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Fundamentals of scheduling

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Fundamentals of Scheduling by John Langer

Fundamentals of Scheduling by John Langer

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  • (c) Bluewater PM 2008
  • (c) Bluewater PM 2008
  • (c) Bluewater PM 2008
  • Purpose To illustrate the Milestone Chart from the Kitchen.mpp. Key Points The Milestone Chart is designed to show the start and/or finish dates for the project tasks. Identifies major deliverables and key external interfaces. Advantages: Very easy to read and understand. Can show slides in project dates. Shows the big picture of the project. Disadvantages: Does not show logic and no visible duration of activities. Summary Discuss pros and cons of Milestone Charts. (c) Bluewater PM 2008
  • (c) Bluewater PM 2008
  • (c) Bluewater PM 2008
  • Purpose To demonstrate the different uses that apply to a Gantt Chart. Key Points The bar chart can also use a great deal of paper because the software can only place one bar per line down the page. This is because the activity information is placed in a tabular at the left hand side of the chart. A bar chart is great at showing the task data, the chart may show WBS, Float (Slack), status, and the bar may be color coded to represent whether a task is critical or not, or the resource that is responsible for it. The Gantt Chart is similar to other charts, but is highly customizable for communicative ease. The chart can be made appropriate to the technical level of the audience. Summary tasks may be labeled to show the summary deliverable and level of the summary. The Illustration is of a Gantt Chart depicting the Kitchen.mpp file. Summary Ask for questions about the differences between a milestone chart, a Gantt chart, and a network (time-scaled) diagram. (c) Bluewater PM 2008
  • Purpose To show that project time management is a step process, building on each step. Key Points Even though there are steps in the process, they don’t have to be in the exact order from left to right. They may overlap and they do interact. It is often an interactive process. The important thing is to work from the Top Down and to break Activities into smaller and smaller tasks at lower levels in the WBS. The process of Project Time Management does not stand alone. It interacts with the other Project Management Knowledge Areas as well. Remember, time is a resource, when misused, misplaced, or lost, it is gone forever. Time is a constraint. Transition A good example is shown on the next slide. (c) Bluewater PM 2008
  • Purpose To identify the 7 key inputs to Activity Sequencing. Key Points The Activity List is the To-Do list for the project. (Output from previous section.) “ The product description documents the characteristics of the product or service the project was undertaken to create” (PMI 1996, 49). “ Mandatory dependencies are those which are inherent in the nature of the work being done” (PMI 1996, 62) (e.g., foundations, walls, and then roof in construction; develop then test in software). “Mandatory dependencies are also called hard logic” (PMI 1996, 62). “ Discretionary dependencies are those which are defined by the project management team” (PMI 1996, 62). Use these with care. The team should discuss in terms of best practice, preferred logic, soft logic (e.g., work north to south in building and develop prototype A before B) (PMI 1996, 62). “ External dependencies are those that involve a relationship between project activities and non-project activities” (PMI 1996, 62). Dependent on non-project activities. These are often problematic and require good communication. “ Constraints are factors that limit the project management team’s options” (PMI 1996, 61) (i.e., budget, project duration, location). “ Assumptions are factors that for planning purposes, will be considered to be true, real, or certain” (PMI 1996, 61) (e.g., location, time of year, work environment, education). (See previous section.) Excellent definitions from the PMBOK ® Guide . Understand them. (c) Bluewater PM 2008
