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Korean and Vietnam War
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Korean and Vietnam War

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  • 1. Korean and Vietnam War
  • 2. Korean War
    • Korea divided at the end of WWII
      • North surrendered to Soviets
      • South Surrendered to the United States
    • Most occupying troops are removed from the peninsula by 1949
    • North Korea receiving military aid from the Soviets
  • 3. Korean War
    • June 25, 1950 North Korea invades South Korea
    • Truman’s policy of containment tested
      • Convinced this was very similar to what had happened with Hitler and the other axis powers during WWII
      • Pledges the US to help South Korea
        • Initially just air and naval cover and then ground troops after MacArthur assesses the situation
  • 4. United Nations Intervention
    • South Korea asks the United Nations for help
      • Taken to the Security Council
      • Why would you expect any action against North Korea to be voted down in the Security Council?
      • Soviets were absent from the meeting
        • Boycotting because of the Nationalists China being given the Chinese seat in the United Nations
  • 5. United Nations Intervention
    • 15 nations pledge to send troops to help the South Koreans under the leadership of Douglas Macarthur
    • Forces enter the conflict amidst continued North Korean success
  • 6. The War
    • Pusan the only South Korean area left
    • MacArthur plans a surprise attack to try and defeat the North Koreans at Inchon
  • 7. Inchon Landing
    • Landing the forces at Inchon allowed MacArthur to pinch the North Koreans between the his two forces
    • Forces about half of the North Korean Army to surrender and the rest to retreat
    • With North Korean forces on retreat MacArthur gives chase preparing to deliver the final blow
  • 8. Refusal of Surrender
    • North Koreans refuse to surrender even after being pushed back past the 38 th parallel
    • Truman did not want this conflict to escalate into a larger war
    • Chinese troops were building along the Manchurian border and there were threats of a Chinese invasion if MacArthur on the UN continued to push too far
  • 9. Invasion of North Korea
    • South Korean troops begin to push into North Korea
    • MacArthur reorganizes the UN troops and prepares to completely destroy the N. Korean Army
    • Plans begin to be drawn up in the UN for a N. Korean occupation and eventual unification plan under a democratic government
  • 10. China Gets Involved
    • October 1950 China enters the war on behalf of the N. Koreans
    • Now a war between the US and China
    • MacArthur’s forces are outnumbered and are pushed back into S. Korea and lose the capital of Seoul
    • MacArthur begins to call for nuclear strikes against Chinese targets
  • 11. MacArthur Dismissed
    • Truman completely against escalation
      • Want to stay out of world wars, not start them
    • MacArthur takes his case to Congress and the press trying to force Truman’s hand
    • Truman relieves MacArthur of command
  • 12. Peace Agreement
    • Ceasefire signed after 2 more years of fighting
    • UN troops are able to beat the N. Koreans back to near the 38 th parallel
    • Almost no change in the border but 5 million lives were lost during the war
  • 13. Aftermath of the War
    • NORTH KOREA
    • Poor
    • Shortages of food and energy
    • Communist Dictators
    • Kim Jung Il current dictator
    • Heavily militarized
    • South Korea
    • Robust economic growth thanks to US stimulus aid
    • Democratic constitution with free elections now in place
    • One of the fastest growing economies in the world
    • Focuses on industry and exports
  • 14. Vietnam
    • France colonized most of Southeast Asia to control the resources
    • Ho Chi Minh
      • Young Rebel in Vietnam looks for help from the Communists to help against the French
      • Forms the Indochinese Communist Party
  • 15. Conflict in Vietnam
    • French jail the protesters Ho incites
    • Sentences Ho and other party leaders to death but Ho escapes
    • Returns in 1941 after the Japanese invasion
      • Form the Vietminh League to fight against the Japanese
      • American Intelligent Agency (OSS) aligns with Ho to harass the Japanese
    • In 1945 Japan admits defeat
    • France seeks to regain the colony
  • 16. Vietnam War Begins
    • France faces resistance as it tries to regain the colony
      • Communists and Nationalists join together to fight against the French for independence
      • Hit and Run tactics (guerilla warfare) make France wonder if the colony is worth the price in lives
      • US supports the French as an extension of their containment policy
  • 17. Dien Bien Phu
    • Viet Minh surround Dien Bien Phu
      • French stronghold
      • Viet Minh have 50,000 troops surrounding the city
    • Constant artillery fire shuts down the only runway causing French to rely on parachuting in supplies
    • France calls on the USA for help as the Viet Minh dig tunnels closer and closer to their positions
  • 18. USA Enters the War
    • Domino Theory
      • If one country fell to communism those around it would also fall
      • Communism would spread
    • Potential Options for US involvement
      • Send combat troops
      • Conventional airstrike with B-29 Bombers
      • Tactical Nuclear Weapon
  • 19. French Surrender
    • The French admit defeat before the US commits
    • Geneva Peace Conference determines the country will be split at the 17 th parallel
      • Communist Ho Chi Minh to the North
      • US and France support Ngo Dinh Diem in the South in an anti-communist government
  • 20. Vietnam Divided
    • Diem leads as dictator in the South
      • Unpopular
      • US supports Diem cancellation of the elections
      • Fear an election would lead to a communist victory
    • Ho Chi Minh is a popular leader in the North with land redistribution programs
  • 21. Vietcong Resistance
    • Outrage at the corrupt leadership of Diem grows
    • Vietcong guerillas begin to fight and eventually take over large areas in the South
    • 1963 US attempts to back a coup to replace Diem with a more popular leader
      • Assassinate Diem and take control
      • No more popular
  • 22. Americans Get Directly Involved
    • US military had served as advisors to South Vietnamese
    • US decides to send in troops to prevent the rise of Ho in the South
  • 23. Americans In Vietnam
    • 185,000 plus troops deployed to Vietnam
    • Best trained and equipped force in the world
      • Guerilla warfare in unfamiliar terrain
    • Problems Faced
      • South Vietnamese Government becoming more unpopular
      • US support for the war is failing
      • Terrain unfamiliar
  • 24. American Withdraw
    • Becomes clear that there is no decisive victory in sight for the war
    • Richard Nixon begins the withdraw
      • Plan of Vietnamization where the South Vietnamese slowly took over for the American soldiers who were leaving
      • Hoped the South Vietnamese government would hold
      • Authorized bombings of Laos and Cambodia to try and destroy Vietcong supply routes and hideouts