 82. Public Works Projects during economic hardships
  83. 83. Coxey’s Army
  84. 84. Graduated income tax
  85. 85. Ending Child Labor</li></li></ul><li>
  86. 86. 1896 Presidential Election<br /><ul><li>Country seems divided between “Gold Bugs” and “Silverites”
  87. 87. Republicans pick William McKinley
  88. 88. Democrats expected to pick Grover Cleveland
  89. 89. Both McKinley and Cleveland support Gold
  90. 90. Populist support William Jennings Bryan</li></li></ul><li>William Jennings Bryan<br /><ul><li>Succeeded James Weaver as leader of party
  91. 91. The Great Commoner
  92. 92. The Boy Orator
  93. 93. Appealed to Democrats and Populists
  94. 94. “Cross of Gold Speech”
  95. 95. Bi-metallic plea</li></li></ul><li>Demographic Support<br />Republicans :<br />Populists :<br /><ul><li>Farmers
  96. 96. Women
  97. 97. Labor Unions
  98. 98. Reformers
  99. 99. Big Business Owners
  100. 100. Steel
  101. 101. Oil
  102. 102. Railroad
  103. 103. Bankers</li></li></ul><li>1896 Election Impact <br /><ul><li>Voters sided with powerful campaign
  104. 104. McKinley and advisor Mark Hanna
  105. 105. Bryan spent $300,000 and handled his own campaign
  106. 106. Outspent $20 to $1
  107. 107. Last agrarian versus urban battle
  108. 108. Nations move’s forward with Imperialist agenda</li></li></ul><li>
  109. 109. Imperialism<br />A change in foreign policy approach<br />
  110. 110. Under imperialism, stronger nations attempt to create empires by dominating weaker nations. <br />The late 1800s marked the peak of European imperialism, with much of Africa and Asia under foreign domination.<br />A policy of extending your rule over foreign countries <br />A major departure of the US policy of “isolation” to involvementin world affairs.<br />
  111. 111. Early Imperial Efforts<br /><ul><li>American Purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1866.
  112. 112. “Seward’s Icebox or “Seward’s Folly”
  113. 113. $7.2 Million
  114. 114. Midway Islands-1867
  115. 115. Uninhabited
  116. 116. $1 Million
  117. 117. Samoa-1872 Pacific island with port at Pago Pago.
  118. 118. Coaling station</li></li></ul><li>
  119. 119. Why did America become imperial?<br />GeoPolitical DarwinismRoosevelt and Lodge<br />Scramble for colonies<br />CommerceJames Blaine-Big Sister Policy with Latin America<br /> Agrarian needs<br /> Canal<br />Nationalistic <br /> Hearst and Pulitzer<br /> New sense of power<br />MilitaryBases and refueling stations<br /> Canal<br />HumanitarianMissionaries<br /> White Man’s Burden<br />
  120. 120. The New Manifest Destiny<br /><ul><li>Trade into Asia & Latin America
  121. 121. Keep up with Europe
  122. 122. Annex strategic islands in the S. Pacific and Caribbean Sea.
  123. 123. Trade center of the world
  124. 124. Build a canal
  125. 125. International policeman
  126. 126. Large naval presence</li></li></ul><li>Anti-Expansion Arguments<br />AGAINST EXPANSION<br />America’s vastness provided enough of an outlet for the country’s energies<br />America should not rule over other peoples<br />Anti-Imperialist League<br />Mark Twain<br />Andrew Carnegie<br />William Jennings Bryan<br />Susan B. Anthony<br />Pro-Imperialists<br />Theodore Roosevelt<br />William Mckinley<br />William Randolph Hearst<br />Joseph Pulitzer<br />
  127. 127. Scramble For Colonies<br />
  128. 128. Expanding Navy<br /><ul><li>All steel navies led to arms race,
  129. 129. Alfred Thayer Mahan.
  130. 130. The Influence of Sea Power upon History
  131. 131. Influenced among others
  132. 132. Theodore Roosevelt
  133. 133. Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge
  134. 134. Sen. Albert Beveridge
  135. 135. Caused all countries to start focusing on their naval resources, including the US.
  136. 136. Led to US to desire naval bases around the world and an isthmian canal</li></li></ul><li>
  137. 137. Rudyard Kipling: The White Man’s Burden<br />
  138. 138.
  139. 139.
