5. English Civil War Beginnings

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5. English Civil War Beginnings

  1. 1. English Civil War Beginnings King James, Charles I and Oliver Cromwell
  2. 2. King James I of England <ul><li>Elizabeth I had no children </li></ul><ul><li>James now must deal with Parliament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Money issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calvanist and did not act against catholic church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upset Puritans of Parliament </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>King James Bible </li></ul>
  3. 3. Charles I of England <ul><li>Son of James I </li></ul><ul><li>Needed money </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War with Spain and France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved parliament when they refused to raise the taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1628 recalls parliament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced to sign Petition of Rights </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Petition of Rights <ul><li>Could not jail without due cause </li></ul><ul><li>No taxes without Parliament’s consent </li></ul><ul><li>No quartering soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>No martial law in peace time </li></ul><ul><li>Charles ignored after he got his money </li></ul><ul><li>Challenged DIVINE RIGHT and ABSOLUTISM </li></ul>
  5. 5. English Civil War <ul><li>Religion causes problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles offends Puritains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal prayer book </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forces Scots to use same prayer book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Threaten to invade England </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Charles again needs money </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament has to be called </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Parliament fights back <ul><li>Enact laws to limit king’s power </li></ul><ul><li>Charles tries to arrest Parliament leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Escaped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mob of Londoners attack the palace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles flees north to raise an army </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Civil War Breaks Out <ul><li>Charles Supporters were Royalists or Cavaliers </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament supporters called Roundheads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by Oliver Cromwell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capture Charles and try and convict him of Treason </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence him to death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolutionary to try, convict, and kill a King </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Cromwell Rules England <ul><li>Abolishes Monarchy and House of Lords </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes a republic </li></ul><ul><li>Drafts first written constitution of any European State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cromwell tears up and rules as military dictator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rebellion in Ireland breaks out and Cromwell invades </li></ul><ul><li>Enforce Puritan Morality through laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious toleration for all Christians but Catholics </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Restoration and Revolution <ul><li>After Cromwell dies Charles II is asked to return to the throne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restores entertainment lost under Puritan rule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Habeas Corpus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every prisoner has the right to obtain a writ ordering them before a judge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heir for Charles II a Catholic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James II his brother </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. James II – Catholic Extraordinaire <ul><li>Whigs oppose James because of his religion </li></ul><ul><li>Tories support James </li></ul><ul><li>James flaunts Catholicism and appoints Catholics to high positions in government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolves Parliament when they protest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fear of Catholic rule of England indefinitely </li></ul>
  11. 11. William of Orange and the Glorious Revolution <ul><li>James II older daughter Mary (protestant) married William </li></ul><ul><li>7 members of Parliament ask them to overthrow James to prevent Catholic rule </li></ul><ul><li>William leads army to London and James flees to France </li></ul><ul><li>Glorious Revolution because it was bloodless! </li></ul>
  12. 12. Political Changes Under William <ul><li>Constitutional Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NO suspending Parliament’s laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO levying taxes without Parliament's consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO interfering with freedom of speech of Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO penalty for a citizen who petitions the King with a grievance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cabinet system develops when a group of ministers for parliament are link to King </li></ul>

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