Communism And Conflict

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Communism And Conflict

  1. 1. Communism and Conflict Berlin Airlift Alliances Nuclear Escalation Turmoil in China
  2. 2. Berlin Airlift <ul><li>The US, France, and Britain withdraw their forces in 1948 and allow their three zones to form one country </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin is deep within the Soviet zone of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviet Union responds by holding west Berlin hostage </li></ul>
  3. 3. Berlin Airlift <ul><li>Soviets cut off highway and railway access to the city as well as water </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin hoped this would scare the allies into surrendering west Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>US and Britain break the blockade with airplanes!!!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planes landed and took off every three minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>277,000 flights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.3 million tons of supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soviets forced to admit defeat after 11 months </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiations took place at the United Nations </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Alliances Form <ul><li>North Atlantic Treaty Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Democracies fear WWIII erupting from the chaos and uncertainty shown by the Berlin Blockade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear the West would not be able to wage a war against the Soviet Union should one erupt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 countries including US and Canada sign the collective security agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First US peacetime military commitment </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Alliances Form <ul><li>Soviets see NATO as a threat to their own security </li></ul><ul><li>Respond by forming an alliance system of their own </li></ul><ul><li>The Warsaw Pact included the Soviet Union and the satellite countries </li></ul>
  6. 6. Alliances Form <ul><li>The United States continued to search for Allies in a potential war and continue the policy of containment </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast Asia Treaty Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEATO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed to stabilize the area after the beginning of the Korean Conflict </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Nuclear Weapons <ul><li>The Soviet Union does not waste any time in developing its own atomic bomb (1949) </li></ul><ul><li>The US is determined to develop an even deadlier bomb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermonuclear weapons were the next step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truman okays research into the H-bomb which would be 1,000 times stronger than the A-bomb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US successfully develops this weapon by 1952 and the Soviets follow with their version months later </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Arms Race <ul><li>As time went on the weapons become more powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Constant competition to outdo the each other with sheer power </li></ul><ul><li>Who could create and master the most terrifying weapons of them all </li></ul>
  9. 9. Brinkmanship <ul><li>Eisenhower assumes the presidency in 1954 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appoints John Foster Dulles as his secretary of state who is firmly anti-communist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Declared that if the Soviet Union or its supporters launched an attack against the US the US would immediately retaliate. </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to go to the edge of war referred to as brinkmanship </li></ul>
  10. 10. Science and Technology <ul><li>Cold war fueled scientific research and technological advances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed to outdo the other country in both weapons and prestige </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fragile Balance <ul><li>Watch the following movie and answer the questions. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Communist China <ul><li>Take a moment and answer the following review questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who was the nationalist leader in China? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who was the communist leader in China? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What was the Long March? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. WWII Interrupts a Civil War <ul><li>During WWII China was invaded by Japan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mao is able to beat back the Japanese in Northern China and gain control of the area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wins the trust and loyalty of the peasants by promoting literacy and providing food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Chiang Kai-Shek now called Jiang Jieshi is still in control of the nationalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US gives about $1.5 billion in aid to his armies to fight the Japanese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste aide or save it for the fight with Mao instead </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Civil War Resumes <ul><li>Nationalist appear to be in the better position at the outset of the struggle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued aid from the US </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collapsing economy leads many nationalists to desert and defect to the communist army causing the Nationalists to lose the war </li></ul>
  15. 15. Two Chinas <ul><li>Mao and the People’s Republic of China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Received aid from the Soviets and had a military alliance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jiang and Nationalist China based in Taiwan called the Republic of China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by the US </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Response to the Chinas <ul><li>US seeks to expand its own influence in Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits USSR occupation of Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Splits Korea into a North and South </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Chinese Expansion Under Mao <ul><li>Mao expands into Inner Mongolia, India, and Tibet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had promised autonomy to the Tibetians who were followers of the Dalai Lama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dalai Lama forced to flee to India as communist China’s forces tighten on the region </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Changes Under Mao <ul><li>Claimed to have a new “Mandate of Heaven” </li></ul><ul><li>Communists only 1% of the population at the outset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up a party organization and a national government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mao heads both </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Marx and China <ul><li>Mao wants to model Chinese economy after Marxist system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most farmers did not own their own land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of population owned 70% of the land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agrarian Reform Law of 1950 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seized and redistributed land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed any landowner who resisted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forced peasants to join collective farms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What other leader has done this in history? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Marx and China <ul><li>Women given an equal place in the home and the workplace as Marx suggests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In direct conflict with the Confucian beliefs and way of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completely disrupts the social order of the country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National child care instituted to allow women the freedom to become an equal part in the workplace </li></ul>
  21. 22. Marx and China <ul><li>Nationalization of Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government takes control of the means of production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sets out a 5 year plan for their industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Succeeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases output of coal, cement, and electricity by 100% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steel production quadruples </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Great Leap Forward <ul><li>Larger collective farms called communes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>26,000 established averaging 15,000 acres and supporting 25,000 people each </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked together, ate together, slept in dormitories, raised their children together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removed personal profit motive so no reward to work hard when only the state benefited </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Program fails when it is inefficient and people hate the lifestyle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop failures also cause mass starvation in 1958 and 1961 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Program officially ends 1961 </li></ul>
  23. 24. Changes for China <ul><li>After Great Leap failure Mao diminishes role in the government </li></ul><ul><li>New leaders move away from Mao’s strict socialist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow farmers to live in their own homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sale of goods from small private plots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factory workers could compete for raises, bonuses and promotions </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Mao’s Objections <ul><li>Mao does not like the new direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Straying away from Socialist goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1966 launches a new campaign to try and keep the communists on track </li></ul><ul><li>Called on the younger generation to “learn revolution by making revolution” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High School and College students leave class and form militias called the Red Guards </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Cultural Revolution <ul><li>Red Guards lead Cultural Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of the revolution was to achieve complete equality for all peasants and workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual and artistic activities seen as useless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shut down colleges and schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectuals forced to do hard labor to purify themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People who did not agree were executed or jailed </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Cultural Revolution <ul><li>Shut down factories and schools </li></ul><ul><li>Complete chaos and anarchy threatens to collapse the country </li></ul><ul><li>Mao eventually acknowledges that the revolution must be stopped </li></ul><ul><li>In 1976 Mao gives the order to dissolve the Red Guards </li></ul>
  27. 28. Soviet Problems <ul><li>Soviet Union and China pledge friendship at the outset of Mao’s rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin to fight over who will lead the worldwide communist movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Territory disputes along their border </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USSR ends economic aid to China in 1960 </li></ul>

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