  140. 140. Josiah Strong, Our Country:Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis…<br />“It seems to me that God, with infinite wisdom and skill, is training the Anglo-Saxon race for an hour sure to come in the world’s future….The unoccupied arable lands of the earth are limited, and will soon be taken. Then will the world enter upon a new stage of its history----the final competition of races, for which the Angle-Saxon is being schooled….” Then this race of unequalled energy, with all the majesty of numbers and the might of wealth behind it----the representative, let us hope, of the largest liberty the purest Christianity, the highest civilization…will spread itself over the earth…. If I read not amiss, this powerful race will move down upon Mexico, down Central and South America, out upon the islands of the sea, over upon Africa and beyond. And can any one doubt that the result of this competition of races will be the “survival of the fittest”?<br />
  141. 141. Venezuela<br />Olney Letter<br />Monroe Doctrine 1823<br />Brits adopt a policy of “patting the eagle’s head”<br />
  142. 142. Annexation of Hawaii<br />Economy dominated by foreign workers<br />Sugar industry<br />Duty free until McKinley Tariff 1890<br />Pearl Harbor 1887<br />1891 Queen Liliuokalani <br />“Hawaii for Hawaiians”<br />Overthrown by group with Sanford Dole<br />President Cleveland recognized Republic of Hawaii<br />President McKinley annexes Hawaii 1897<br />Congress approves 1898<br />
  143. 143. Steps<br />-<br />to<br /> -<br />War<br /><ul><li>Spanish brutality towards Cubans
  144. 144. The Butcher---ValerianoWeyler
  145. 145. Yellow Press/Journalism----Sensational
  146. 146. Spanish Ambassador de Lôme insulted President McKinley.
  147. 147. The USS Maine exploded, and the American public blamed Spain.
  148. 148. Congress recognized Cuban independence and authorized force against Spain.
  149. 149. Teller Amendment: US was fighting this war to help Cuba gains its independence and would not seek any land gains from Cuba.
  150. 150. War is declared April 17, 1898</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Spain controlled Cuba since 1500’s.
  151. 151. Cuban people were fighting a revolution against Spanish brutality
  152. 152. Cubans wanted their independence from Spain
  153. 153. 90 miles from U.S.
  154. 154. Protect our trade</li></li></ul><li>Cuba<br />ValerianoWeyler and reconcentration policy<br />Aimed at Jose Marti and insurrectos<br />
  155. 155. <ul><li>American citizens threatened by revolution in Cuba.
  156. 156. Pres. McKinley sent USS Maine to rescue US citizens.</li></li></ul><li>McKinley’s Dilemma Mounts<br />“McKinley is: weak and catering to the rabble, and, besides, a low politician, who desires to leave a door open to me”<br />DuPuy de Lome<br />
  157. 157.
  158. 158. USS Maine---260 US sailors killed<br />Spain accused of blowing up the Maine…..<br />Polarized Americans to support the war against Spain.<br />
  159. 159. Yellow Journalism<br />William Randolph Hearst<br />“you furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war”<br />Joseph Pulitzer<br />Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst<br />
  160. 160.
  161. 161.
  162. 162. <ul><li>May 1, 1898: The United States launched a surprise attack in Manila Bay and destroyed Spain’s entire Pacific fleet in seven hours.
  163. 163. July 1: Roosevelt led the Rough Riders up San Juan Hill.
  164. 164. July 3: The United States Navy sank the remaining Spanish ships.</li></ul>“A Splendid Little War”<br />
  165. 165.
  166. 166. Dewey Captures Manila!<br />
  167. 167.
  168. 168. <ul><li>Captured San Juan Hill which led to the end of the war once Santiago was surrendered by the Spanish.
  169. 169. Became a hero of the Spanish American War.</li></li></ul><li>
  170. 170. <ul><li>With Spain’s defeat their government recognized Cuba’s independence.
  171. 171. Spain gave up the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico to the US in return for $20 million.
  172. 172. The island nations then became unincorporated territories of the United States.
  173. 173. President McKinley installed a military government to protect American business interests.</li></ul>The Treaty of Paris, 1898<br />
  174. 174. Puerto Rico <br />and <br />Cuba<br /><ul><li>Puerto Rico strategic post in Caribbean, for protection of future canal
  175. 175. 1900, Foraker Act sets up civil government </li></ul> - president appoints governor, upper house<br /><ul><li>1917, Puerto Ricans made U.S. citizens; elect both houses
  176. 176. President McKinley installed a military government to protect American business interests.
