Tbi (traumatic brain injury)
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Tbi (traumatic brain injury)



Traumatic Brain Injury is a common cause of learning impairments, so it important for teachers to become acquainted with the impairment.

Traumatic Brain Injury is a common cause of learning impairments, so it important for teachers to become acquainted with the impairment.



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Tbi (traumatic brain injury) Tbi (traumatic brain injury) Presentation Transcript

  • TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury) Jeff Meierdierck
  • Definition
    • TBI is sudden-not present at birth-physical damage by an external force that disrupts or alters normal brain function
  • Statistics
    • Every year an estimate 1.7 billion people sustain a Traumatic Brain Injury
    • Children aged 0 to 4 years, older adolescents aged 15 to 19 years, and adults aged 65 years and older are most likely to sustain a TBI.
    • In every age group, TBI rates are higher for males than for females.
  • Age of Onset
    • TBI can occur at any time; one can be born with it or sustain TBI through an accident
  • Causes
    • The majority of TBI cases are caused by accidents, so it is hard to prevent it from occurring
    • Likewise, many cases occur at child birth if the newborn is not receiving enough oxygen to its brain (typically due to the umbilical cord wrapped around the child’s neck)
  • Treatments/Cures
    • Surgery
    • Medication
    • Cognitive rehabilitation
  • Implications for schools
    • Children with TBI receive an IEP like any other student diagnosed with a learning disability
    • Typically TBI children require a personal aid
    • Handicapped accessibility may be required for the student’s, who many have severe cognitive impairment
  • Educational strategies
    • Give the student more time to finish schoolwork and tests.
    • Give directions one step at a time. For tasks with many steps, it helps to give the student written directions.
    • Show the student how to perform new tasks. Give examples to go with new ideas and concepts.
    • Have consistent routines. This helps the student know what to expect. If the routine is going to change, let the student know ahead of time.
    • Check to make sure that the student has actually learned the new skill. Give the student lots of opportunities to practice the new skill.
    • Show the student how to use an assignment book and a daily schedule. This helps the student get organized.
    • Realize that the student may get tired quickly. Let the student rest as needed.
    • Reduce distractions.
    • Keep in touch with the student's parents. Share information about how the student is doing at home and at school.
    • Be flexible about expectations. Be patient. Maximize the student's chances for success.
  • Latest research
    • One area of research that shows promise is the study of the role of calcium ion influx into the damaged neuron as a cause of cell death and general brain tissue swelling
    • NINDS (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) researchers have shown, in both cell and animal studies, that giving specialized chemicals can reduce cell death caused by calcium ion influx
  • Assistive technology
    • Off-the-shelf marketed products, such as planners, cell phones, etc.
    • Modified off-the-shelf products, such as a cell phone with a program that reads the screen aloud or a light attached to a timer to help someone wake up in the morning.
    • Specialized assistive technology commercial products, such as specialized keyboards that provide the user fewer choices and a larger target for making key choices.
    • Modified assistive technology commercial products, such as a magnified screen on a computer or a specialized communication device built onto the tray of a wheelchair.
    • Simplified products, such as a cell phone with fewer choices or a keyboard with fewer keys.
    • Products with added functionality, such as a cane with a sensing device for people with limited visual acuity.
    • Customized product, such as a chair built specifically for a particular user.
    • Text-to-speech or speech-to-text software
  • Long-term prognosis
    • In addition to the immediate post-injury complications, other long-term problems can develop, such as…
    • Parkinson's disease and other motor problems
    • Alzheimer's disease
    • Dementia
    • http://www.allabouttbi.com/definition.htm
    • http://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/statistics.html
    • http://www.cec.sped.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Traumatic_Brain_Injury&Template=/TaggedPage/TaggedPageDisplay.cfm&TPLID=37&ContentID=5633
    • http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tbi/detail_tbi.htm#170023218