4. Mughal Empire


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4. Mughal Empire

  1. 1. The Mughal Empire
  2. 2. Founding of the Mughal Empire <ul><li>Babur founder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkish decent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Married to a descendent of Genghis Khan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conquers Delhi in 1526 to officially start the empire </li></ul>
  3. 3. Humayun <ul><li>Succeeds his father to the throne </li></ul><ul><li>Not as effective or likeable </li></ul><ul><li>Rumors of opium addiction throughout his reign </li></ul><ul><li>Two decades of his reign are survived but not plentiful </li></ul>
  4. 4. Akbar <ul><li>Takes the throne at age 13 and rules for 50 years </li></ul><ul><li>Much more successful ruler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of fire arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mansabas to pay for his armies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Illiterate </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerant of religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of his wives was a Hindu </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Famous for his patronage of the arts </li></ul>
  5. 5. Akbar <ul><li>Most illustrious ruler of the Mughal empire </li></ul><ul><li>How did he differ from his Ottoman and Safavid counterparts? </li></ul><ul><li>Married a Rajput Princess who was a Hindu and welcomed her family </li></ul><ul><li>Very prosperous </li></ul>
  6. 6. Rajputs <ul><li>Warrior Class from northern India </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 15% of Mansabas </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmed the policy of religious accommodation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Major Differences Between Peoples <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian predominately Hindu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim minority ruling Hindu majority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim beliefs and Hindu beliefs not easily integrated into a single society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need a new way of ruling a country with these kind of differences </li></ul></ul>VS.
  8. 8. Religion <ul><li>Muslims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy Hindu monuments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand into Hindu territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enslaving prisoners of war and forcing conversion to Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potentially dangerous division within the country </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar eases tensions by stopping worst of the abuse </li></ul>
  9. 9. Akbar and Religion <ul><li>Declares himself the infallible messenger of God in 1579 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Would this be allowed under Islam? Why or why not? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you believe is his main purpose for doing this? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allows for cases to be heard by himself </li></ul>
  10. 10. New Religion? <ul><li>Akbar creates a new religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrian, Sikh and Christian beliefs </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. New Religion? <ul><li>What is Zoroastrianism? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the worlds oldest monotheistic religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ahura Mazda </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements are pure and fire represents gods light and wisdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on good works, thoughts and deeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cord with three knots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pray facing a source of light (such as the sun) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep minds, bodies, and spirits pure to defeat evil </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. New Religion? <ul><li>What is Sikhism? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded in 15 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice religion by coping with everyday problems in the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is only one God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>God is without form, or gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone has direct access to God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone is equal before God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A good life is lived as part of a community, by living honestly and caring for others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empty religious rituals and superstitions have no value </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. New Religion? <ul><li>Akbar creates a new religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrian, Sikh and Christian beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brings together scholars of all religions to listen to them debate </li></ul><ul><li>Made part of the court a religious ritual </li></ul><ul><li>This did not continue after his death </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conversions Under Akbar <ul><li>Why would non-Muslim individuals convert even if they were not forced to do so? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Economics under Akbar <ul><li>Relatively peaceful time period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict with other Indian Princes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Booming trade in cotton cloth with the Europeans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign trade from the port of Surat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Europeans had lost control of ports and so were seen as an ally to the Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military protection for trade rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Navy of their own </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did not understand the inflation of the silver in Europe and the incredibly cheap price they were giving the Europeans </li></ul>
  16. 16. Aurangzeb <ul><li>Overzealous grandson of Akbar </li></ul><ul><li>Reversed stance on religious tolerance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused conflict within his own empire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beheaded the 9 th Guru of Sikhism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead to the formation of the “Army of the Pure” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religion begins to be at the center of armed conflict within the country </li></ul>
  17. 17. Downfall of the Mughal Empire <ul><li>Land-Grant System </li></ul><ul><li>Inability of Aurangzeb to effectively administer the areas under his control </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges to military from regional players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marathas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kikhs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindu Rajputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Afghans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Invaded by Nadir Shah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General who took control after the fall of the Safavids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacks Delhi and takes the throne with him </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Limping Empire <ul><li>Officials begin breaking apart and declaring themselves independent </li></ul><ul><li>Religious groups break away and gain their freedom and flourish </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves the region susceptible to European intrusion and conquest </li></ul>
  19. 19. Joseph Francois Dupleix <ul><li>European </li></ul><ul><li>Took presidency of east coast of French Pondicherry </li></ul><ul><li>Takes control of Southern India through trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes the puppet master pulling the strings for several Indian Princes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaves in 1754 clearing the way for British involvement </li></ul>