Maritime Piracy in the 21st Century
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Maritime Piracy in the 21st Century

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Guest lecture for officers and crew of Canadian frigate.

Guest lecture for officers and crew of Canadian frigate.

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    Maritime Piracy in the 21st Century Maritime Piracy in the 21st Century Presentation Transcript

    • MARITIME PIRACY IN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010 MATTHEW GILLIS MA CANDIDATE, POLITICAL SCIENCE, DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY RESEARCH ASSISTANT, CENTRE FOR FOREIGN POLICY STUDIES MATTGILLIS@DAL.CA
    • OBJECTIVES 1. TO DEFINE CONTEMPORARY MARITIME PIRACY AND BRIEFLY EXAMINE ITS ORIGINS. 2. TO PROVIDE A BROAD ANALYSIS OF PIRACY IN AND AROUND SOMALIA, AS WELL OF COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS IN THE AREA. 3. TO CONSIDER THE „LESSONS LEARNED‟ FROM ANOTHER PIRACY-PRONE REGION AND APPLY THEM TO SOMALIA.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • OUTLINE 1. INTRODUCTION 2. CONTEMPORARY MARITIME PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN 3. COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS IN THE GULF OF ADEN 4. STRAIT OF MALACCA – LESSONS LEARNED 5. CONCLUSIONSMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 1. INTRODUCTION • MARITIME PIRACY IS NOT A NEW PROBLEM. • EARLIEST ACTS OF PIRACY FOUND IN ANTIQUITY. • ENCLAVES OF PRIVATE SEA-FARING RAIDERS. COMMON IN THE ADRIATIC SEA, AEGEAN SEA, AND CHINA SEAS. • EARLY ACTS OF PIRACY CONSTITUTED SHORE PARTIES RAIDING COASTAL VILLAGES.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 1. INTRODUCTION Arab pirates sack Byzantine city of Thessalonica , 904 AD.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 1. INTRODUCTION • PIRACY‟S „GOLDEN AGE‟ BETWEEN 17TH AND 18TH CENTURIES. • REGULAR MERCHANT TRAFFIC IN CARIBBEAN AND MEDITERRANEAN COINCIDES WITH RISE OF PIRACY. • PIRATES IN THE WEST INDIES AND BARBARY COAST RAID MERCHANT TRAFFIC. • LARGE-SCALE PIRACY EFFECTIVELY ENDS WITH FRENCH CONQUEST OF ALGERIA IN 1830.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 1. INTRODUCTION French ship-of-the-line battling Barbary corsairs.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 1. INTRODUCTION „MODERN‟ PIRACY AS DEFINED IN ARTICLE 101, 1982 UN CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA (UNCLOS): Piracy consists of any of the following acts: (a) any illegal acts of violence or detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or a private aircraft, and directed: (i) on the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft; (ii) against a ship, aircraft, persons or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State; (b) any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft; (c) any act of inciting or of intentionally facilitating an act described in subparagraph (a) or (b).MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 1. INTRODUCTION Piracy consists of any of the following acts: (a) any illegal acts of violence or detention, Violent crimes or robbery; excludes petty or any act of depredation, committed theft, smuggling, drug trafficking, etc. for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or a Acts committed for private ends. private aircraft, and directed: (i) on the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft; Piracy takes place on the (ii) against a ship, aircraft, persons or high seas only...? property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State; (b) any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft; (c) any act of inciting or of intentionally facilitating an act described in subparagraph (a) or (b).MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 1. INTRODUCTION A BETTER DEFINITION, FROM THE ICC‟S INTERNATIONAL MARITIME BUREAU: An act of boarding or attempting to board any ship with the apparent intent to commit theft or any other crime and with the apparent intent or capability to use force in the furtherance of that act.