  • Purpose To identify the 7 key inputs to Activity Sequencing. Key Points The Activity List is the To-Do list for the project. (Output from previous section.) “ The product description documents the characteristics of the product or service the project was undertaken to create” (PMI 1996, 49). “ Mandatory dependencies are those which are inherent in the nature of the work being done” (PMI 1996, 62) (e.g., foundations, walls, and then roof in construction; develop then test in software). “Mandatory dependencies are also called hard logic” (PMI 1996, 62). “ Discretionary dependencies are those which are defined by the project management team” (PMI 1996, 62). Use these with care. The team should discuss in terms of best practice, preferred logic, soft logic (e.g., work north to south in building and develop prototype A before B) (PMI 1996, 62). “ External dependencies are those that involve a relationship between project activities and non-project activities” (PMI 1996, 62). Dependent on non-project activities. These are often problematic and require good communication. “ Constraints are factors that limit the project management team’s options” (PMI 1996, 61) (i.e., budget, project duration, location). “ Assumptions are factors that for planning purposes, will be considered to be true, real, or certain” (PMI 1996, 61) (e.g., location, time of year, work environment, education). (See previous section.) Excellent definitions from the PMBOK ® Guide . Understand them. (c) Bluewater PM 2008
  • Purpose To Discuss Schedule Control Outputs. Key Points Schedule Updates: “…any modification to the schedule information which is used to manage the project” (PMI 1996, 72). Reports, graphs, etc. "Manage by exception" just the few activities that are critical and behind schedule and the few that are over budget. Re-base-lining may be needed. We call this a target schedule. Corrective Action: You still have to fix the project. This is easy if you do it frequently and you have a top down schedule. Lessons learned: Update the schedule and use it as a template for future projects. Note the causes of the variances and reasons for corrective action. (c) Bluewater PM 2008
  • The graphic speaks for itself The most difficult challenge in life is also the most difficult in project management - managing change. (c) Bluewater PM 2008
  • A good segue into the next area - change management. Change requests are one output of project execution. (c) Bluewater PM 2008
  • A project manager cannot afford to drop too many balls. Effective Change Control Management can help keep them all up there (c) Bluewater PM 2008
  • (c) Bluewater PM 2008

Fundamentals of scheduling Fundamentals of scheduling Presentation Transcript

  • Fundamentals of Scheduling Presented to the Cascadia Chapter, SAVE International January 12, 2011 by: John Langer AVS, Principal John Langer Consulting www.johnlangerconsulting.com 425-422-6986 © 2011 John Langer Consulting
  • Purpose of a Project
    • The purpose of a project is to bring about change
  • Fundamentals
    • Scheduling Philosophy
    • Scheduling Terms and Definitions
    • Types of Schedules
    • Relationships
    • Resources
    “ When you don’t know where you are going, it is hard to tell when you get there”. Yogi Berra
  • Scheduling Philosophy
    • Why do you schedule?
    • What do you schedule?
    • When do you schedule?
  • Scheduling Philosophy (cont’d)
    • Why do you schedule?
      • Better manage the project
      • Control change
      • Satisfy customer or contractual requirements
      • Monitor and measure progress against goals
    • A schedule is a formalized method of managing time and resources
  • Scheduling Philosophy (cont’d)
    • What do you schedule?
      • Milestones
      • Activities required by contract or customer
      • Activities critical to the performance of the project
      • Changes to the original plan
    • A simple schedule that is used is far more valuable than the most detailed schedule created to satisfy a contractual requirement!
  • Scheduling Philosophy (cont’d)
    • When do you schedule?
