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  • 1. Absolutism, Power, and More Conflict France, Louis XIV, Hapsburgs, Thirty Years War
  • 2. Absolutism
    • Kings and Queens who believe totally authority rest with them inside their borders
    • Based on the theory of divine right
      • God had ordained they would rule
    • Monarchs grew more powerful
      • Decline of feudalism
      • Rise of cities
      • National kingdoms
      • Middle Class
      • Diminished Church authority
      • Upheaval leads people to seek stability
  • 3. France, Chaos, and Kings
    • France in chaos as religious wars between Huguenots and Catholics fight wars
      • St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
        • Slaughter of Huguenots
    • Henry of Navarre is a Huguenot who ascends to the throne
      • “ Paris is worth a mass”
      • Converts to Catholicism to keep the Peace
  • 4. Edict of Nantes
    • Henry of Navarre wants to ease the tensions in the country
    • Allows Huguenots to have cities in the country where they are free to worship
    • Henry is able to restore the strength of the French monarchy by easing the religious tensions
    • Henry was driving along minding his own business in his carriage when tragedy strikes
    • Fanatic monk leaps into his carriage and stabs him to death ending his 11 year reign of prosperity
  • 6. Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu
    • Louis XIII is Henry’s son
      • Weak king
    • Cardinal Richelieu is the source of power during his reign
      • Revoked the Edict of Nantes
        • No Protestant city could have walls
      • Weaken Nobility
        • Required nobles to tear down their fortified castles
        • Placed Middle Class in positions of authority
  • 7. Louis XIV Rules Absolutely
    • “ L’etat, c’est moi” or I am the State
    • Strong absolute ruler
    • Cardinal Mazarine his trusted advisor who rules while he is young
    • Louis XIV takes complete control at age 23 and continues to strengthen the monarchy
  • 8. Louis XIV and Nobility
    • Hated and mistrusted the Nobility
      • Excludes from advisory councils
      • Forces the court to move to Versailles where they are under the Kings control
      • Intendants were put in charge of local affairs such as tax collect in place of Noble Lords
  • 9. Versailles
    • Rustic little hunting lodge expanded into one of the most opulent palaces in the world
  • 10.  
  • 11. Jean Baptiste Colbert
    • Economic advisor to Louis XIV
    • Mercantilism
      • Export to other countries
      • Import as little as possible
      • Amass wealth in the country
      • Country becomes self-sufficient
      • Colonies provide raw materials and markets for goods
  • 12. Louis and his Wars
    • Attempts to expand France into the Spanish Netherlands
      • France has the best army in the world at this time
      • Gain 12 towns in the first campaign
    • Dutch break the dikes during the second campaign forcing the French to retreat
  • 13. Louis and his Wars
    • Treaty of Nijmegen
      • France took several towns from the war and some territory
      • Encourages Louis to continue with more wars
    • Successive wars end in a stalemate as Europe comes together to fight against the French
      • Seeking to establish a balance of power where no one state could dominate the others
  • 14. War of Spanish Succession
    • Charles II dies without a successor in Spain
      • Had promised the throne to Philip of Anjou who was Louis grandson
    • Now Spain and France were both ruled by the Bourbon dynasty
      • Disrupted the balance of power
      • England, Austria, Dutch republic, Portugal and German and Italian princes join forces to fight against France and Spain
  • 15. War of Spanish Succession
    • 12 years of warfare weakens the French and other powers
    • Treaty of Utrecht
      • Philip of Anjou could remain king
      • Crowns of Spain and France would not be combined
        • Gibraltar, slave trade, Nova Scotia, Hudson Bay area
  • 16. War of Austrian Succession (1740)
    • Louis XV now the King
    • Charles VI dies without a male heir
      • Pragmatic Sanction gave his daughter Maria Theresa the right to inherit his land in the absence of a male heir
    • Major powers of Europe take sides
    • Spanish and British colonists battle
    • Ends with Maria Theresa retaining Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia
    • Causes a significant drain on the French government
  • 17. American Revolution
    • Warned that the state would collapse with any outbreak of war
    • Supports the Americans in their revolt against Britain
    • Why would France be willing to support the Americans even at the potential cost of their own country?
  • 18. The French Revolution
    • King Louis XVI lived well while the rest of the country starved
  • 19. The French Revolution
    • Other Causes
      • Rise of enlightened ideas
      • Food Scarcity
      • Resentment of religious intolerance
      • Resentment of royal absolutism
  • 20. Social and Class Structure
    • First Estate
      • Clergy – 130,000
      • Tax Exempt
      • Collected Tithes and Religious Fees
      • Most upper positions held by hereditary nobility
  • 21. Social Class and Structure
    • Nobles- 300,000
    • tax exempt
    • King used tax exemption to keep the nobles happy
    • Leaves the Middle Class to pick up the bill!