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 1. INTRODUCTION CONTEMPORARY PIRACY BY THE NUMBERS: Actual and Attempted Attacks 500 450 400 350 World Aggregate 300 250 Indonesia 200 150 Somalia and Gulf of Aden 100 50 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 SOURCE: IMBMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 1. INTRODUCTION CONTEMPORARY PIRACY BY THE NUMBERS: Actual and Attempted Attacks in 2009 45 8 29 Somalia and Gulf of Aden Rest of Africa Americas 23 Far East 218 Indian Subcontinent 32 Rest of World SE Asia 46 SOURCE: IMBMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN SOURCE: CIA WORLD FACTBOOKMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN • Land boundaries: 2,340 km • Median age: 17.5 years • Coastline: 3,025 km • Urban population: 37% of total population • Climate: principally desert; northeast • Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu and other monsoon (December to February), moderate non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000) temperatures in north and hot in south; • Religions: Sunni Muslim southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular • Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) English between monsoons • Literacy: 37.8% • Natural resources: uranium and largely • GDP: $2.763 billion est. unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, • GDP per capita: $600 est. bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves • GDP composition by sector: – agriculture: 65% • Natural hazards: recurring droughts; – industry: 10% frequent dust storms over eastern plains in – services: 25% (2005 est.) summer; floods during rainy season • Land use: • Environmental issues: famine; use of – arable land: 1.64% contaminated water contributes to human – permanent crops: 0.04% health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; – other: 98.32% (2005) soil erosion; desertification • Population: 9,832,017 Source: CIA World FactbookMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN • Land boundaries: 2,340 km • Median age: 17.5 years Young • Coastline: 3,025 km Coastal • Urban population: 37% of total population Rural • Climate: principally desert; northeast • Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu and other monsoon (December to February), moderate non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000) temperatures in north and hot in south; • Religions: Sunni Muslim southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular • Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) English between monsoons • Literacy: 37.8% Illiterate • Natural resources: uranium and largely • GDP: $2.763 billion est. unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, • GDP per capita: $600 est. Poor bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves • GDP composition by sector: – agriculture: 65% Agrarian • Natural hazards: recurring droughts; – industry: 10% frequent dust storms over eastern plains in – services: 25% (2005 est.) summer; floods during rainy season • Land use: • Environmental issues: famine; use of – arable land: 1.64% contaminated water contributes to human – permanent crops: 0.04% health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; – other: 98.32% (2005) soil erosion; desertification • Population: 9,832,017 Source: CIA World FactbookMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN • SOMALIA ACQUIRES INDEPENDENCE FROM UK IN 1960. • MOHAMED SIAD BARRE BECOMES PRESIDENT OF SOMALIA AFTER MILITARY COUP IN 1969. • BARRE OUSTED IN 1991 ; MOST OF SOMALIA PLUNGED INTO CIVIL WAR AND COUNTER- REVOLUTIONS. • HUMANITARIAN SITUATION WORSENS WITH WARFARE BETWEEN OPPOSING CLANS AND WARLORDS.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN • UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS 733, 746, AND 794 LEAD INTERVENTION IN SOMALIA TO RESTORE ORDER AND PROVIDE HUMANITARIAN RELIEF. • UN OPERATIONS CONDUCTED IN TWO PHASES: – UNOSOM I, 1992-93 – UNOSOM II, 1993-95 • AFTER COLLAPSE OF PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR INTERVENTION, US WITHDRAWS FROM SOMALIA IN 1994. • WITH UNSC RESOLUTION 954, REST OF UN WITHDRAWS IN 1995.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN • TO THIS DAY, SOMALI GOVERNMENT REMAINS EFFECTIVELY POWERLESS. • SOMALIA POLITICALLY FRACTURED, SEVERAL AUTONOMOUS REGIONS.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN • LAWLESSNESS IN SOMALIA EXPLOITED BY FOREIGN FISHING FLEETS; EST. $300 MILLION IN FISH CAUGHT ILLEGALLY EACH YEAR. • PIRATES HAVE LEGITIMATE ROOTS? SOMALI FISHERMEN STYLE THEMSELVES “SOMALIA‟S COAST GUARD,” ARM THEMSELVES AND BEGIN ATTACKING FOREIGN FISHING VESSELS. • OPPORTUNITY IN HIJACKING AND RANSOMING VESSELS IS LUCRATIVE AND HIGHLY APPEALING....MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN • ....APPEAL OF PIRACY TO A YOUNG SOMALI IS APPARENT: “...