Creation of a New Government The Articles of Confederation
Why would the Framers decide to structure our new government with a weak central government?
The 2 nd Continental Congress declared US independence in 1776
13 Independent States were writing their own Constitutions with legislatures, governors, and independent court systems.
In 1777 The Continental Congress drafted a national constitution without a court system or an executive branch… The Articles of Confederation
Article by Article # I – XIII … it would provide a weak central government… loose union of states… alliance of states… league of states… CONFEDERATION Article 2 . Each State retains its sovereignty, freedom and independence, and every power, jurisdiction and right …
Preamble Article I - Style Article II - States Rights Article III - Mutual defense Article IV - Laws of other states to be abided; extradition Article V - The Legislature Article VI - Rights denied the States Article VII - Appointment of military officers Article VIII - United States to pay for defense; taxes Article IX - Rights granted the Federal Government Article X - Committee of States Article XI - Canada may join the United States Article XII - Assumption of debt Article XIII - Articles are Supreme Law, amendment
The Articles of Confederation could help the 13 States cooperate to win Independence… but were not intended to impose national laws upon independent states
This was a “revolutionary” document which reflected a distrust for strong central government… independence of states and citizens would best be served by less government… …more liberty!
In 1781 The Articles of Confederation were finally ratified by the 13 United States of America.
Although the Articles of Confederation were limited in their power over States and Citizens… significant accomplishments deserve acknowledgement <ul><li>securing alliances with France, Holland, Spain, and Russia </li></ul><ul><li>1783 Treaty of Paris…territories to the Mississippi River </li></ul><ul><li>Land Ordinance of 1785 and 1787 Northwest Ordinance </li></ul>
Historians assert that the USA needed the alliance with France ( the French Navy and Army ) to achieve the victory at Yorktown in 1781.
The 1783 Treaty of Paris gave the fledgling USA immense territorial possessions
The 13 states had competing territorial claims to these lands in the west… … a national solution was needed
The new territories would be carved into new states = to the original 13 …they would have their own constitutions …they could make their own laws
These new states would provide order and security for Americans to prosper in these new frontier lands… … north of the Ohio River there would be no slavery in the territories and new states
Each territory and new state would provide for towns, school districts, road construction, and militias for their defense.
The 1780’s were critical years in the early history of the USA
A new NATION was established on the principles of liberty
The 13 United States had established a framework for orderly growth and expansion… a REPUBLIC without a monarch
Components of the Articles of Confederation Problems of the AOC: 1. Limited Powers to Pass Laws 2. Limited Power to Tax 3. Limited Power to Regulate Trade Laws-Amendments- 4. No national judicial branch/No Executive Branch Success of AOC: 1. Northwest Ordinance-
Dissatisfaction with the AOC Shays’ Rebellion- Farmers’ rebellion in Massachusetts to protest state economic policies Result: Americans called for change
State Governments Federal Government Who has the power? Power Shared