      • Prior to, or at the beginning of a project. This schedule is referred to as the “baseline”
      • At periodic intervals during the project. This is commonly referred to “updating”
      • If there are changes in the scope of the project
      • If the project is substantially behind or ahead of the baseline
  • “ Even if you’re on the right track, you’ll get run over if you just sit there”. Will Rogers
  • Scheduling Terms and Definitions
    • Common scheduling terms and what they mean
      • Project
      • Activity (Schedule or Task)
      • Duration
      • Relationship
      • Bar Chart (Gantt)
  • Scheduling Terms and Definitions (cont’d)
      • Lag
      • Critical Path
      • Milestone
      • Float
      • Work breakdown Structure (WBS)
      • Resource
  • Scheduling Terms and Definitions (cont’d)
    • Project
      • A project is finite, it has a specific beginning and endpoints
      • A project contains resources, typically time, money and people
      • A project is measurable
  • Scheduling Terms and Definitions (cont’d)
    • Activity (Schedule or Task)
      • The activity is the basic building block of a schedule
      • An activity defines a measurable quantity of work
  • Scheduling Terms and Definitions (cont’d)
    • Duration
      • Measurable unit to perform an activity
      • Typically, durations are in work hours or work days
    • Relationship
      • The interdependency of one activity to another
  • Scheduling Terms and Definitions (cont’d)
    • Bar Chart (Gantt)
      • Graphical representation of a group of activities making up a project, represented by bars along the horizontal time axis. Shows duration and planned sequence of activities
    • Lag
      • The time associated in the relationship between two activities. For example, stripping forms can not be completed until 10 days after concrete is placed. In this case, there is a 10 day lag between the activities
  • Scheduling Terms and Definitions (cont’d)
    • Critical Path
      • The path or paths which are the series of activities having zero float and must be completed on their scheduled dates or the project is in jeopardy
    • Milestone
      • A point in time that signifies either the beginning or the end of a series of related activities. A milestone has zero duration
  • Scheduling Terms and Definitions (cont’d)
    • Float
      • A measure of leeway in activity performance. Typical float types are “free float” and “total float”
        • Free float is the amount of time that an activity’s start can be delayed without affecting the early start of successor activities
        • Total float is the amount of time in starting or finishing an activity that will not affect the completion of the project
  • Scheduling Terms and Definitions (cont’d)
    • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
      • Framework for organizing activities that make up a project
    • Resource
      • Anything needed to complete an activity: labor, materials, equipment, design, etc.
  • Types of Schedules
    • Milestone
    • Time Scaled Logic Network
    • Bar or Gantt Charts
    • PERT
  • Types of Schedules
    • Milestone (Level 1)
      • List of milestones and dates
      • Used to report at the summary level
    • Time Scaled Logic Network (Level 2)
      • Graphical presentation of the schedule
      • Lists activities and durations
      • Shows logic ties and constraints
  • Milestone Chart Design Kitchen Designer Selected Plans Completed Finalize Design D1 D3 D5 D7 D9
  •  
  • Types of Schedules (cont’d)
    • Program Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT) Level 2
        • Graphic view that allows for easy evaluation of the flow of a project
  • Basic Logic Network Task A Task P Task K Task F Task I Task E Task B Task C Task J Task D Task O Task G Task L Task M Task N Task R Task Q Task H
  • Types of Schedules (cont’d)
    • Bar or Gantt Chart (Level 3)
      • Graphical presentation of the schedule
      • Lists activities and durations
      • May show logic
      • Used for small projects
  • Bar (Gantt) Chart Design Kitchen Select Designer Create Plans Finalize Design D1 D3 D5 D7 D9 D11
  •  
  • Types of Schedules (cont’d)
    • Short duration schedules
      • Derived from the master schedule
      • Typically a bar chart
      • Used for near-term planning
      • Shows 2 weeks past, current week and 2 weeks forward
  • Relationships
    • Relationships are the interdependencies between one activity and another or group of activities
    • The four types of relationships are:
      • Finish-to-Start
      • Start-to-Start
      • Finish-to-Finish
      • Start-to-Finish
  • Relationships (cont’d)
    • Finish-to-Start
      • The most common type of scheduling activity relationship. Simply stated, the start of the next activity is dependent upon the completion of the previous activity
      • For example, on a construction project you can’t pour the concrete until the reinforcing steel is in place
  • Relationships (cont’d)
    • Start-to-Start
      • Start-to-Start relationship implies that an activity can start once another specified activity has started
      • For example, the design phase can start as soon as the permitting process has started
  • Relationships (cont’d)
    • Finish-to finish
      • Finish-to-Finish relationship implies that the completion of an activity is dependent upon the completion of another activity. This relation ship is commonly used with start-to-start relationships
      • For example, the software user’s manual can be started after the start of coding and testing but can’t be completed until coding and debugging is completed
  • Relationships (cont’d)
    • Start-to-Finish
      • Start-to-Finish relationship implies that an activity can’t be completed until the predecessor activity has started
      • This type of relationship is very rarely used
  • Resources
    • All projects consume resources!
