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Italian and German Unification
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Italian and German Unification


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    • 1. The Unification of Italy and Germany Garibaldi Bismarck
    • 2. What is Nationalism?
      • Nationalism is a feeling of belonging and loyalty that causes people to think of themselves as a nation.
      • During the 19 th and 20 th centuries, nationalism was a
      • powerful force that could:
          • Create one nation from many separate countries (ex. Italy and Germany)
          • Break one nation up into many countries (ex. Austria-Hungary, and Turkey)
    • 3. Nationalism
      • Nationalism can be a cause of war (ex. WWI and WWII)
      • It has encouraged colonies to seek independence from their colonizers. (ex. India, Indonesia, and countries in Africa)
      • Nationalism can take many different forms but certain factors need to be present for it to grow .
    • 4. The Italian States Unite, 1859-1870
    • 5. Barriers to Italian Nationalism
      • Italy was divided into several states.
      • Italy did not threaten the balance of power in Europe.
      • After the Congress of Vienna, Italy was made up of nine different states:
          • Piedmont-Sardinia (the largest state)
          • Venetia and Lombardy belonged to Austria
          • the Pope ruled the Papal States in central Italy
          • the other states were ruled by foreign princes under Austrian control
    • 6. Barriers to Italian Nationalism
      • Geography - mountains split Italy West and East; the Po river, North and South
      • Illiteracy – as most of the population could not read and write, nationalistic propaganda was difficult to spread
      • The Pope - felt a united Italy would lessen his rights in the papal states
      • Lack of consensus - Italian states disagreed on a leader and type of government
      • Lack of European support - European nations felt a strong Italy would interfere with their plans
    • 7. Factors That Led to Italian Unification
      • Geography
        • Italy is isolated
        • The Alps are to the North, surrounded by oceans.
        • Geographic isolation allows Italy to develop its own ways, customs.
      • History
        • Italians are very proud of their heritage, including the Italian Renaissance.
        • Napoleon’s conquest of Italian states led to a desire not to be conquered again  Italian unity.
      • Efforts of Three Men: Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour
    • 8. Giuseppe Mazzini, “Prophet of Italian Unification”
      • He was a member of the Carbonari .
      • The Carbonari were a secret group which used violence to obtain what it wanted.
      • He formed Young Italy , made up of young people whose job it was to arouse enthusiasm for a united nation.
      • Tried revolution but it failed .
    • 9. Mazzini- Essay on Nationalism (1852)
      • Directions: Read the essay and answer the following questions
        • What are the two questions at the heart of the revolutions? How are the two questions exemplified in the French Revolution?
        • What does consanguinity mean?
        • How can you sum up the second argument for unity?
    • 10. Count Cavour, “Architect of Italian Unification”
      • Count Camillo di Cavour was the “architect” (planner) of Piedmont-Sardinia’s revolt against Austria.
      • This revolt encouraged other Italian states to revolt.
    • 11. Giuseppe Garibaldi, “The Sword of Italian Unification”
      • Garibaldi first invaded Sicily, then urged them to join Piedmont-Sardinia under the leadership of Victor Emmanuel.
      • Garibaldi handed over all conquered lands to Victor Emmanuel.
    • 12. How Italy was United
      • The Addition of the Papal States:
        • Victor Emmanuel conquers the Papal States; stops
        • Garibaldi’s advance.
        • Unification nears completion.
      • 1860: elections were held in all of Italy, except
      • Venetia and Rome.
      • 1861: in the city of Turin, representatives of a united
      • nation formed a parliament and proclaimed the establishment of Italy under Victor Emmanuel II.
    • 13. Victor Emmanuel II
    • 14. Problems Faced by a United Italy
      • Victor Emmanuel II, King of Italy is a constitutional monarch.
      • Right to vote is limited to upper and middle class property holders.
      • Many Catholics refuse to participate in new nation (as did the Pope).
      • Bribery and corruption were frequent in poor, uneducated lower classes.
      • Some Italian speaking areas were not united with the central government.
      • Some felt Italy should become a world power and fight for colonies.
      • Italy lacked industrial development, agriculture, and natural resources.
      • Prices were high, people could not afford manufactured goods.
    • 15. A German Nation is Forged
    • 16. Background to German Unification
      • Prior to the French Revolution, there were more than 300 German states.
