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Italian and German Unification



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  • 1. The Unification of Italy and Germany Garibaldi Bismarck
  • 2. What is Nationalism?
    • Nationalism is a feeling of belonging and loyalty that causes people to think of themselves as a nation.
    • During the 19 th and 20 th centuries, nationalism was a
    • powerful force that could:
        • Create one nation from many separate countries (ex. Italy and Germany)
        • Break one nation up into many countries (ex. Austria-Hungary, and Turkey)
  • 3. Nationalism
    • Nationalism can be a cause of war (ex. WWI and WWII)
    • It has encouraged colonies to seek independence from their colonizers. (ex. India, Indonesia, and countries in Africa)
    • Nationalism can take many different forms but certain factors need to be present for it to grow .
  • 4. The Italian States Unite, 1859-1870
  • 5. Barriers to Italian Nationalism
    • Italy was divided into several states.
    • Italy did not threaten the balance of power in Europe.
    • After the Congress of Vienna, Italy was made up of nine different states:
        • Piedmont-Sardinia (the largest state)
        • Venetia and Lombardy belonged to Austria
        • the Pope ruled the Papal States in central Italy
        • the other states were ruled by foreign princes under Austrian control
  • 6. Barriers to Italian Nationalism
    • Geography - mountains split Italy West and East; the Po river, North and South
    • Illiteracy – as most of the population could not read and write, nationalistic propaganda was difficult to spread
    • The Pope - felt a united Italy would lessen his rights in the papal states
    • Lack of consensus - Italian states disagreed on a leader and type of government
    • Lack of European support - European nations felt a strong Italy would interfere with their plans
  • 7. Factors That Led to Italian Unification
    • Geography
      • Italy is isolated
      • The Alps are to the North, surrounded by oceans.
      • Geographic isolation allows Italy to develop its own ways, customs.
    • History
      • Italians are very proud of their heritage, including the Italian Renaissance.
      • Napoleon’s conquest of Italian states led to a desire not to be conquered again  Italian unity.
    • Efforts of Three Men: Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour
  • 8. Giuseppe Mazzini, “Prophet of Italian Unification”
    • He was a member of the Carbonari .
    • The Carbonari were a secret group which used violence to obtain what it wanted.
    • He formed Young Italy , made up of young people whose job it was to arouse enthusiasm for a united nation.
    • Tried revolution but it failed .
  • 9. Mazzini- Essay on Nationalism (1852)
    • Directions: Read the essay and answer the following questions
      • What are the two questions at the heart of the revolutions? How are the two questions exemplified in the French Revolution?
      • What does consanguinity mean?
      • How can you sum up the second argument for unity?
  • 10. Count Cavour, “Architect of Italian Unification”
    • Count Camillo di Cavour was the “architect” (planner) of Piedmont-Sardinia’s revolt against Austria.
    • This revolt encouraged other Italian states to revolt.
  • 11. Giuseppe Garibaldi, “The Sword of Italian Unification”
    • Garibaldi first invaded Sicily, then urged them to join Piedmont-Sardinia under the leadership of Victor Emmanuel.
    • Garibaldi handed over all conquered lands to Victor Emmanuel.
  • 12. How Italy was United
    • The Addition of the Papal States:
      • Victor Emmanuel conquers the Papal States; stops
      • Garibaldi’s advance.
      • Unification nears completion.
    • 1860: elections were held in all of Italy, except
    • Venetia and Rome.
    • 1861: in the city of Turin, representatives of a united
    • nation formed a parliament and proclaimed the establishment of Italy under Victor Emmanuel II.
  • 13. Victor Emmanuel II
  • 14. Problems Faced by a United Italy
    • Victor Emmanuel II, King of Italy is a constitutional monarch.
    • Right to vote is limited to upper and middle class property holders.
    • Many Catholics refuse to participate in new nation (as did the Pope).
    • Bribery and corruption were frequent in poor, uneducated lower classes.
    • Some Italian speaking areas were not united with the central government.
    • Some felt Italy should become a world power and fight for colonies.
    • Italy lacked industrial development, agriculture, and natural resources.
    • Prices were high, people could not afford manufactured goods.
  • 15. A German Nation is Forged
  • 16. Background to German Unification
    • Prior to the French Revolution, there were more than 300 German states.