  • 22. Social Class and Structure
    • Third Estate
      • Bourgeoisie to beggars
      • Poor living in some of the worst conditions in western Europe
      • Rural poor riot over bread prices and other increases in dues and fees
        • Bread prices largely determined quality of life
  • 23. Louis XVI
    • Weak leader not concerned with what is going on in his country
    • Marie Antoinette
      • Hated for being Austrian
      • Madame Deficit
    • Large debt leads to the need to call the Estates-General to raise funds
  • 24. Three Forces of Change
    • What are the three major forces or causes that lead to the French Revolution?
      • Enlightenment Ideals
      • Weak Leader
      • Economic Woes
  • 25. Estates-General 1788-1789
    • After several attempts to institute change in the tax structure that were struck down by the judiciary and popular uprisings calls for the first time since 1614
    • Each Estate had one vote
      • Church and Nobles usually outvoted the third estate even though they had less people
    • Each estate meets separately and decides on its vote
  • 26. Enlightenment Changes Minds
    • Third Estate want all estates to meet together with each delegate voting
      • Third Estate would dominate based on population in this system
    • Louis sides with the Nobles and forces the Medieval rules to be followed
    • Abbe Sieyes champions the third estates cause encouraging the delegates to take action
  • 27. National Assembly
    • Sieyes idea for the Third Estate
    • June 17, 1789 The Third Estate votes to start the Naitonal Assembly
    • Marks the end of Absolutism in France
    • Locked out of their meeting room in protest to their bold move
    • Break into a Tennis Court for a meeting place
  • 28. Tennis Court Oath
    • Delegates pledge to stay until they have drawn up a new constitution recognizing the rights of all citizens
  • 29. Comparing Revolutions
    • Take 1 minute and list terms, people, and ideas that led to the American Revolution
    • Join with a partner and create a venn-diagram comparing and contrasting the causes of the French and American Revolution
  • 30. Last Attempt to Maintain Power
    • King Louis XVI tries to keep the peace by giving into the demands of the 3rd Estate and demanding that all three Estates meet together
      • Do not want the division in the country to increase
      • Scared that he can not trust the French Army so he moves his Swiss Guard into Paris causing a panic
        • Parisians believe the foreign army is coming to massacre citizens
  • 31. REVOLT I SAY!
    • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
        • French Version of the Declaration of Independence
    Storming of the Bastille
  • 32. Great Fear
    • Peasants in the country side also concerned for their safety
    • Believe that the Nobles will hire people to destroy what little crops they have
    • Begin to ransack nobles’ homes and burn the documentation of their feudal obligations
    • Helped end the practice of Feudalism once and for all
  • 33. Declaration of the Rights of Man
    • As fear sweeps the country the National Assembly states its purpose
    • “All men are born and remain free and equal in rights”
    • Ensured basic rights of citizens
      • Speech
      • Religion
      • Equal Justice
    • “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
  • 34. Revolution and the Church
    • Church lands taken
      • Sell the land to pay off debt
      • Avoid taxing more heavily
    • Church officials and priest to be elected by property owners
      • Paid as state officials
      • Catholic church loses power and independence
    • Not popular with the Catholics of the County
    • Pits Peasants against the Bourgeoisie and the Revolution from this point onward
  • 35. Louis the Lion Hearted???
    • Louis warned he and his family were in danger
      • Supporters of the Monarch left France rather than stay to deal with the revolution
    • Attempts to escape to Austria
      • Recognized near the border
    • Returned to Paris under guard
    • Increased general paranoia and allowed radicals to take further control
  • 36. Three Factions
    • Radicals
      • Sat on the left
      • Wanted more change
      • No monarchy, establish a republic
      • Sans-Culottes extreme wing
        • Wage earners and shop keepers
        • Lower food prices and an end to the shortage
        • No role in assembly but influential in other ways
  • 37. Three Factions
    • Moderates
      • Sat in the center
      • Looking for change but were not trying to reform the entire system
      • Change within the structure of the current Monarchy system
  • 38. Three Factions
    • Conservatives
      • Sat on Right
      • Wanted limited Monarchy
      • As few changes in government as possible
      • Émigrés
        • Nobles who fled France
        • Looking to restore the Old Regime and the Monarch