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4. Mughal Empire
 

4. Mughal Empire

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    4. Mughal Empire 4. Mughal Empire Presentation Transcript

    • The Mughal Empire
    • Founding of the Mughal Empire
      • Babur founder
        • Turkish decent
        • Married to a descendent of Genghis Khan
      • Conquers Delhi in 1526 to officially start the empire
    • Humayun
      • Succeeds his father to the throne
      • Not as effective or likeable
      • Rumors of opium addiction throughout his reign
      • Two decades of his reign are survived but not plentiful
    • Akbar
      • Takes the throne at age 13 and rules for 50 years
      • Much more successful ruler
        • Expanded empire
        • Use of fire arms
        • Mansabas to pay for his armies
      • Illiterate
      • Tolerant of religions
        • One of his wives was a Hindu
      • Famous for his patronage of the arts
    • Akbar
      • Most illustrious ruler of the Mughal empire
      • How did he differ from his Ottoman and Safavid counterparts?
      • Married a Rajput Princess who was a Hindu and welcomed her family
      • Very prosperous
    • Rajputs
      • Warrior Class from northern India
      • Hindu
      • Approximately 15% of Mansabas
      • Confirmed the policy of religious accommodation
    • Major Differences Between Peoples
      • Religion
        • Indian predominately Hindu
        • Muslim minority ruling Hindu majority
        • Muslim beliefs and Hindu beliefs not easily integrated into a single society
        • Need a new way of ruling a country with these kind of differences
      VS.
    • Religion
      • Muslims
        • Destroy Hindu monuments
        • Expand into Hindu territory
        • Enslaving prisoners of war and forcing conversion to Islam
      • Potentially dangerous division within the country
      • Akbar eases tensions by stopping worst of the abuse
    • Akbar and Religion
      • Declares himself the infallible messenger of God in 1579
        • Would this be allowed under Islam? Why or why not?
        • What do you believe is his main purpose for doing this?
      • Allows for cases to be heard by himself
    • New Religion?
      • Akbar creates a new religion
        • Mix of Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrian, Sikh and Christian beliefs
    • New Religion?
      • What is Zoroastrianism?
        • One of the worlds oldest monotheistic religion
          • Ahura Mazda
        • Elements are pure and fire represents gods light and wisdom
        • Focus on good works, thoughts and deeds
        • Cord with three knots
        • Pray facing a source of light (such as the sun)
        • Keep minds, bodies, and spirits pure to defeat evil
    • New Religion?
      • What is Sikhism?
        • Founded in 15 th century
        • Practice religion by coping with everyday problems in the world
        • There is only one God
        • God is without form, or gender
        • Everyone has direct access to God
        • Everyone is equal before God
        • A good life is lived as part of a community, by living honestly and caring for others
        • Empty religious rituals and superstitions have no value
    • New Religion?
      • Akbar creates a new religion
        • Mix of Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrian, Sikh and Christian beliefs
      • Brings together scholars of all religions to listen to them debate
      • Made part of the court a religious ritual
      • This did not continue after his death
    • Conversions Under Akbar
      • Why would non-Muslim individuals convert even if they were not forced to do so?
    • Economics under Akbar
      • Relatively peaceful time period
        • Conflict with other Indian Princes
      • Booming trade in cotton cloth with the Europeans
        • Foreign trade from the port of Surat
        • Most Europeans had lost control of ports and so were seen as an ally to the Indians
          • Military protection for trade rights
        • No Navy of their own
      • Did not understand the inflation of the silver in Europe and the incredibly cheap price they were giving the Europeans
    • Aurangzeb
      • Overzealous grandson of Akbar
      • Reversed stance on religious tolerance
        • Caused conflict within his own empire
      • Beheaded the 9 th Guru of Sikhism
        • Lead to the formation of the “Army of the Pure”
      • Religion begins to be at the center of armed conflict within the country
    • Downfall of the Mughal Empire
      • Land-Grant System
      • Inability of Aurangzeb to effectively administer the areas under his control
      • Challenges to military from regional players
        • Marathas
        • Kikhs
        • Hindu Rajputs
        • Afghans
      • Invaded by Nadir Shah
        • General who took control after the fall of the Safavids
        • Sacks Delhi and takes the throne with him
    • Limping Empire
      • Officials begin breaking apart and declaring themselves independent
      • Religious groups break away and gain their freedom and flourish
      • Leaves the region susceptible to European intrusion and conquest
    • Joseph Francois Dupleix
      • European
      • Took presidency of east coast of French Pondicherry
      • Takes control of Southern India through trade
        • Becomes the puppet master pulling the strings for several Indian Princes
      • Leaves in 1754 clearing the way for British involvement