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    7 7 Presentation Transcript

    • French Revolution and the Reign of Terror
      • Reign of Terror
    • War with Austria
      • European Monarchs and Nobles fear the revolution might spread
      • Austria asks that Louis XVI be put back on the throne
      • Legislative assembly declares war
    • Objectives
      • Austria
      • Help restore Louis to the throne
      • Prevent the spread of revolution
      • Show the peasants who is boss
      • France
      • Spread enlightenment ideals and revolution
      • Beat another monarch into submission to free others
      • Maintain their newly found freedoms and choices
    • France Struggles
      • Poorly equipped and trained
      • Austrian and Prussian Armies disciplined and ready
      • Paris is threatened with invasion
        • Prussian commander threatens to destroy Paris if the Monarch or his family are harmed
    • Mob Violence
      • 20,000 citizens angered by the statement take to the streets and invade the Tuileries
      • Kill the 900 Swiss
      • Take Louis, Marie, and children prisoner in a stone tower
    • Paris in Turmoil
      • French army failing against the Prussians
      • Parisian volunteers ready to leave to help
      • Rumor spreads that royalists are planning to take over the city once they leave
      • Take the law into their own hands with the September Massacre
        • Over 1,000 prisoners killed
        • Nobles, clergy, royalists
    • The National Convention
      • The National Assembly recognizes the feeble attempts at limited monarchy
        • Formally depose the king
        • Set aside the Constitution of 1791
        • Call for new elections
      • The National Convention is born
    • Mob Rule Instead of Majority
      • Mob leaders have more power than government
      • Bourgeoisie leading the poor
      • Political Clubs formed and joined by many middle class
        • Radicalism the flavor of the day
        • Jacobins- most radical group of the revolution
    • Louis XVI Meets his End
      • National Convention declares France a Republic
      • King Louis is just another citizen
      • All men given the right to vote and hold office
      • King Louis XVI tried for treason and found guilty under the leadership of the Jacobins
        • Sentenced to death by a close vote
      • Jan 21, 1793 the ex-king went to the Guillotine
    • War with Austria Spreads
      • England, Holland, and Spain join against the French
      • Require a draft of 300,000 French to try and beat the many enemies
      • Army grows to 800,000 and included women
    • Internal Enemies
      • While fighting the war against the foreign countries the internal war was just as troublesome
        • Jacobins have many enemies including
          • Priests
          • Peasants horrified at the execution of the king
          • Other leaders looking for power
    • Jacobins- Two Factions
      • The Mountain
        • Sat high in the assembly hall
        • Led by Maximilien Robespierre
        • Sympathetic to the plight of the Parisian working class
        • Impatient with parliament process and constitutional constraints on government action
      • Girondists
      • Named after region in South France
        • Moderate Jacobins
      • Why would the Mountain be impatient? Why could this impatient be a dangerous trait? Why is this somewhat ironic?
    • Maximilien Robespierre and Power
      • France still in serious economic trouble
        • Inflation
        • High Unemployment
        • Scarcity
      • Uses popular press and political clubs to solidify position with the Parisian working class
      • Uses influence with the people to execute his rivals in the National Convention and restructure the government
    • Robespierre and the Reign of Terror
      • Maximilien Robespierre emerges from the pack as the leader of the revolution
      • Seeks to promote a “Republic of Virtue”
        • Wipe out all traces of the French Monarchy and Nobility by killing the people and removing all references (even from playing cards)
    • Reason and the Revolution
      • Changes calendar to 12 months of 30 days
      • No Sundays in new calendar because religion was “old fashioned”
        • Closed the churches of Paris
    • Committee of Public Safety
      • Robespierre decides who is an enemy of the state
        • Try and execute people in the same day
      • Reasoned that Terror was a tool of virtue in times of revolution
        • Just bringing the people to swift justice
        • Keeping the revolutionary ideals alive and well by executing all those who oppose
    • Executions
      • Robespierre executed many fellow revolutionaries who challenged his power
      • Marie-Antoinette the most famous execution
      • Approximate 3,000 executed in Paris alone
      • Estimated 40,000 killed overall
      • 300,000 imprisoned
    • End of the Terror
      • None of the National Committee was safe
      • Turn on Robespierre to save themselves from Madame Guillotine
        • Arrested and killed the next day
      • Last powerful leader of the Revolution killed
        • Public opinion shifts to the right and changes follow
    • If at first you don’t succeed…
      • Government Change #3
        • National Convention drafts a new constitution that favors the middle class
        • Bicameral legislature
        • Executive of five men called the Directory
          • Corrupted but able to keep order
          • Moderate leaders