Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution


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Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution

  1. 1. The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
  2. 2. Skepticism and Science <ul><li>How does the beginning of skepticism lead to scientific discovery? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Question the accepted wisdom of the time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Except we can never really know anything so what is the point </li></ul>
  3. 3. Medieval View of the World <ul><li>Geocentric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During the Middle Ages the scholars of the day were sure the Earth was unmoving at the center of the Universe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Music of the Spheres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfect crystal spheres surround the Earth </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Changing Ways of Thought <ul><li>Challenging the wisdom of the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Heliocentric World View </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicolas Copernicus claims the sun is the center of the universe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bases on 25 years of observation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could not completely explain planetary movement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Changing Ways of Thought <ul><li>Johannes Kepler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finishes the work of his boss Tycho Brahe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devises equations to explain planetary motion and their orbits by assuming elliptical orbits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Galileo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persecuted by the church and required to recant his findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1992 Catholic Church officially retracted its condemnation of Galileo </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Scientific Method <ul><li>Francis Bacon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiment rather than think </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Renee Descarte <ul><li>Analytical geometry </li></ul><ul><li>“I think therefore I am” </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy and Science Combined </li></ul>
  8. 8. Isaac Newton <ul><li>Don’t sit under the Apple Tree </li></ul><ul><li>Takes the work of the past scientists and unifies it under a common theory of forces and motion </li></ul><ul><li>Newtonian Physics </li></ul>
  9. 9. Progress Marches Forward <ul><li>Development of the Microscope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery of bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discover of Red blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realization life did not spontaneously generate while watching grubs and maggots </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Enlightenment <ul><li>Coming out of the dark ages and despair to believe in humanity once more </li></ul><ul><li>We can know and understand our surroundings in a meaningful way </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Enlightenment <ul><li>Turn your books to pg 171 and read the sections on each of the following philosophers taking notes on their theories. Then, in groups, examine the US constitution and establish where their theories were used sighting specific articles, amendments, or the preamble. Your answers should be recorded on a single piece of paper with all of your group members names included. </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbes </li></ul><ul><li>Locke </li></ul><ul><li>Voltaire </li></ul><ul><li>Montesquieu </li></ul><ul><li>Rousseau </li></ul><ul><li>Beccaria </li></ul>
  12. 12. Outcomes of the Enlightenment <ul><li>Belief that we can know something about the world around us </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in Humanity and Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of the Individual </li></ul><ul><li>Secularism and loss of influence for the Church </li></ul>