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2. Ottoman Changes

2. Ottoman Changes






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    2. Ottoman Changes 2. Ottoman Changes Presentation Transcript

    • Ottoman Changes
    • Military Might or Menace?
      • How did the sultan pay all of his cavalrymen?
      • Do you think these cavalrymen are the best use of the empires resources? Why or why not?
        • New Technology (cannons and firearms) leads to a growing Janissary corp
        • To pay for new troops, reduce the salary and land-grants to the cavalrymen
    • Economic Woes Plague Empire
      • Inflation
        • What was the main cause of inflation in this time period in Europe (especially Spain)?
        • New World silver to blame!
      • Can’t afford to show up for service
        • Lands reclaimed by the Sultan
        • Roving bands of deposed troopers
      • Stipends or madrasas from the government not adjusted for the inflation either
        • Teachers and students
    • Military Crunch
      • Islamic law sets the taxes for the Sultan and can not be altered
        • Institute a surtax
      • Still need more money to pay the ever growing Janissaries and hire MORE partially trained soldiers for new campaigns
        • In Europe how did the military drain the countries economics at this time period? How is this similar? How is it different?
    • Lets see… High Taxes+ large # of population unemployed + inflation=????
      • REVOLT 1590-1610
      • Angry Calvary and jobless soldiers for hire
      • Overtaxes peasants
      • Underpaid scholars and students
      • Anatolia experiences the worst effects
        • Emigration
        • Lost agricultural production
    • Janissaries Cash In on Chaos
      • Very influential position
      • What kind of things do you think they try to negotiate for?
        • Right to marry
        • Right to participate in commerce
      • State saves money because they can abolish the devshirme and pay less
      • Training and readiness decreases
    • Growing Weaknesses
      • Loss of talented leaders
        • Less able men take the Sultanship after Suleiman
      • End to fratricide in favor of confinement
      • Lose touch with the outside world within the palace
      • Average reign only 13 years compared to reigns of as long as 50 years for previous sultans
      • Corruption of the system
        • Bribery and nepotism
    • Changes in Tax System
      • Tax Farming
        • (Has nothing to do with agriculture!!!)
        • Pay taxes ahead of time to gain the right to collect that tax
          • Example- pay custom duties for a city for a year and then collect that tax to make a profit
      • Without the land-grant system what is missing in the equation for rural governance?
        • Chaos because new system lacks leader
        • Eventually wealthy buy rights to continual tax farming and begin to act like private landowners
    • Tired Empire
      • Military skill and might decline
      • Change in farming from subsistence to cash crop requires reliance on European trading
      • Loss of wealth prohibits empire from keeping up with the innovation of Europe
      • Capitulations- trade agreements lead to European dominance of Ottoman trade
    • Patrona Halil Rebellion
      • Western influences adopted and even admired in Istanbul
      • Former seaman and conservative
        • Forces the abdication of Ahmed III
      • Only lasted a few months before he was captured and executed
      • Signaled serious trouble for the Empire to surrounding countries and to the rural governors
    • Comparing Ottomans and Europeans Mistakes Religious Influence Military Social Structure Tax Structure Political Power and Structure Ottomans Europeans