[I]f a young pirate makes around £20,000 — his cut from two ransom pay-outs — he can persuade an ethnic Somali wife with a European Union passport to marry him and perhaps move to the United Kingdom. Staying in Somalia is not an option.” Kenyan journalist Aidan Hartley, 2008.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN Attacks attributed to Somali pirates 250 217 200 150 111 100 45 44 50 21 20 10 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN Attacks attributed to Somali pirates 250 217 MV Semlow MV Rozen 200 Jun 2005 Feb 2007 150 111 MV Miltzow 100 Oct 2005 MV Sirius Star Nov 2008 45 44 50 MV Faina 21 20 10 Sept 2008 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN • ANATOMY OF A TYPICAL HIJACKING: 1. VESSELS APPROACHED USING SMALL SKIFFS OR SPEEDBOATS. RANGE MAY BE EXTENDED UP TO 1000 NM WITH „MOTHER SHIPS‟ 2. VESSELS BOARDED AND SEIZED; MAKE FOR SOMALI COAST.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN • ANATOMY OF A TYPICAL HIJACKING, CONT‟D: 3. HIJACKED VESSEL ANCHORED OFFSHORE; PIRATES CONTACT VESSEL OWNERS AND ISSUE RANSOM DEMANDS. 4. VESSEL OWNER AND PIRATES ENTER NEGOTIATIONS; FINAL RANSOM DEMAND DRASTICALLY LOWER. 5. VESSEL OWNER MEETS RANSOM; VESSEL FREED WITHOUT INCIDENT. RANSOM DIVIDED BETWEEN PIRATES.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN $3 million ransom Source: US NavyMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN • EQUIPMENT/WEAPONRY INCLUDES: – RPGS – AKS – MACHINEGUNS – HAND GRENADES – EDGED WEAPONS – GPS RECEIVERS – SATELLITE PHONES Source: Royal NavyMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN Source: US NavyMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN Source: Royal NavyMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN Source: NATOMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN Source: US NavyMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 2. PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN • ARE SOMALI PIRATES TERRORISTS? – LITTLE OR NO IDEOLOGICAL MOTIVATION; NO FLAG HAS BEEN EXEMPT FROM ATTACK. – MONEY > RELIGION? – DESPITE PIRATE WEAPONRY, ANARCHY/TERRORISM IN SOMALIA, PIRATES ARE LARGELY NON-VIOLENT: 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Actual and attempted 445 329 276 239 263 293 406 hijackings (worldwide): Fatalities: 21 32 0 15 5 11 8 Missing: 71 30 12 3 3 21 8 SOURCE: IMBMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 3. COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS Source: Canadian ForcesMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 3. COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS • SERIES OF UNSC RESOLUTIONS (1814, 1816, 1838, 1846) ESTABLISH COUNTER-PIRACY MANDATE. • UNSC RESOLUTION 1846: 9. [The Security Council] calls upon States and regional organizations that have the capacity to do so, to take part actively in the fight against piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia, in particular, consistent with this resolution and relevant international law, by deploying naval vessels and military aircraft, and through seizure and disposition of boats, vessels, arms and other related equipment used in the commission of piracy and armed robbery off the coast of Somalia, or for which there is reasonable ground for suspecting such use....MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 3. COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS • COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS BY INTERNATIONAL SECURITY FORCES FALL UNDER TWO APPROACHES: – UNILATERAL • DEPLOYMENT OF SINGLE SHIP OR NATIONAL TASK FORCE. • NOT USUALLY PART OF OR DIRECTLY COORDINATING WITH MULTINATIONAL TASK FORCES. • E.G., RUSSIA, INDIA, CHINA.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 3. COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS – COLLABORATIVE • US‟S CTF 150 AND CTF 151, NATO‟S SNMG1, AND EU‟S NAVFOR SOMALIA.. • MULTINATIONAL MISSION-ORIENTED TASK FORCES DEDICATED TO COMBATING PIRACY.