Cultures Clash<br />Dislocated tribes like Sioux and Cheyenne adapted to new life on Plains quickly<br />White settlers bring hardships prior to Civil War<br />Treaties such as Fort Laramie 1851 and Fort Atkinson 1853 begin reservation system<br />Why did treaties fail?<br />
Promised Land<br /><ul><li>Given most of Oklahoma, “as long as grass shall grow and rivers run.”
Full-time hunters made quick money: Billy Dixon and Bill Cody</li></li></ul><li>Sand Creek Massacre<br />Gold discoveries in 1850’s and 1860s led to population growth in Colorado Territory<br />Violence against wagon trains, mining camps, and others <br />Colorado Governor John Evans asked Colonel John Chivington to end Indian attacks <br />Black Kettle’s band of Cheyenne were destroyed<br />Army killed over 200<br />~½ women and children<br />"All we ask is that we have peace with the whites. We want to hold you by the hand. You are our father… These braves who are with me are willing to do what I say. We want to take good tidings home to our people, that they may sleep in peace. I want you to give all these chiefs of the soldiers here to understand that we are for peace, and that we have made peace, that we may not be mistaken by them for enemies. <br />
Sand Creek Massacre<br />“Damn any man who sympathizes with Indians…’had come to kill Indians, and believed it to be honorable to kill Indians under any and all circumstances” <br />-Col. Chivington to a young officer questioning orders to kill +200 <br />"THEY WERE SCALPED, THEIR BRAINS KNOCKED OUT; THE MEN USED THEIR KNIVES, RIPPED OPEN WOMEN, CLUBBED LITTLE CHILDREN, KNOCKED THEM IN THE HEAD WITH THEIR RIFLE BUTTS, BEAT THEIR BRAINS OUT, MUTILATED THEIR BODIES IN EVERY SENSE OF THE WORD." <br />-Testimony given against Col. Chivington during Congressional investigation<br />
Battle of Little Big Horn<br />George Armstrong Custer was sent to force the Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho back to their reservations.<br />Commander of the 7th Calvary<br />June 26, 1876<br />He was heavily outnumbered and trapped.<br />Custer & all 220 of his men died<br />“Custer’s Last Stand” outraged Americans and led to govt. retribution.<br />The Sioux and Cheyenne were crushed within a year<br />
Purchased sub-standard food and supplies that often arrived spoiled</li></li></ul><li>Ghost Dance<br />Religious ceremony performed on reservations<br />United various tribes who were suffering from mistreatment<br />Banned by Bureau of Indian Affairs<br />Sioux still practiced<br />Massacre at Wounded Knee<br />
This is the last of the Indian conflicts.</li></li></ul><li>Dawes Severalty Act 1887<br /><ul><li>Helen Hunt Jackson writes A Century of Dishonor to expose the poor treatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government
"A smart woman can do very well in this country. ... It is the only country I ever was where a woman received anything like a just compensation for work."-- A woman pioneer<br />Men outnumbered women 20x-1 in some places<br />Opportunities for women increased: <br />Economically<br />Socially<br />Politically<br />
Joseph McCoy<br />Solved problem of moving the cattle from Texas to cities of the East.<br />Post-Civil War boom in railroad construction connects east and west<br />Starting in 1867 cattle are loaded onto train cars in Abilene, Kansas and shipped back east…soon other towns begin to compete<br />Cattle worth less than $5 in Texas might fetch $30 in Kansas<br />
Cattle needed to be driven in large numbers from Texas to railheads in Kansas<br />Trails utilized to drive cattle herds to market<br />Large scale operation required several cowboys working ‘round the clock<br />Cowboys, what good are they?<br />
Long Drives to Railheads<br /><ul><li>Cattle shipped to slaughter houses.
Helped tame the West of Indians and Buffalo</li></ul>The Role of the Railroad<br />
<ul><li> To sell their land the railroad companies sent agents across America and Europe to encourage people to buy their lands
Many of the ads were gross exaggerations of the quality of the land
Ads referred to the Plains with such phrases as ‘The Golden Belt of Kansas’ and ‘The Best Prairie Lands’ (Iowa and Nebraska)
one company claimed that winter in Nebraska lasted less than one month, and that the growing season was over nine months!</li></li></ul><li>Primary Sources: Letters and Diaries<br />What can we learn from Uriah Oblinger and his family about life as a homesteader?<br />
Nations move’s forward with Imperialist agenda</li></li></ul><li>
Imperialism<br />A change in foreign policy approach<br />
Under imperialism, stronger nations attempt to create empires by dominating weaker nations. <br />The late 1800s marked the peak of European imperialism, with much of Africa and Asia under foreign domination.<br />A policy of extending your rule over foreign countries <br />A major departure of the US policy of “isolation” to involvementin world affairs.<br />
Early Imperial Efforts<br /><ul><li>American Purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1866.
