6. Absolutism, Power, And More Conflict


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6. Absolutism, Power, And More Conflict

  1. 1. Absolutism, Power, and More Conflict France, Louis XIV, Hapsburgs, Thirty Years War
  2. 2. Absolutism <ul><li>Kings and Queens who believe totally authority rest with them inside their borders </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the theory of divine right </li></ul><ul><ul><li>God had ordained they would rule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monarchs grew more powerful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline of feudalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National kingdoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diminished Church authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upheaval leads people to seek stability </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. France, Chaos, and Kings <ul><li>France in chaos as religious wars between Huguenots and Catholics fight wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaughter of Huguenots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Henry of Navarre is a Huguenot who ascends to the throne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Paris is worth a mass” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts to Catholicism to keep the Peace </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Edict of Nantes <ul><li>Henry of Navarre wants to ease the tensions in the country </li></ul><ul><li>Allows Huguenots to have cities in the country where they are free to worship </li></ul><ul><li>Henry is able to restore the strength of the French monarchy by easing the religious tensions </li></ul>
  5. 5. CRAZED MONK ATTACKS!! <ul><li>Henry was driving along minding his own business in his carriage when tragedy strikes </li></ul><ul><li>Fanatic monk leaps into his carriage and stabs him to death ending his 11 year reign of prosperity </li></ul>
  6. 6. Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu <ul><li>Louis XIII is Henry’s son </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak king </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cardinal Richelieu is the source of power during his reign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revoked the Edict of Nantes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Protestant city could have walls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weaken Nobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required nobles to tear down their fortified castles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Placed Middle Class in positions of authority </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Louis XIV Rules Absolutely <ul><li>“ L’etat, c’est moi” or I am the State </li></ul><ul><li>Strong absolute ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Cardinal Mazarine his trusted advisor who rules while he is young </li></ul><ul><li>Louis XIV takes complete control at age 23 and continues to strengthen the monarchy </li></ul>
  8. 8. Louis XIV and Nobility <ul><li>Hated and mistrusted the Nobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excludes from advisory councils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forces the court to move to Versailles where they are under the Kings control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intendants were put in charge of local affairs such as tax collect in place of Noble Lords </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Versailles <ul><li>Rustic little hunting lodge expanded into one of the most opulent palaces in the world </li></ul>
  10. 11. Jean Baptiste Colbert <ul><li>Economic advisor to Louis XIV </li></ul><ul><li>Mercantilism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Export to other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Import as little as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amass wealth in the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Country becomes self-sufficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies provide raw materials and markets for goods </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Louis and his Wars <ul><li>Attempts to expand France into the Spanish Netherlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France has the best army in the world at this time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain 12 towns in the first campaign </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dutch break the dikes during the second campaign forcing the French to retreat </li></ul>
  12. 13. Louis and his Wars <ul><li>Treaty of Nijmegen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France took several towns from the war and some territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages Louis to continue with more wars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Successive wars end in a stalemate as Europe comes together to fight against the French </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking to establish a balance of power where no one state could dominate the others </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. War of Spanish Succession <ul><li>Charles II dies without a successor in Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had promised the throne to Philip of Anjou who was Louis grandson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now Spain and France were both ruled by the Bourbon dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disrupted the balance of power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England, Austria, Dutch republic, Portugal and German and Italian princes join forces to fight against France and Spain </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. War of Spanish Succession <ul><li>12 years of warfare weakens the French and other powers </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Utrecht </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philip of Anjou could remain king </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crowns of Spain and France would not be combined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BRITAIN THE BIG WINNER! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gibraltar, slave trade, Nova Scotia, Hudson Bay area </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. War of Austrian Succession (1740) <ul><li>Louis XV now the King </li></ul><ul><li>Charles VI dies without a male heir </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatic Sanction gave his daughter Maria Theresa the right to inherit his land in the absence of a male heir </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major powers of Europe take sides </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish and British colonists battle </li></ul><ul><li>Ends with Maria Theresa retaining Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia </li></ul><ul><li>Causes a significant drain on the French government </li></ul>
  16. 17. American Revolution <ul><li>Warned that the state would collapse with any outbreak of war </li></ul><ul><li>Supports the Americans in their revolt against Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Why would France be willing to support the Americans even at the potential cost of their own country? </li></ul>
  17. 18. The French Revolution <ul><li>King Louis XVI lived well while the rest of the country starved </li></ul>