    • Resources are not just people:
      • resources can include money, material, equipment, and more.
      • How well these resources are allocated and monitored is a key measure of any project’s success or failure
  • Resources (Cont’d)
    • Assigning resources to a project and monitoring and reporting against the schedule provides the project manager with:
      • Ability to estimate remaining work
      • Ability to prepare accurate progress payments
      • Ability to provide historical data
      • Ability to address changes
  • Steps in Creating a Project Schedule Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Estimating Activity Duration Schedule Development Schedule Control
  • Developing a Project Schedule
    • Activity Definition
      • An activity must have a definable start and end
      • An activity is used to develop a plan for completing a project that sequences and schedules each activity
      • An activity is quantifiable and measurable
  • Developing a Project Schedule (Cont’d)
    • Activities shall relate to the WBS and allow for ease in quantifying and reporting
    • For example, in a construction schedule the activity might be F/R/P Slab-on-Grade, where F = form, R= place reinforcing, and P = place concrete. Breaking down the activity further would require additional resources to monitor for no additional return
  • Sample WBS for a Construction Project
  • Developing a Project Schedule (Cont’d)
    • Logic and relationships
      • Develop actual logic not placeholder logic
      • Use conventional Finish-to-Start logic to develop relationships. This is the first pass at developing a schedule. As you refine the schedule you will incorporate Start-to-Start and Finish-to-Finish relationships
  • Developing a Project Schedule (Cont’d)
    • Calendars
      • Is the project going to be scheduled in hours or days?
      • Will there be work activities that are outside the normal work periods of the project?
      • Will the project include week-ends and holidays?
  • Developing a Project Schedule (Cont’d)
    • Durations
      • Does the duration of each activity seem practical and achievable?
      • Nature of the task critical to the project or fill-in work?
      • Durations should be no less than 2-3 days nor longer than 15 days
  • Developing a Project Schedule (Cont’d)
    • Resources
      • What resources should be incorporated?
      • Tie resources to the level of the activities
      • A good place to begin assigning resources is from the budget or cost estimate
  • Advanced Scheduling Topics
    • Resource Allocation
    • Constraints
    • Baselining the Plan
    • Updating / Reporting Progress
    • Controlling Change
  • Resource Allocation
    • Team Building
    • Matching Skills to Activities
    • Estimating Hours
    • Assigning to Activities
    • Over allocated?
  • Resource Histogram
    • Shows the group and/or individual workload against available resources
    • Helps assess if the work can be done based on people involved
  • Constraints
    • Time
    • Dependencies
    • Assumptions
    • Physical
  • Time Constraints
    • No Constraint – Early Date
    • Start No Earlier Than
    • Finish No Later Than
    • As Late As Possible - JIT
    • Start No Later Than
    • Finish No Earlier Than
  • Dependency Constraints
    • Mandatory Dependencies
    • Discretionary Dependencies
    • External Dependencies
  • Baselining the Plan
    • Original Plan = Baseline
    • Baseline vs. Current Schedule
    • Changes to Baseline
    • Performance Measurement
    • Earned Value
  • Updating / Progressing
    • Percent Complete
      • Time
      • Budget
      • Physical
    • Remaining Duration
    • Remaining Work
  • Outputs From Progressing
    • “ Schedule updates”
    • “ Corrective action”
    • “ Lessons learned”
  • Change Control Management
    • A famous general once said “To win the war, you must know the enemy.”
    • A famous project manager once said “We have met the enemy and the enemy is change.”
    CHANGE Manage change, or it will manage you!!!
  • Change Requests
    • A result of most ongoing projects
    • Change in scope
    • Change in schedule
    • Change in cost (on cost type contracts)
    Change is inevitable on ALL projects
  • Change Control Bottom Line Proper Change Control Dropped Balls = Failed Project
  • THAT’S IT