  177. 177. Cuba drafted a constitution in 1900 that did not allow for U.S. involvement.
  178. 178. The U.S. government only agreed to remove its troops if Cuba included the Platt Amendment.
  179. 179. Remained in place until 1934.
  180. 180. Allowed for U.S. naval bases on the island and intervention whenever necessary.</li></li></ul><li>Why did we keep the Philippines?<br />
  181. 181. Our “Little Brown Brothers”<br />Filipino Revolution led by Emilio Aguinaldo.<br />Erupted between the nationalists and U.S. troops<br />Anti-Imperialist League strongly opposes<br />Filipinos adopted guerilla tactics. <br />U.S. troops declared entire areas battle zones<br />No distinctions were made between combatants and civilians. <br />4,200 American and 16,000 Filipino soldiers are thought to have been killed in the fighting.<br />US captured Aguinaldo in March 1901<br />
  182. 182. Open Door Policy<br /><ul><li>Secretary of State John Hay, proposed the Open Door Notes
  183. 183. Respect the territorial integrity of China
  184. 184. Equal trade rights</li></li></ul><li>Uncle Sam to the European powers….”Gentlemen, you may cut up the map as much as like; but remember that I’m here to stay and that you can’t divide me up into spheres of influence”.<br />
  185. 185. Spheres of Influence<br />Areas in a country where a foreign nation claims sole rights to trade and invest.<br />
  186. 186. Why is China considered so vital to American interests?<br />America wants to end spheres of influence that existed and prevented our access to Chinese markets<br />Open Door Policy…not rejected, therefore accepted<br />China not consulted as to what they want<br />Boxer Rebellion in China attempting to rid nation of foreign “devils”<br />Group called Fists of Righteous Harmony use their martial arts skills and mystical beliefs to guide them in defending nation from outside influence<br />“Support China and kill the foreigner”<br />Boxers fail due to lack of weapons and manpower<br />China billed $333 million; $24.5 to USA for damages<br />
  187. 187. <ul><li>quick access to Atlantic & Pacific
  188. 188. military protection of territories
  189. 189. trade & economic value would increase</li></li></ul><li>Panama Canal<br /><ul><li>Americans needed a shorter route between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
  190. 190. A French company had bought a 25-year concession from Colombia to build a canal across Panama.
  191. 191. A concession is a grant for a piece of land in exchange for a promise to use the land for a specific purpose.
  192. 192. Defeated by yellow fever and mismanagement, the company abandoned the project and offered its remaining rights to the United States for $100 million.</li></li></ul><li>Panama Canal<br />Negotiations with Columbia failed<br />President Roosevelt helped instigate the Panamanian Revolution to overthrow the Colombian government<br />USA recognizes Panama as an independent nation<br />Denied involvement for long time…see next slide<br />US negotiated Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty which gave us the land for the canal. <br />We paid Panama $10 million for the strip of land to build the canal and $250,000 yearly rental<br />
  193. 193.
  194. 194.
  195. 195. “Speak softly and carry a big stick and you will go far.” Roosevelt used this old African proverb to guide his foreign policy.<br /><ul><li>The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine — The United States will act as “an international police power” in the Western Hemisphere and intervene to prevent intervention by other powers.
  196. 196. Roosevelt in Latin America — Under Roosevelt, the United States often intervened in Latin America.
  197. 197. Roosevelt in Asia — Roosevelt wanted to preserve an Open Door policy to trade with China. He won a Nobel peace prize for negotiating a peace settlement between Russia and Japan.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Build on relations after negotiating end to Russo-Japanese War (won Nobel Peace Prize in 1906)
  198. 198. Countries feared Japan because they were the power in the Pacific along with the US.
  199. 199. TR entered into two diplomatic agreements with Japan to prevent the possibility of war.</li></ul>Gentlemen’s Agreement: 1907<br /><ul><li>Because Japanese children were discriminated against and segregated in San Francisco elementary schools TR negotiated that discrimination and segregation would stop and in return, Japan agreed to stop the flow of Japanese immigrants to the US.</li></ul>Root-Takahira Agreement: 1908<br /><ul><li>Both governments agreed to maintain the status quo in the Pacific, defend the Open Door policy and the integrity and independence of China. They resolved to develop their commerce in East Asia and to respect each other's territorial possessions there. </li></ul>Foreign Relations with Japan<br />
  200. 200. Anti-Imperialist League resistance to the Philippine War.<br />