Why did America become imperial?<br />GeoPolitical DarwinismRoosevelt and Lodge<br />Scramble for colonies<br />CommerceJames Blaine-Big Sister Policy with Latin America<br /> Agrarian needs<br /> Canal<br />Nationalistic <br /> Hearst and Pulitzer<br /> New sense of power<br />MilitaryBases and refueling stations<br /> Canal<br />HumanitarianMissionaries<br /> White Man’s Burden<br />
The New Manifest Destiny<br /><ul><li>Trade into Asia & Latin America
Large naval presence</li></li></ul><li>Anti-Expansion Arguments<br />AGAINST EXPANSION<br />America’s vastness provided enough of an outlet for the country’s energies<br />America should not rule over other peoples<br />Anti-Imperialist League<br />Mark Twain<br />Andrew Carnegie<br />William Jennings Bryan<br />Susan B. Anthony<br />Pro-Imperialists<br />Theodore Roosevelt<br />William Mckinley<br />William Randolph Hearst<br />Joseph Pulitzer<br />
Josiah Strong, Our Country:Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis…<br />“It seems to me that God, with infinite wisdom and skill, is training the Anglo-Saxon race for an hour sure to come in the world’s future….The unoccupied arable lands of the earth are limited, and will soon be taken. Then will the world enter upon a new stage of its history----the final competition of races, for which the Angle-Saxon is being schooled….” Then this race of unequalled energy, with all the majesty of numbers and the might of wealth behind it----the representative, let us hope, of the largest liberty the purest Christianity, the highest civilization…will spread itself over the earth…. If I read not amiss, this powerful race will move down upon Mexico, down Central and South America, out upon the islands of the sea, over upon Africa and beyond. And can any one doubt that the result of this competition of races will be the “survival of the fittest”?<br />
Venezuela<br />Olney Letter<br />Monroe Doctrine 1823<br />Brits adopt a policy of “patting the eagle’s head”<br />
Annexation of Hawaii<br />Economy dominated by foreign workers<br />Sugar industry<br />Duty free until McKinley Tariff 1890<br />Pearl Harbor 1887<br />1891 Queen Liliuokalani <br />“Hawaii for Hawaiians”<br />Overthrown by group with Sanford Dole<br />President Cleveland recognized Republic of Hawaii<br />President McKinley annexes Hawaii 1897<br />Congress approves 1898<br />
Protect our trade</li></li></ul><li>Cuba<br />ValerianoWeyler and reconcentration policy<br />Aimed at Jose Marti and insurrectos<br />
<ul><li>American citizens threatened by revolution in Cuba.
Pres. McKinley sent USS Maine to rescue US citizens.</li></li></ul><li>McKinley’s Dilemma Mounts<br />“McKinley is: weak and catering to the rabble, and, besides, a low politician, who desires to leave a door open to me”<br />DuPuy de Lome<br />
Allowed for U.S. naval bases on the island and intervention whenever necessary.</li></li></ul><li>Why did we keep the Philippines?<br />
Our “Little Brown Brothers”<br />Filipino Revolution led by Emilio Aguinaldo.<br />Erupted between the nationalists and U.S. troops<br />Anti-Imperialist League strongly opposes<br />Filipinos adopted guerilla tactics. <br />U.S. troops declared entire areas battle zones<br />No distinctions were made between combatants and civilians. <br />4,200 American and 16,000 Filipino soldiers are thought to have been killed in the fighting.<br />US captured Aguinaldo in March 1901<br />
Open Door Policy<br /><ul><li>Secretary of State John Hay, proposed the Open Door Notes
Equal trade rights</li></li></ul><li>Uncle Sam to the European powers….”Gentlemen, you may cut up the map as much as like; but remember that I’m here to stay and that you can’t divide me up into spheres of influence”.<br />
Spheres of Influence<br />Areas in a country where a foreign nation claims sole rights to trade and invest.<br />
Why is China considered so vital to American interests?<br />America wants to end spheres of influence that existed and prevented our access to Chinese markets<br />Open Door Policy…not rejected, therefore accepted<br />China not consulted as to what they want<br />Boxer Rebellion in China attempting to rid nation of foreign “devils”<br />Group called Fists of Righteous Harmony use their martial arts skills and mystical beliefs to guide them in defending nation from outside influence<br />“Support China and kill the foreigner”<br />Boxers fail due to lack of weapons and manpower<br />China billed $333 million; $24.5 to USA for damages<br />
trade & economic value would increase</li></li></ul><li>Panama Canal<br /><ul><li>Americans needed a shorter route between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
A French company had bought a 25-year concession from Colombia to build a canal across Panama.
A concession is a grant for a piece of land in exchange for a promise to use the land for a specific purpose.
Defeated by yellow fever and mismanagement, the company abandoned the project and offered its remaining rights to the United States for $100 million.</li></li></ul><li>Panama Canal<br />Negotiations with Columbia failed<br />President Roosevelt helped instigate the Panamanian Revolution to overthrow the Colombian government<br />USA recognizes Panama as an independent nation<br />Denied involvement for long time…see next slide<br />US negotiated Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty which gave us the land for the canal. <br />We paid Panama $10 million for the strip of land to build the canal and $250,000 yearly rental<br />
“Speak softly and carry a big stick and you will go far.” Roosevelt used this old African proverb to guide his foreign policy.<br /><ul><li>The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine — The United States will act as “an international police power” in the Western Hemisphere and intervene to prevent intervention by other powers.
Roosevelt in Latin America — Under Roosevelt, the United States often intervened in Latin America.
Roosevelt in Asia — Roosevelt wanted to preserve an Open Door policy to trade with China. He won a Nobel peace prize for negotiating a peace settlement between Russia and Japan.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Build on relations after negotiating end to Russo-Japanese War (won Nobel Peace Prize in 1906)
Countries feared Japan because they were the power in the Pacific along with the US.
TR entered into two diplomatic agreements with Japan to prevent the possibility of war.</li></ul>Gentlemen’s Agreement: 1907<br /><ul><li>Because Japanese children were discriminated against and segregated in San Francisco elementary schools TR negotiated that discrimination and segregation would stop and in return, Japan agreed to stop the flow of Japanese immigrants to the US.</li></ul>Root-Takahira Agreement: 1908<br /><ul><li>Both governments agreed to maintain the status quo in the Pacific, defend the Open Door policy and the integrity and independence of China. They resolved to develop their commerce in East Asia and to respect each other's territorial possessions there. </li></ul>Foreign Relations with Japan<br />
Anti-Imperialist League resistance to the Philippine War.<br />