Biology 280S - Advanced in DNA Nanomedicine

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Powerpoint presentation accompanying file 'Paper 280S - Advanced in Nanomedicine in Cancer Detection and Therapeutics'.

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  • Biology 280S - Advanced in DNA Nanomedicine

    1. 1. DNA Nanotechnology <ul><li>Dr. Tai-ping Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Biology 280S: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Joshua Mendoza-Elias </li></ul><ul><li>Fall 2008 </li></ul>In Cancer Therapeutics
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Part 1 - The Fight Against Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>I. Cancer: Barriers to therapeutics </li></ul><ul><li>II. Cancer: Current Diagnostics & Therapeutics </li></ul><ul><li>III. Definition of Nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>A. What it is is </li></ul><ul><li>B. How it is made </li></ul><ul><li>V. Examples of early Nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Part 2 - DNA as new Nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>VI. Properties of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>VII. Innovative uses of DNA-folding Pathways </li></ul><ul><li>VIII. Diagnostics </li></ul><ul><li>IX. Drug release </li></ul><ul><li>X. The Shape of Things to Come </li></ul>
    3. 3. Cancer <ul><li>Clinical Manifestation: </li></ul><ul><li>-Uncontrolled cell proliferation </li></ul><ul><li>-Loss of apoptosis </li></ul><ul><li>-Growth Factors/Anti-Growth Factors </li></ul><ul><li>-Angiogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>-Invasion/metatases </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to somatic cell genome: </li></ul><ul><li>-Oncogenes </li></ul><ul><li>-Tumor suppressors </li></ul><ul><li>-DNA replication errors </li></ul><ul><li>-Epigenetics </li></ul>
    4. 4. Cancer: Barriers to Treatment <ul><li> . Immune System Surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>A. Self-antigen </li></ul><ul><li>B. Clonal Evolution </li></ul><ul><li> . Tumour structures </li></ul><ul><li> . Cancer is “unique” </li></ul><ul><li> . Damage to healthy cells </li></ul>
    5. 5. Standing Order: Diagnostics & Therapeutics <ul><li>Diagnostics: </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Histology </li></ul><ul><li>Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Treatments: </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Radiotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Immunotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal Therapy </li></ul>In situ : Breast Cancer tissue 400x
    6. 6. State of the Art: Cancer Nanotechnology Detection Treatment DNA Microarrays Bio “Finger” Nanoparticles Nanoparticles Earlier detection Better Targeting Imaging Receptor Mediated Lab on Chip Radiation Activated Gene based Metabolic based Tissue Engineering Cells GF scaffolding
    7. 7. Cancer Nanotechnology: Detection <ul><li>Bio “Finger” </li></ul>
    8. 8. Cancer Nanotechnology: Treatment
    9. 9. Cancer Nanotechnology: Treatment continued . . .
    10. 10. Movie: National Cancer Institute <ul><li>NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer: </li></ul><ul><li>http: //youtube .com/watch? v=5jqQxuVncmc </li></ul>
    11. 11. Outline: <ul><li>Part 1 - The Fight Against Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>I. Cancer: Barriers to therapeutics </li></ul><ul><li>II. Cancer: Current Diagnostics & Therapeutics </li></ul><ul><li>III. Definition of Nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>A. What it is is </li></ul><ul><li>B. How it is made </li></ul><ul><li>V. Examples of early Nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Part 2 - DNA as new Nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>VI. Properties of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>VII. Innovative uses of DNA-folding Pathways </li></ul><ul><li>VIII. Diagnostics </li></ul><ul><li>IX. Drug release </li></ul><ul><li>X. The Shape of Things to Come </li></ul>
    12. 12. DNA Nanotechnology: Properties <ul><li>Versatile: Information on multiple levels </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic acid sequence </li></ul><ul><li>2° & 3 ° Structure </li></ul>State Dependent: f(x):  Energy  Environment  H =  E + P  V
    13. 13. Designed DNA molecules: Principles and Applications of Nanotechnology Condon, Anne Nature Reviews (2006) 7 : 565-575
    14. 14. Designed DNA molecules: Principles and Applications of Nanotechnology Condon, Anne Nature Reviews (2006) 7 : 565-575
    15. 15. An Autonomous Molecular Computer for Logical Control of Gene Expression Yaakov Benenson, Binyamin Gil, Uri Ben-Dor, Rivka Adar & Ehud Shapiro Nature (2004) 429 : 423-429 <ul><li>Prostate Cancer: </li></ul><ul><li>PPAP2B </li></ul><ul><li>Lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase (Vascular endothelial growth factor and type I collagen inducible protein) (VCIP) </li></ul><ul><li>GSTP1 </li></ul><ul><li>Glutathione S-transferase. Role in detoxification by catalyzing the conjugation of many hydrophobic and electrophilic compounds with reduced glutathione. </li></ul><ul><li>PIM1 </li></ul><ul><li>ATP-dependent Lon protease, involved in degradation of misfolded proteins in mitochondria; required for biogenesis and maintenance of mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>HPN </li></ul><ul><li>Hepsin, a Putative Cell-Surface Serine Protease, is Required for Mammalian Cell Growth </li></ul>
    16. 16. DNA-folding Pathways and their uses continued…
    17. 17. The Shape of Things to come <ul><li>Prospective Health*: </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention: </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier detection </li></ul><ul><li>Gene expression data </li></ul><ul><li>Remission prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>Greater specificity </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time confirmation </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic and action taking abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Reprogramming </li></ul>
    18. 18. Next Generation Gene Therapy: IL-2 MHC-I/II Bool statement IFN-  IFN-  IFN-  Constitutive Promotor Viral/Bacterial Ag Bool statement Constitutive Promotor Apoptosis Array Immune System Mobilization coupled with Antigen Presentation: Self-Destruct Program: Anti-cyclin Array Bool statement Constitutive Promotor Cell Cycle Downregulation (Growth): Nuclear Reprogramming (Repair): p53 Bool statement Constitutive Promotor Rb Reporter Reporter Reporter Reporter
    19. 19. Multistage Nanodevice
    20. 20. Conclusion: What does this mean? <ul><li>Diagnostic </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutics </li></ul><ul><li>Repertoire of Genetic Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Miniaturization </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial NS </li></ul>
    21. 21. References: <ul><li>[1] Condon, Anne. Designed DNA molecules: principles and applications of molecular nanotechnology. Nature Reviews (2006) 7 : 565-575. </li></ul><ul><li>[2] Ferrari, Mauro. Cancer nanotechnology: oppurtunities and challenges. Nature Reviews (2005) 5 : 161-171. </li></ul><ul><li>[3] Beneson, Y., Gil, B., Ben-Dor, U., Rivka, A. and Shapiro, E. An autonomous molecular computer for logical control of gene expression. Nature (2004) 429 : 423-429. </li></ul><ul><li>[4] Beneson, Y., Gil, B., Ben-Dor, U., Rivka, A. and Shapiro, E. An autonomous molecular computer for logical control of gene expression. Nature (2001) 414 : 430-434. </li></ul><ul><li>[5] Lu, Y., Liu, J. Functionjla DNA nanotechnology: emerging applications of DNAzymes and aptambers. Current Opinion in Biotechnology (2006) 17 : 580-588. </li></ul><ul><li>[6] Dittmer, W., Reuter, A., Simmel, F. A DNA-based machine that can cyclically bind and release thrombin. Angewandte Chemistry International Edition (2004) 43 : 3549-3553. </li></ul>

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