  18. 19. The French Revolution <ul><li>Other Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of enlightened ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food Scarcity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resentment of religious intolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resentment of royal absolutism </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Social and Class Structure <ul><li>First Estate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clergy – 130,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax Exempt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collected Tithes and Religious Fees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most upper positions held by hereditary nobility </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Social Class and Structure <ul><li>Nobles- 300,000 </li></ul><ul><li>tax exempt </li></ul><ul><li>King used tax exemption to keep the nobles happy </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves the Middle Class to pick up the bill! </li></ul>
  21. 22. Social Class and Structure <ul><li>Third Estate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bourgeoisie to beggars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor living in some of the worst conditions in western Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural poor riot over bread prices and other increases in dues and fees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bread prices largely determined quality of life </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Louis XVI <ul><li>Weak leader not concerned with what is going on in his country </li></ul><ul><li>Marie Antoinette </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hated for being Austrian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Madame Deficit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large debt leads to the need to call the Estates-General to raise funds </li></ul>
  23. 24. Three Forces of Change <ul><li>What are the three major forces or causes that lead to the French Revolution? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlightenment Ideals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Woes </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Estates-General 1788-1789 <ul><li>After several attempts to institute change in the tax structure that were struck down by the judiciary and popular uprisings calls for the first time since 1614 </li></ul><ul><li>Each Estate had one vote </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Church and Nobles usually outvoted the third estate even though they had less people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each estate meets separately and decides on its vote </li></ul>
  25. 26. Enlightenment Changes Minds <ul><li>Third Estate want all estates to meet together with each delegate voting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Third Estate would dominate based on population in this system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Louis sides with the Nobles and forces the Medieval rules to be followed </li></ul><ul><li>Abbe Sieyes champions the third estates cause encouraging the delegates to take action </li></ul>
  26. 27. National Assembly <ul><li>Sieyes idea for the Third Estate </li></ul><ul><li>June 17, 1789 The Third Estate votes to start the Naitonal Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Marks the end of Absolutism in France </li></ul><ul><li>Locked out of their meeting room in protest to their bold move </li></ul><ul><li>Break into a Tennis Court for a meeting place </li></ul>
  27. 28. Tennis Court Oath <ul><li>Delegates pledge to stay until they have drawn up a new constitution recognizing the rights of all citizens </li></ul>
  28. 29. Comparing Revolutions <ul><li>Take 1 minute and list terms, people, and ideas that led to the American Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Join with a partner and create a venn-diagram comparing and contrasting the causes of the French and American Revolution </li></ul>
  29. 30. Last Attempt to Maintain Power <ul><li>King Louis XVI tries to keep the peace by giving into the demands of the 3rd Estate and demanding that all three Estates meet together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not want the division in the country to increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scared that he can not trust the French Army so he moves his Swiss Guard into Paris causing a panic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parisians believe the foreign army is coming to massacre citizens </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 31. REVOLT I SAY! <ul><li>Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French Version of the Declaration of Independence </li></ul></ul></ul>Storming of the Bastille
  31. 32. Great Fear <ul><li>Peasants in the country side also concerned for their safety </li></ul><ul><li>Believe that the Nobles will hire people to destroy what little crops they have </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to ransack nobles’ homes and burn the documentation of their feudal obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Helped end the practice of Feudalism once and for all </li></ul>
  32. 33. Declaration of the Rights of Man <ul><li>As fear sweeps the country the National Assembly states its purpose </li></ul><ul><li>“All men are born and remain free and equal in rights” </li></ul><ul><li>Ensured basic rights of citizens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” </li></ul>
  33. 34. Revolution and the Church <ul><li>Church lands taken </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell the land to pay off debt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid taxing more heavily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Church officials and priest to be elected by property owners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid as state officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic church loses power and independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not popular with the Catholics of the County </li></ul><ul><li>Pits Peasants against the Bourgeoisie and the Revolution from this point onward </li></ul>
  34. 35. Louis the Lion Hearted??? <ul><li>Louis warned he and his family were in danger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters of the Monarch left France rather than stay to deal with the revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attempts to escape to Austria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognized near the border </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Returned to Paris under guard </li></ul><ul><li>Increased general paranoia and allowed radicals to take further control </li></ul>
  35. 36. Three Factions <ul><li>Radicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sat on the left </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted more change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No monarchy, establish a republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sans-Culottes extreme wing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wage earners and shop keepers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower food prices and an end to the shortage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No role in assembly but influential in other ways </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Three Factions <ul><li>Moderates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sat in the center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking for change but were not trying to reform the entire system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change within the structure of the current Monarchy system </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Three Factions <ul><li>Conservatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sat on Right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted limited Monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As few changes in government as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Émigrés </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nobles who fled France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looking to restore the Old Regime and the Monarch </li></ul></ul></ul>