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The Enlightenment and the French Revolution
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The Enlightenment and the French Revolution

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  • 1. Enlightenment, France, and Freedom
    • Absolutism vs. Enlightened Despot
    • Spread of Ideas
    • France and the Fall of Absolutism
    • Reign of Terror
  • 2. Enlightenment Spreads
    • Exciting time to be alive
      • Discovery
      • Thought
      • Discussion
    • Why now?
      • Free time for the middle class and wealthy allows time to pursue thought
      • Printing press allows for the spread of ideas
  • 3. Thinkers Unite!
    • Parisian Salons
      • Meetings between the thinkers of the time to discuss the newest discoveries and ideas
      • Encourages collaboration and openness
    • Marie-Therese Geoffrin
      • Self educated
      • Most important salon were the greatest thinkers of the time would meet to discuss
      • Even a correspondent of Catherine the Great
  • 4. Diderot and the Encyclopedia
    • Imagined a great volume of books that could be referenced on all subjects by scholars
    • Began to publish books with articles from philosophers on all subjects including science, government, art, and technology
    • Government and the Church saw as a threat
      • Insighting revolt against royal authority
      • “ moral corruption”
    • Eventually won the right to continue publishing
  • 5. Baroque Art
    • Baroque
      • Grand, ornate style
      • Very over the top
    • 15 th and 16 th Century
    • Rich color, detail, and imagery for paintings
  • 6. Neoclassical
    • Holla Back!!
      • Throw back to the classics of ancient Greece and Rome
    • Order and Balance
      • Arete- the pursuit of perfection
    • Simple and Elegant
    • Late 1700’s
  • 7. Classical Music
    • Haydn
      • Sonata and Symphony
    • Mozart
      • Began composing at age 5
      • Kyrie
    • Beethoven
      • Bridged the gap between neoclassical and romantic period
  • 8. Activity
    • Read pg 193 and draw a pyramid diagramming the old Regime
    Wealth Population
  • 9. The French Revolution
    • King Louis XVI lived well while the rest of the country starved
  • 10. The French Revolution
    • Nobles tax exempt
    • Used tax exemption to keep the nobles happy
    • Leaves the Middle Class to pick up the bill!
  • 11. The French Revolution
    • Other Causes
      • Rise of enlightened ideas
      • Food Scarcity
      • Resentment of religious intolerance
      • Resentment of royal absolutism
  • 12. Louis XVI
    • Weak leader not concerned with what is going on in his country
    • Marie Antoinette
      • Hated for being Austrian
      • Madame Deficit
    • Large debt leads to the need to call the Estates-General to raise funds
  • 13. Three Forces of Change
    • What are the three major forces or causes that lead to the French Revolution?
      • Enlightenment Ideals
      • Weak Leader
      • Economic Woes
  • 14. Estates-General
    • Each Estate had one vote
      • Church and Nobles usually outvoted the third estate even though they had less people
    • Each estate meets separately and decides on its vote
  • 15. Enlightenment Changes Minds
    • Third Estate want all estates to meet together with each delegate voting
      • Third Estate would dominate based on population in this system
    • Louis sides with the Nobles and forces the Medieval rules to be followed
    • Abbe Sieyes champions the third estates cause encouraging the delegates to take action
  • 16. National Assembly
    • Sieyes idea for the Third Estate
    • June 17, 1789 The Third Estate votes to start the Naitonal Assembly
      • Marks the end of Absolutism in France
    • Locked out of their meeting room in protest to their bold move
    • Break into a Tennis Court for a meeting place
  • 17. Tennis Court Oath
    • Delegates pledge to stay until they have drawn up a new constitution recognizing the rights of all citizens
  • 18. Comparing Revolutions
    • Take 1 minute and list terms, people, and ideas that led to the American Revolution
    • Join with a partner and create a venn-diagram comparing and contrasting the causes of the French and American Revolution
  • 19. Last Attempt to Maintain Power
    • King Louis XVI tries to keep the peace by giving into the demands of the 3rd Estate and demanding that all three Estates meet together
      • Do not want the division in the country to increase
      • Scared that he can not trust the French Army so he moves his Swiss Guard into Paris causing a panic
        • Parisians believe the foreign army is coming to massacre citizens
  • 20. REVOLT I SAY!
    • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
        • French Version of the Declaration of Independence
    Storming of the Bastille
  • 21. Great Fear
    • Peasants in the country side also concerned for their safety
    • Believe that the Nobles will hire people to destroy what little crops they have
    • Begin to ransack nobles’ homes and burn the documentation of their feudal obligations
    • Helped end the practice of Feudalism once and for all
  • 22. Declaration of the Rights of Man
    • As fear sweeps the country the National Assembly states its purpose
    • “ All men are born and remain free and equal in rights”
    • Ensured basic rights of citizens
      • Speech
      • Religion
      • Equal Justice
    • “ Liberty, Equality, Fraturnity”
  • 23. Revolution and the Church
    • Church lands taken
      • Sell the land to pay off debt
      • Avoid taxing more heavily
    • Church officials and priest to be elected by property owners
      • Paid as state officials
      • Catholic church loses power and independence
    • Not popular with the Catholics of the County
    • Pits Peasants against the Bourgeoisie and the Revolution from this point onward
  • 24. Louis the Lion Hearted???
    • Louis warned he and his family were in danger
      • Supporters of the Monarch left France rather than stay to deal with the revolution
    • Attempts to escape to Austria
      • Recognized near the border
    • Returned to Paris under guard
    • Increased general paranoia and allowed radicals to take further control
  • 25. Activity
    • Who were the different people involved in the revolution? Read Conflicting Goals Cause Division on pg 198 and answer the following questions.
  • 26. Questions (pg 198)
    • What is a limited Monarchy?
    • Who were the radicals and what did they want for France?
    • Who were the Moderates and what did they want for France?
    • Who were the Conservatives and what did they want for France?
    • How is this similar to the English revolution?
    • How is this different from the English revolution?
  • 27. Three Factions
    • Radicals
      • Sat on the left
      • Wanted more change
      • No monarchy, establish a republic
      • Sans-Culottes extreme wing
        • Wage earners and shop keepers
        • Lower food prices and an end to the shortage
        • No role in assembly but influential in other ways
  • 28. Three Factions
    • Moderates
      • Sat in the center
      • Looking for change but were not trying to reform the entire system
      • Change within the structure of the current Monarchy system
  • 29. Three Factions
    • Conservatives
      • Sat on Right
      • Wanted limited Monarchy
      • As few changes in government as possible
      • Émigrés
        • Nobles who fled France
        • Looking to restore the Old Regime and the Monarch