2. African Imperialism


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2. African Imperialism

  1. 1. African Imperialism Grab a Human Record book off the Shelf
  2. 2. Images of Imperialism <ul><li>Grab a Human Record book </li></ul><ul><li>Turn to page 304 </li></ul><ul><li>Read the introduction to the pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Answer questions 1-6 on a sheet of paper </li></ul>
  3. 3. Imperialism <ul><li>Take a moment and write down your definition of Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>The policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Motives for Imperialism: Political <ul><li>Competing for Prestige </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of Nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French want to reclaim respect after loss to Prussians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British want to protect India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller states looking to play a role </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonial leaders personal ambitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to conquer than to negotiate </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Motives for Imperialism: Cultural <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian missionaries as part of a religious revival in Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moral duty to spread civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin’s Theories leads to racist classification of peoples </li></ul>
  6. 6. Motives for Imperialism: Economic <ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased demand for raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coal, tin, copper, chrome, manganese, gold, diamonds, sugar, coffee, tea, tobacco </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Depression 1870’s-1890’s leads to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants demand secure source of raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurs looking to other countries for investment opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risky, want backing of their own government to protect their assets </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Enabling Forces <ul><li>Machine gun for Europeans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Omdurman </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steam Engine </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Quinine </li></ul><ul><li>Varied culture and language </li></ul><ul><li>Wars between ethnic groups </li></ul>
  8. 8. Direct vs. Indirect Rule <ul><li>Direct Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A member of the imperialist nation is in control of the colony </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indirect Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperialist nation allows the governing body to be made of indigenous people under the watch of the Imperial advisor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depended in large part on whether the white settlers were in the minority or the majority </li></ul>
  9. 9. Scramble for Africa <ul><li>In 1879 90% of Africa was ruled by Africans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal portions of Africa hard to reach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large kingdoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In a decade Europeans divided the continent </li></ul>
  10. 10. Egypt <ul><li>Khedives trying to modernize the country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Borrow large sums from Europe with high interest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Huge debt payments consumes 1/3 of the countries export earnings </li></ul><ul><li>Sells shares in the Suez Canal to Great Britain to avoid bankruptcy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still does not satisfy the bankers </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Egypt <ul><li>Forced to appoint French and British to positions in government </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes increased to help pay the debt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes civil unrest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ottoman Sultan deposes Ismail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military uprising threatens Suez Canal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British send army into Egypt in 1882 and rule indirectly </li></ul>
  12. 12. Adventure Seekers Wanted <ul><li>American journalist Henry Morton Stanley convinces the King of Belgium to invest his personal fortune into acquiring the interior of Africa </li></ul>
  13. 13. Berlin Conference <ul><li>Called for by Bismarck </li></ul><ul><li>1884-1885 </li></ul><ul><li>Austria–Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden–Norway (union until 1905), the Ottoman Empire, and the United States </li></ul>
  14. 14. Berlin Conference <ul><li>Leopold II convinces other nations that African trade is beneficial to all </li></ul><ul><li>Rules to the scramble for African Territory </li></ul>
  15. 15. Berlin Conference <ul><li>Niger and Congo rivers open to all trade vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Country must actually possess a colony to claim a colony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be there doing something </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slave trade banned </li></ul><ul><li>All new territorial acquisitions must be announced </li></ul>
  16. 16. Berlin Conference <ul><li>Why would Europe feel they had the right to do this? </li></ul><ul><li>What were some of the problems caused by this conference? </li></ul><ul><li>If you were an African how would you feel about this treatment? </li></ul>