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4. Mughal Empire

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  • 1. The Mughal Empire
  • 2. Founding of the Mughal Empire
    • Babur founder
      • Turkish decent
      • Married to a descendent of Genghis Khan
    • Conquers Delhi in 1526 to officially start the empire
  • 3. Humayun
    • Succeeds his father to the throne
    • Not as effective or likeable
    • Rumors of opium addiction throughout his reign
    • Two decades of his reign are survived but not plentiful
  • 4. Akbar
    • Takes the throne at age 13 and rules for 50 years
    • Much more successful ruler
      • Expanded empire
      • Use of fire arms
      • Mansabas to pay for his armies
    • Illiterate
    • Tolerant of religions
      • One of his wives was a Hindu
    • Famous for his patronage of the arts
  • 5. Akbar
    • Most illustrious ruler of the Mughal empire
    • How did he differ from his Ottoman and Safavid counterparts?
    • Married a Rajput Princess who was a Hindu and welcomed her family
    • Very prosperous
  • 6. Rajputs
    • Warrior Class from northern India
    • Hindu
    • Approximately 15% of Mansabas
    • Confirmed the policy of religious accommodation
  • 7. Major Differences Between Peoples
    • Religion
      • Indian predominately Hindu
      • Muslim minority ruling Hindu majority
      • Muslim beliefs and Hindu beliefs not easily integrated into a single society
      • Need a new way of ruling a country with these kind of differences
    VS.
  • 8. Religion
    • Muslims
      • Destroy Hindu monuments
      • Expand into Hindu territory
      • Enslaving prisoners of war and forcing conversion to Islam
    • Potentially dangerous division within the country
    • Akbar eases tensions by stopping worst of the abuse
  • 9. Akbar and Religion
    • Declares himself the infallible messenger of God in 1579
      • Would this be allowed under Islam? Why or why not?
      • What do you believe is his main purpose for doing this?
    • Allows for cases to be heard by himself
  • 10. New Religion?
    • Akbar creates a new religion
      • Mix of Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrian, Sikh and Christian beliefs
  • 11. New Religion?
    • What is Zoroastrianism?
      • One of the worlds oldest monotheistic religion
        • Ahura Mazda
      • Elements are pure and fire represents gods light and wisdom
      • Focus on good works, thoughts and deeds
      • Cord with three knots
      • Pray facing a source of light (such as the sun)
      • Keep minds, bodies, and spirits pure to defeat evil
  • 12. New Religion?
    • What is Sikhism?
      • Founded in 15 th century
      • Practice religion by coping with everyday problems in the world
      • There is only one God
      • God is without form, or gender
      • Everyone has direct access to God
      • Everyone is equal before God
      • A good life is lived as part of a community, by living honestly and caring for others
      • Empty religious rituals and superstitions have no value
  • 13. New Religion?
    • Akbar creates a new religion
      • Mix of Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrian, Sikh and Christian beliefs
    • Brings together scholars of all religions to listen to them debate
    • Made part of the court a religious ritual
    • This did not continue after his death
  • 14. Conversions Under Akbar
    • Why would non-Muslim individuals convert even if they were not forced to do so?
  • 15. Economics under Akbar
    • Relatively peaceful time period
      • Conflict with other Indian Princes
    • Booming trade in cotton cloth with the Europeans
      • Foreign trade from the port of Surat
      • Most Europeans had lost control of ports and so were seen as an ally to the Indians
        • Military protection for trade rights
      • No Navy of their own
    • Did not understand the inflation of the silver in Europe and the incredibly cheap price they were giving the Europeans
  • 16. Aurangzeb
    • Overzealous grandson of Akbar
    • Reversed stance on religious tolerance
      • Caused conflict within his own empire
    • Beheaded the 9 th Guru of Sikhism
      • Lead to the formation of the “Army of the Pure”
    • Religion begins to be at the center of armed conflict within the country
  • 17. Downfall of the Mughal Empire
    • Land-Grant System
    • Inability of Aurangzeb to effectively administer the areas under his control
    • Challenges to military from regional players
      • Marathas
      • Kikhs
      • Hindu Rajputs
      • Afghans
    • Invaded by Nadir Shah
      • General who took control after the fall of the Safavids
      • Sacks Delhi and takes the throne with him
  • 18. Limping Empire
    • Officials begin breaking apart and declaring themselves independent
    • Religious groups break away and gain their freedom and flourish
    • Leaves the region susceptible to European intrusion and conquest
  • 19. Joseph Francois Dupleix
    • European
    • Took presidency of east coast of French Pondicherry
    • Takes control of Southern India through trade
      • Becomes the puppet master pulling the strings for several Indian Princes
    • Leaves in 1754 clearing the way for British involvement

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