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The Enlightenment and the French Revolution
 

The Enlightenment and the French Revolution

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    The Enlightenment and the French Revolution The Enlightenment and the French Revolution Presentation Transcript

    • Enlightenment, France, and Freedom
      • Absolutism vs. Enlightened Despot
      • Spread of Ideas
      • France and the Fall of Absolutism
      • Reign of Terror
    • Enlightenment Spreads
      • Exciting time to be alive
        • Discovery
        • Thought
        • Discussion
      • Why now?
        • Free time for the middle class and wealthy allows time to pursue thought
        • Printing press allows for the spread of ideas
    • Thinkers Unite!
      • Parisian Salons
        • Meetings between the thinkers of the time to discuss the newest discoveries and ideas
        • Encourages collaboration and openness
      • Marie-Therese Geoffrin
        • Self educated
        • Most important salon were the greatest thinkers of the time would meet to discuss
        • Even a correspondent of Catherine the Great
    • Diderot and the Encyclopedia
      • Imagined a great volume of books that could be referenced on all subjects by scholars
      • Began to publish books with articles from philosophers on all subjects including science, government, art, and technology
      • Government and the Church saw as a threat
        • Insighting revolt against royal authority
        • “ moral corruption”
      • Eventually won the right to continue publishing
    • Baroque Art
      • Baroque
        • Grand, ornate style
        • Very over the top
      • 15 th and 16 th Century
      • Rich color, detail, and imagery for paintings
    • Neoclassical
      • Holla Back!!
        • Throw back to the classics of ancient Greece and Rome
      • Order and Balance
        • Arete- the pursuit of perfection
      • Simple and Elegant
      • Late 1700’s
    • Classical Music
      • Haydn
        • Sonata and Symphony
      • Mozart
        • Began composing at age 5
        • Kyrie
      • Beethoven
        • Bridged the gap between neoclassical and romantic period
    • Activity
      • Read pg 193 and draw a pyramid diagramming the old Regime
      Wealth Population
    • The French Revolution
      • King Louis XVI lived well while the rest of the country starved
    • The French Revolution
      • Nobles tax exempt
      • Used tax exemption to keep the nobles happy
      • Leaves the Middle Class to pick up the bill!
    • The French Revolution
      • Other Causes
        • Rise of enlightened ideas
        • Food Scarcity
        • Resentment of religious intolerance
        • Resentment of royal absolutism
    • Louis XVI
      • Weak leader not concerned with what is going on in his country
      • Marie Antoinette
        • Hated for being Austrian
        • Madame Deficit
      • Large debt leads to the need to call the Estates-General to raise funds
    • Three Forces of Change
      • What are the three major forces or causes that lead to the French Revolution?
        • Enlightenment Ideals
        • Weak Leader
        • Economic Woes
    • Estates-General
      • Each Estate had one vote
        • Church and Nobles usually outvoted the third estate even though they had less people
      • Each estate meets separately and decides on its vote
    • Enlightenment Changes Minds
      • Third Estate want all estates to meet together with each delegate voting
        • Third Estate would dominate based on population in this system
      • Louis sides with the Nobles and forces the Medieval rules to be followed
      • Abbe Sieyes champions the third estates cause encouraging the delegates to take action
    • National Assembly
      • Sieyes idea for the Third Estate
      • June 17, 1789 The Third Estate votes to start the Naitonal Assembly
        • Marks the end of Absolutism in France
      • Locked out of their meeting room in protest to their bold move
      • Break into a Tennis Court for a meeting place
    • Tennis Court Oath
      • Delegates pledge to stay until they have drawn up a new constitution recognizing the rights of all citizens
    • Comparing Revolutions
      • Take 1 minute and list terms, people, and ideas that led to the American Revolution
      • Join with a partner and create a venn-diagram comparing and contrasting the causes of the French and American Revolution
    • Last Attempt to Maintain Power
      • King Louis XVI tries to keep the peace by giving into the demands of the 3rd Estate and demanding that all three Estates meet together
        • Do not want the division in the country to increase
        • Scared that he can not trust the French Army so he moves his Swiss Guard into Paris causing a panic
          • Parisians believe the foreign army is coming to massacre citizens
    • REVOLT I SAY!
      • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
          • French Version of the Declaration of Independence
      Storming of the Bastille
    • Great Fear
      • Peasants in the country side also concerned for their safety
      • Believe that the Nobles will hire people to destroy what little crops they have
      • Begin to ransack nobles’ homes and burn the documentation of their feudal obligations
      • Helped end the practice of Feudalism once and for all
    • Declaration of the Rights of Man
      • As fear sweeps the country the National Assembly states its purpose
      • “ All men are born and remain free and equal in rights”
      • Ensured basic rights of citizens
        • Speech
        • Religion
        • Equal Justice
      • “ Liberty, Equality, Fraturnity”
    • Revolution and the Church
      • Church lands taken
        • Sell the land to pay off debt
        • Avoid taxing more heavily
      • Church officials and priest to be elected by property owners
        • Paid as state officials
        • Catholic church loses power and independence
      • Not popular with the Catholics of the County
      • Pits Peasants against the Bourgeoisie and the Revolution from this point onward
    • Louis the Lion Hearted???
      • Louis warned he and his family were in danger
        • Supporters of the Monarch left France rather than stay to deal with the revolution
      • Attempts to escape to Austria
        • Recognized near the border
      • Returned to Paris under guard
      • Increased general paranoia and allowed radicals to take further control
    • Activity
      • Who were the different people involved in the revolution? Read Conflicting Goals Cause Division on pg 198 and answer the following questions.
    • Questions (pg 198)
      • What is a limited Monarchy?
      • Who were the radicals and what did they want for France?
      • Who were the Moderates and what did they want for France?
      • Who were the Conservatives and what did they want for France?
      • How is this similar to the English revolution?
      • How is this different from the English revolution?
    • Three Factions
      • Radicals
        • Sat on the left
        • Wanted more change
        • No monarchy, establish a republic
        • Sans-Culottes extreme wing
          • Wage earners and shop keepers
          • Lower food prices and an end to the shortage
          • No role in assembly but influential in other ways
    • Three Factions
      • Moderates
        • Sat in the center
        • Looking for change but were not trying to reform the entire system
        • Change within the structure of the current Monarchy system
    • Three Factions
      • Conservatives
        • Sat on Right
        • Wanted limited Monarchy
        • As few changes in government as possible
        • Émigrés
          • Nobles who fled France
          • Looking to restore the Old Regime and the Monarch