2. Latin American Revolutions
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2. Latin American Revolutions

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2. Latin American Revolutions 2. Latin American Revolutions Presentation Transcript

  • Latin American Revolutions
    • Revolution Spreads to the New World
    • Will the difference in geography change the course of the struggle?
  • The Star Spangled Banner
    • Oh, say can you see by the dawn's early light What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming?Whose broad stripes and bright stars thru the perilous fight,O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
  • State
    • While the terms country, state, and nation are often used interchangeably, there is a difference.
    • A State (note the capital "S") is a self-governing political entity. The term State can be used interchangeably with country.
    • Characteristics
      • Internationally recognized territory
      • People who live there continuously
      • An organized economy
      • Government with external recognition
      • Sovereignty
      • Currently 192 Independent States in the world
  • Nation
    • A nation , however, is a tightly-knit group of people which share a common culture. A nation-state is a nation which has the same borders as a State.
    • Characteristics
      • Share Language
      • Share religion (maybe)
      • Share Culture/ Life style
      • Share History
      • Share IDENTITY
    • When a nation of people have a State or country of their own, it is called a nation-state .
    • Based on this information, determine whether each of the following is an example of a Nation (N), State (S) or Nation-State (NS)
      • United Kingdom
      • Japan
      • Puerto Rico
      • Israel
      • Palestine
      • Iraq
      • Canada
      • Germany
      • United States
      • Hong Kong
  • Soooo lets make some predictions
    • What do you think is going to happen in Latin America?
    • How will the revolts differ from those in Europe?
    • How will events in Europe effect what is going on in the colonies?
  • Latin Americans
    • Influenced by the enlightenment
      • Access to the US Declaration of independence
      • What is the French Equivalent?
      • Declaration of the Rights of Man
    • Frustrated with
      • Political and economic power of colonial officials
      • High taxes
      • Imperial monopolies
  • The Revolutionary Spark
    • NAPOLEON INVADES PORTUGAL AND SPAIN
    • Why is this going to cause a crisis of legitimacy for some colonies?
  • Spain’s Crisis of Power
    • After the Spanish resist Napoleon’s troop movements, what does Napoleon do?
    • King Ferdinand VII becomes a French prisoner
    • Junta Central formed to act as a power in his absences and coordinate the efforts against the French
    • Upset the colonies when it claims the same authority as the King over their affairs
    • After the Spanish resist Napoleon’s troop movements, what does Napoleon do?
    • King Ferdinand VII becomes a French prisoner
    • Junta Central formed to act as a power in his absences and coordinate the efforts against the French
    • Upset the colonies when it claims the same authority as the King over their affairs
  • Struggle in the Colonies
    • Junta considered the patriotic choice for Spanish citizens
    • Without the King, who might take this opportunity to gain control of the colonies?
    • Many of the colonists favored loyalty to the Junta
    • Vocal few objected
      • Mostly powerful, wealthy individuals
  • Revolt or Revolution
    • Several attempts at independence fail to achieve long term freedom
      • Spanish officials quickly and often brutally put down the revolts
      • Leads to a growing concept of unity and a distinct American identity and nationality
    • Leads to future, more successful revolutions
  • Simon Bolivar
    • Begins a series of attacks on Spanish authority in 1811
    • Goals of initial uprising:
      • Push out the Spanish elites to solidify the position of the Creoles
      • Defend slavery
      • Deny full citizenship to the “mixed-race” majority
      • Remove power from the Church
    • Claims to value popular sovereignty and representative government
  • Simon Bolivar
    • Suffers many defeats
    • Adapts his platform to attract new recruits when necessary
      • Initially supports slavery, then must denounce it to gain the help of Haiti
    • Catches a break from European Events
      • Revolt in Spain forces Ferdinand VII (reinstated after Napoleon’s defeat) to sign a constitution limiting his powers
  • Simon Bolivar
    • Attempts to unify the former Spanish colonies into a unified country not successful
      • What countries would have been included in this attempt?
        • Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador
  • And now for some more France
    • Charles X tries to return to Absolute Monarchy
      • Peasants revolt
      • Force Charles to flee to England
    • Louis-Philippe Reigned for 18 years
      • Nobility did not like him
      • 1848 mob removes him from power
    • Republic Established
      • Alphonse de Lamarinte becomes the leader
      • Radicals split into factions
      • Lamartine- political reform
      • Louis Blanc- social and economic reform
      • Leads to battling in the streets
      • People lose interest in radicals and decide to support a more moderate reform
  • France
    • Parliament and Presidency Established
      • Louis-Napoleon elected president
      • Nephew of Napoleon
      • Strong leader after instability
      • 4 Years later takes title of Emperor
      • Napoleon III Public works and investment in industrialization leads to real economic gains and prosperity
      • Why would the French return to an absolute ruler again?
  • Greece
    • Under Ottoman Empire for Centuries
    • Kept the Ancient Greek spirit, history, and culture alive
    • Revolt in 1821 World sympathizes with their cause because of their personal connections with the Ancient Greek thought
    • European nations take Greek side 1827
    • British, French, and Russian forces destroy the Ottoman Fleet
    • 1830 Greece is officially recognized
  • Old Order Breaks Down
    • Wave of failed revolution attempts from Russia to Brussels
    • Congress of Vienna restoration seems to be falling apart
    • Continued attempts all over Europe
    • Short-term gains followed by the restoration of conservative rule