    • Prussia and Austria were the largest.
    • The Congress of Vienna reduced the number of German states to 39.
    • The smaller number of German states encouraged feelings of nationalism and patriotism among these German states.
  • 17. Barriers to German Unification
    • France preferred 39 weak states to one nation.
    • Austria knew Prussia was most powerful state.
    • Rulers of smaller states feared loss of power in a united Germany.
    • Protestant/Catholic hostility (from Thirty Years’ War).
    • Economic differences between western industrial states and agricultural eastern states.
  • 18. Factors Encouraging German Unification
    • Napoleon encouraged German unification with the Confederation of the Rhine under the Napoleonic Code.
    • Intellectuals supported a German Nation:
      • Heinrich von Treitschke envisioned a German Fatherland
      • Goethe and Schiller saw a common nationality for all Germans
    • Congress of Vienna created a German Confederation which was made up of 39 states.
    • Zollverein created to increase trade, reduce problems of many state governments; taxes, coinage and postal system.
  • 19. How Bismarck United Germany Otto von Bismarck
  • 20. How Bismarck United Germany
    • Prussia led German unification.
    • Otto von Bismarck led Prussia
      • Conservative chosen as Prime Minister
        • stood for absolutism, Divine Right Monarchy and the Protestant Lutheran church
        • did not trust people or democracy
      • Master of Realpolitick
        • Politics of reality
      • Tough power politics
        • No idealism
      • William I, King of Prussia appointed Bismarck chief minister in the Prussian Parliament ,1848
  • 21. Bismarck’s Policy of “Blood and Iron”
    • “ Not by speeches and resolutions of majorities are the great questions of the time decided upon – but by blood and iron”.
  • 22. German Unification
    • Could not persuade parliament
    • Declared he would rule without the consent of parliament and without a legal budget
    • Aligned with Austria to attack Denmark for Schleswig and Holstein
    • Quick victory increases Prussian nationalism
  • 23. German Unification
    • Prussia controls Schleswig and Austria Holstein
    • Hoping this will lead to turmoil he can use Border conflicts with Austria between Schleswig and Holstein
    • Austria declares war on Prussia in 1866
    • Seven Weeks’ war
    • Prussia Annexes more territory
    • Eastern and Western Prussia united for first time
  • 24. France: Bismarck’s Strategy
    • Spanish throne is offered to a relative of the King of Prussia after leaders of the Spanish revolution removed their leader.
    • Louis Napoleon (Napoleon Bonaparte’s nephew), Emperor of France convinces German prince to refuse crown then sends an envoy to convince William I of Prussia not to accept the crown.
    • From the City of Ems, William I sends a telegram to Bismarck about the request, this is called the Ems Dispatch.
    • Bismarck, seizing his opportunity, rewords the telegram and publishes it in the newspapers.
  • 25. Bismarck’s Plan Pays Off
    • Prussians become upset about unfair demands to their king; French are insulted by Prussia.
    • France declares war though unprepared
      • Prussia thus acquires:
      • French provinces of Alsace & Lorraine
      • money to cover the cost of war
    • The Franco-Prussian War completes the unification of Germany.
    • South German states unite with north to fight France
    • 1871: German Empire is formed, William I of Prussia as Emperor.
  • 26. Kaiser Wilhelm I
  • 27. Problems Faced by a United Germany
    • Germany was far from democratic:
      • The Government of the German Empire was a federal union of states with the King of Prussia as ruler and a two house legislature with:
      • A powerful 61 member appointed upper house
      • A 400 member lower house chosen by universal male suffrage (all men could vote)
      • Strong king who made government appointments, strong upper house had power
      • strong army, soldiers prominent in society
  • 28. Bismarck’s Policies
    • Made socialism illegal
    • Improved working conditions
    • Persecuted national and religious minorities, especially Catholics
    • In foreign affairs, tried to isolate France by making friendships with Austria and Russia
    • Use of Realpolitik
    • Realpolitik was Bismarck’s foreign policy  decisions are not based on ideological or moral considerations; decisions should be based on self-interest.
  • 29. Comparing Revolutions, Revolts, and Unifications
    • What is one factor that has been present in all of the conflicts we have studied so far? Why do you think this factor repeatedly shows up?