      • Prussia and Austria were the largest.
      • The Congress of Vienna reduced the number of German states to 39.
      • The smaller number of German states encouraged feelings of nationalism and patriotism among these German states.
    • 17. Barriers to German Unification
      • France preferred 39 weak states to one nation.
      • Austria knew Prussia was most powerful state.
      • Rulers of smaller states feared loss of power in a united Germany.
      • Protestant/Catholic hostility (from Thirty Years’ War).
      • Economic differences between western industrial states and agricultural eastern states.
    • 18. Factors Encouraging German Unification
      • Napoleon encouraged German unification with the Confederation of the Rhine under the Napoleonic Code.
      • Intellectuals supported a German Nation:
        • Heinrich von Treitschke envisioned a German Fatherland
        • Goethe and Schiller saw a common nationality for all Germans
      • Congress of Vienna created a German Confederation which was made up of 39 states.
      • Zollverein created to increase trade, reduce problems of many state governments; taxes, coinage and postal system.
    • 19. How Bismarck United Germany Otto von Bismarck
    • 20. How Bismarck United Germany
      • Prussia led German unification.
      • Otto von Bismarck led Prussia
        • Conservative chosen as Prime Minister
          • stood for absolutism, Divine Right Monarchy and the Protestant Lutheran church
          • did not trust people or democracy
        • Master of Realpolitick
          • Politics of reality
        • Tough power politics
          • No idealism
        • William I, King of Prussia appointed Bismarck chief minister in the Prussian Parliament ,1848
    • 21. Bismarck’s Policy of “Blood and Iron”
      • “ Not by speeches and resolutions of majorities are the great questions of the time decided upon – but by blood and iron”.
    • 22. German Unification
      • Could not persuade parliament
      • Declared he would rule without the consent of parliament and without a legal budget
      • Aligned with Austria to attack Denmark for Schleswig and Holstein
      • Quick victory increases Prussian nationalism
    • 23. German Unification
      • Prussia controls Schleswig and Austria Holstein
      • Hoping this will lead to turmoil he can use Border conflicts with Austria between Schleswig and Holstein
      • Austria declares war on Prussia in 1866
      • Seven Weeks’ war
      • Prussia Annexes more territory
      • Eastern and Western Prussia united for first time
    • 24. France: Bismarck’s Strategy
      • Spanish throne is offered to a relative of the King of Prussia after leaders of the Spanish revolution removed their leader.
      • Louis Napoleon (Napoleon Bonaparte’s nephew), Emperor of France convinces German prince to refuse crown then sends an envoy to convince William I of Prussia not to accept the crown.
      • From the City of Ems, William I sends a telegram to Bismarck about the request, this is called the Ems Dispatch.
      • Bismarck, seizing his opportunity, rewords the telegram and publishes it in the newspapers.
    • 25. Bismarck’s Plan Pays Off
      • Prussians become upset about unfair demands to their king; French are insulted by Prussia.
      • France declares war though unprepared
        • Prussia thus acquires:
        • French provinces of Alsace & Lorraine
        • money to cover the cost of war
      • The Franco-Prussian War completes the unification of Germany.
      • South German states unite with north to fight France
      • 1871: German Empire is formed, William I of Prussia as Emperor.
    • 26. Kaiser Wilhelm I
    • 27. Problems Faced by a United Germany
      • Germany was far from democratic:
        • The Government of the German Empire was a federal union of states with the King of Prussia as ruler and a two house legislature with:
        • A powerful 61 member appointed upper house
        • A 400 member lower house chosen by universal male suffrage (all men could vote)
        • Strong king who made government appointments, strong upper house had power
        • strong army, soldiers prominent in society
    • 28. Bismarck’s Policies
      • Made socialism illegal
      • Improved working conditions
      • Persecuted national and religious minorities, especially Catholics
      • In foreign affairs, tried to isolate France by making friendships with Austria and Russia
      • Use of Realpolitik
      • Realpolitik was Bismarck’s foreign policy  decisions are not based on ideological or moral considerations; decisions should be based on self-interest.
    • 29. Comparing Revolutions, Revolts, and Unifications
      • What is one factor that has been present in all of the conflicts we have studied so far? Why do you think this factor repeatedly shows up?