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 3. COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS • COMBINED TASK FORCES 151/150: – THOUGH CTF 150 WAS INVOLVED IN COUNTER-PIRACY BETWEEN 2006-08, ITS ORIGINAL MANDATE WAS COUNTER-TERRORISM UNDER OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM. – CTF-151 HAS DEDICATED COUNTER-PIRACY MANDATE, COMMENCED OPERATIONS IN JANUARY 2009. – BROAD INTERNATIONAL MEMBERSHIP; CURRENTLY HEADED BY KOREAN REAR ADMIRAL.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 3. COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS • STANDING NATO RESPONSE FORCE MARITIME GROUPS 1 & 2. – THREE ITERATIONS NATO COUNTER-PIRACY MISSIONS: • OP ALLIED PROVIDER (SEPT 2008) – STOPGAP PROTECTION FOR WFP SHIPS. • OP ALLIED PROTECTOR (MAR 2009) – DETERRENCE AND DISRUPTION OF PIRATE ACTIVITY. • OP OCEAN SHIELD (AUG 2009) – REGIONAL CAPACITY-BUILDING IN ADDITION TO DETERRENCE.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 3. COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS • EU NAVFOR SOMALIA / OP ATALANTA. – ESTABLISHED DEC 2008; EU‟S FIRST NAVAL OPERATION. – EIGHT EUROPEAN NATIONS MAINTAIN PERMANENT CONTRIBUTIONS. – MANDATE INCLUDES PROTECTION OF WFP VESSELS, DETERRENCE/PREVENTION OF PIRATE ACTIVITY.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 3. COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS • WHAT TO DO WITH A CAPTURED PIRATE? – “CATCH & RELEASE” – TRY IN REGIONAL COURT, E.G. KENYA – TRY IN OVERSEAS COURT Source: Spanish Navy – THE RUSSIAN METHOD....MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 3. COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS • ARE COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS MAKING A DIFFERENCE? 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Actual and attempted attacks between Jan-Mar (Q1): 20 12 5 6 62 35 Source: IMBMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 4. STRAIT OF MALACCA – LESSONS LEARNED Strait of MalaccaMARITIME PIRACY Source: CIA World Factbook J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 4. STRAIT OF MALACCA – LESSONS LEARNED 140 121 120 100 94 79 80 60 50 43 40 28 20 15 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Attacks attributed to Indonesian piratesMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 4. STRAIT OF MALACCA – LESSONS LEARNED • SOUTH-EAST ASIAN COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS CLOSELY INTEGRATED : – RECAAP: REGIONAL COOPERATION AGREEMENT ON COMBATING PIRACY AND ARMED ROBBERY AGAINST SHIPS IN ASIA – RECAAP PROPOSED IN 2001, ENTERS INTO FORCE IN 2006. – RECAAP‟S THREE PILLARS: 1. INTELLIGENCE SHARING 2. OPERATIONAL COORDINATION 3. CAPACITY-BUILDINGMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 4. STRAIT OF MALACCA – LESSONS LEARNED 140 40 121 38 120 35 94 30 100 30 79 25 80 26 23 20 60 50 17 43 15 40 28 10 20 15 5 0 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Attacks attributed to Indonesian pirates vs. bi/multilateral counter-piracy agreementsMARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 4. STRAIT OF MALACCA – LESSONS LEARNED • SUCCESS IN THE STRAIT OF MALACCA ABOUT „DOING MORE WITH LESS.‟ • FORCE STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION ESSENTIALLY UNCHANGED; INSTEAD, SOUTH-EAST ASIAN NATIONS LOOK TO MAXIMIZE EFFICIENT USE OF AVAILABLE RESOURCES. • JOINT/COORDINATED PATROLS AND EXERCISES – BURDEN SHARING - PROVE HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL IN MALACCAN EXPERIENCE.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 4. STRAIT OF MALACCA – LESSONS LEARNED • CAN THE SUCCESS IN STRAIT OF MALACCA BE REPLICATED IN THE GULF OF ADEN? YES AND NO. • MALACCAN EXPERIENCE CANNOT BE DIRECTLY TRANSLATED; VERY LIMITED REGIONAL MARITIME SECURITY CAPACITY. • PREMISES REMAIN APPLICABLE; BETTER COORDINATION AND REGIONAL CAPACITY-BUILDING HAVE PROMISE.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 4. STRAIT OF MALACCA – LESSONS LEARNED Puntland Coast Guard officers meet SNMG1 reps onboard NRP Alvares Cabral. Source: NATO.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • 5. CONCLUSIONS • MARITIME PIRACY IS A TIMELESS ISSUE. • PIRACY IN AND AROUND SOMALIA IS ROOTED IN POVERTY AND CONFLICT. • COUNTER-PIRACY EFFORTS ARE MAKING A DIFFERENCE. • LESSONS LEARNED FROM OTHER PIRATE-PRONE REGIONS MAY BE USEFUL.MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010
    • Questions?MARITIME PIRACY J.M. GILLISIN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 MAY 2010