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Pacific Theatre Ends Pacific Theatre Ends Presentation Transcript

  • World War II: War in the Pacific 1.
  • Japan Strikes!
    • Pearl Harbor only the beginning of Japanese plans
    • Turn to pg 448 in your text book
      • Guam and Wake Islands in the Pacific
      • Launch an attack on the Philippines
      • British Hong Kong, Malaya, and Singapore
      • Dutch East Indies (Indonesia)
      • Burma
  • Japanese Brutality
    • War for the Philippines ends with a Japanese Victory
    • 75,000 American and Filipino troops surrender to the Japanese
      • Japan now outnumbered by their prisoners
    • Bataan Death march
      • Force these captives to walk approximately 100 miles to a prisoner of war camp
      • Randomly beat POWs
      • Tortured to death for falling behind
      • 10,000 soldiers died on the March
  • Japanese Tactics
    • Heavily fortify the HUNDREDS of small islands all through the Pacific
    • Claim to come as liberators
      • “Asia for the Asians”
      • Treat the newly conquered populations with severe brutality
  • Allies on the Offensive
    • 1942 send 16 B-52 bombers to bomb Tokyo
      • Sending the message YOU ARE NOT INVINCIBLE
    • Allied forces rally to the cause and new hope is in sight
  • Battle of Coral Sea
    • Fought entirely between the aircraft from the two fleets (Japanese and American/ Australian forces)
    • No definitive winner
      • Japanese sink more ships
      • Allies stop the Japanese advancement for the first time
  • The Battle of Midway
    • Largest fleet ever assembled
      • Japanese have over 150 ships included the largest battleship ever built
    • Allies crack a Japanese code that gives advanced warning and begin to plan an ambush
      • Out numbered by ships and airplanes
    • Allow Japan to attack the island first and sent the Allied planes out to attack the unsuspecting ships
    • Allies destroy 352 planes and all 4 aircraft carriers
  • Allied Strategy in the Pacific
    • Too many islands to take back one by one
    • “Island Hopping”
      • Strategically take islands throughout the Pacific while ignoring others
      • Take Islands not as well defended and closer to Japan
      • Hopefully the strongholds would be cut off and eventually weaken
  • Battle of Guadalcanal
    • Huge Japanese airbase being built
    • Want to destroy the base before it is a stronghold
    • Attack with 19,000 marines
      • Japanese overwhelmed but pledge to fight till the death
    • After 6 months of fighting the Allies finally force the Japanese off the island
      • 23,000 allied casualties
      • 36,000 Japanese Casualties
  • Japanese Propaganda
    • As the Allies island hopped something was amiss…
      • Why were the civilian populations killing themselves before the allies were in control?
    • Japanese had spread rumors about US marines
      • Kept caged gorillas they would watch tear apart prisoners
      • Bayonet babies
      • Etc
  • Beginning of the End in the Pacific
    • Firebombing of Tokyo and other major cities
      • Development of the B-29 had a 1500 mile range
      • Bombed major cities with firebombs nightly
      • Flew at higher altitudes to avoid anti-aircraft
      • Less precision, bombed wherever the munitions fell
  • Manhattan Project
    • Albert Einstein escapes from Germany before the rise of Hitler
    • Discussions of the uses of Atomic energy begin but many feel an A-bomb is an impossibility
    • Concerned scientists realized that the Nazi would definitely find a way to develop one if this was a possibility (which Fermi and Oppenhiemer believed it was)
  • Manhattan Project
    • Einstein’s Letter to FDR (1939)
    • 1942 the project gets is official start
    • Facilities at Los Alamos, New Mexico and Oak Ridge, Tennessee
    • Complete Secrecy
    • Manage to develop 3 bombs
      • 1 test
      • Fat Man
      • Little Boy
  • Back to Hitler and the European Theatre
    • In groups of 2-3, read pgs 455-459 up to Victory in the Pacific
      • As you read… complete the story of Allied Victory sheet
    • You have 20 minutes to complete this task!
  • Meanwhile, back in the Pacific
    • Japan had tried to destroy the entire American Fleet in the battle of Leyte Gulf
      • Destroy the fleet and cut off the troops
      • Backfired and lost their entire fleet instead
    • US forces land on the Philippines and General Macarthur declares his return
    • Marines begin the difficult battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa
  • Iwo Jima
    • Small volcanic Island with airfield and several well defended tunnel systems by the Japanese
    • American Forces storm the island and through intense battle manage to take the island after decimating the Japanese forces (only 1500 of the original 22,000 survived) and sustaining heavy casualties of over 6,000
  • Iwo Jima
    • Us Marines raising a flag on top of the Volcanic cone on the island
    • “ Captured the soul of a nation”
  • Okinawa
    • 350 miles from the coast of Japan
    • Bloodiest land battle of the war
    • Japan lost 110,000 troops
    • Americans lost 12,500
    • Bitter battle that ends with an American victory
  • Difficult Decision
    • Truman must now decide whether to risk a costly invasion of Japan or use the most deadly weapon ever created by man
    • Risk loosing 500,000 American soldiers or indiscriminately kill whole Japanese cities
  • The Scenario
    • Japan, sensing defeat sends an envoy to the Soviet Union in the hopes of negotiating peace… there is no progress
    • US sends a warning to the Japanese threatening to rain terror from the sky if they do not unconditionally surrender… Japanese send no reply
  • The Scenario
    • Truman decides to drop the bombs
      • Targets are selected
      • Little Boy is dropped on Hiroshima
  • Hiroshima Casualties 256,300 30% 27% Total 80,300 25% 2% 2.5-5.0 144,800 37% 27% 1.0-2.5 31,200 10% 86% 0-1.0 Population Injured Killed Ground Distance (km)
  • The Warning
    • Truman warns Japan that we will destroy a city every three days if they do not surrender
      • Partly a bluff
      • We only had one more bomb
    • Japan does not surrender after Hiroshima
  • Nagasaki
    • Fat man is dropped on Nagasaki
    • Another city is decimated
    • Population of the city 164,000
      • 39,000 killed
      • 25,000 injured
    • 60% of all deaths from burns
  • Atomic Bomb Conditions
    • Ground Temperature of 7,000 Degrees F
    • Winds of 980 mph
    • Energy released equal to 20,000 tons of TNT
    • 210,000 total deaths related to the Atomic Bomb
  • Discussion
    • Did Truman make the right decision? Why or why not? Take 3 minutes and collect your thoughts. Write 2-3 sentences explaining your stance.