2. Ottoman Changes
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2. Ottoman Changes

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2. Ottoman Changes 2. Ottoman Changes Presentation Transcript

  • Ottoman Changes
  • Military Might or Menace?
    • How did the sultan pay all of his cavalrymen?
    • Do you think these cavalrymen are the best use of the empires resources? Why or why not?
      • New Technology (cannons and firearms) leads to a growing Janissary corp
      • To pay for new troops, reduce the salary and land-grants to the cavalrymen
  • Economic Woes Plague Empire
    • Inflation
      • What was the main cause of inflation in this time period in Europe (especially Spain)?
      • New World silver to blame!
    • Can’t afford to show up for service
      • Lands reclaimed by the Sultan
      • Roving bands of deposed troopers
    • Stipends or madrasas from the government not adjusted for the inflation either
      • Teachers and students
  • Military Crunch
    • Islamic law sets the taxes for the Sultan and can not be altered
      • Institute a surtax
    • Still need more money to pay the ever growing Janissaries and hire MORE partially trained soldiers for new campaigns
      • In Europe how did the military drain the countries economics at this time period? How is this similar? How is it different?
  • Lets see… High Taxes+ large # of population unemployed + inflation=????
    • REVOLT 1590-1610
    • Angry Calvary and jobless soldiers for hire
    • Overtaxes peasants
    • Underpaid scholars and students
    • Anatolia experiences the worst effects
      • Emigration
      • Lost agricultural production
  • Janissaries Cash In on Chaos
    • Very influential position
    • What kind of things do you think they try to negotiate for?
      • Right to marry
      • Right to participate in commerce
    • State saves money because they can abolish the devshirme and pay less
    • Training and readiness decreases
  • Growing Weaknesses
    • Loss of talented leaders
      • Less able men take the Sultanship after Suleiman
    • End to fratricide in favor of confinement
    • Lose touch with the outside world within the palace
    • Average reign only 13 years compared to reigns of as long as 50 years for previous sultans
    • Corruption of the system
      • Bribery and nepotism
  • Changes in Tax System
    • Tax Farming
      • (Has nothing to do with agriculture!!!)
      • Pay taxes ahead of time to gain the right to collect that tax
        • Example- pay custom duties for a city for a year and then collect that tax to make a profit
    • Without the land-grant system what is missing in the equation for rural governance?
      • Chaos because new system lacks leader
      • Eventually wealthy buy rights to continual tax farming and begin to act like private landowners
  • Tired Empire
    • Military skill and might decline
    • Change in farming from subsistence to cash crop requires reliance on European trading
    • Loss of wealth prohibits empire from keeping up with the innovation of Europe
    • Capitulations- trade agreements lead to European dominance of Ottoman trade
  • Patrona Halil Rebellion
    • Western influences adopted and even admired in Istanbul
    • Former seaman and conservative
      • Forces the abdication of Ahmed III
    • Only lasted a few months before he was captured and executed
    • Signaled serious trouble for the Empire to surrounding countries and to the rural governors
  • Comparing Ottomans and Europeans Mistakes Religious Influence Military Social Structure Tax Structure Political Power and Structure Ottomans Europeans