Chapter 13outlinept3
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    Chapter 13outlinept3 Chapter 13outlinept3 Presentation Transcript

    • The Great Paleozoic Extinction
      • The formation of Pangea resulted in a much dryer climate.
      • By the end Permian 57% of the amphibian families declined and plants decreased in number and variety.
      • Many marine organisms did not adapt or survive.
      • The estimate is that 80-95% of all marine organisms became extinct because they could not adapt.
    • What Dies out and Why?
      • _________ great extinctions
      • 440 m.y.a.~ only a few species survived
      • 370 m.y.a. ~70% of marine invertebrates
      • 225 m.y.a. ~ 80-96% of marine species
      • 200 m.y.a. ~ many sea and land species
      • 65 m.y.a . ~ 33% of all species. All marine reptiles, dinosaurs, etc.
    • Causes Extinction
      • ***** _________
      • _________
      • _________
      • _________
      • _________
      • Extinctions are _________ causing evolutionary changes.
      • Each of the five extinctions wiped out large masses of families and species and in each case the survivors having little or no competition diversified to fill the vacated niches.
    • Mesozoic Era: Age of Reptiles
      • This era is divided into three periods:
      • Cretaceous
      • Jurassic
      • Triassic
    • Mesozoic History
      • Much of North America is above sea level.
      • By the end of the Jurassic period shallow seas ( epicontinental seas ) invaded western North America, the Atlantic and Gulf coasts.
      • These shallow seas eventually formed gigantic swamps and later developed into coal deposits.
      • Pangea begins to break up.
      • The eastern part of the United States splits from Africa giving birth to the Atlantic Ocean.
      • The western part of North America pushes westward over riding the Pacific plate causing tectonic activity to increase resulting in the formation of the Rocky Mountains.
    • Mesozoic Life
      • On land life adapted to a dryer climate flourished.
      • _________ or seed bearing plants develop taking advantage of nutrient rich soils.
      • They became the dominant plant of the Mesozoic.
      • Gymnosperms include :
      • _________ – resemble a large pineapple plant
      • _________ – cone bearing – includes pine, firs, and junipers
      • _________ – fan-like leaves
    • The Shelled Egg vs The Egg Without A Shell
      • Amphibian Eggs :
      • _________
      • _________
      • _________
      • _________
    • Reptile Eggs
      • _________
      • _________
      • _________
      • _________
    • Reptiles Dominate
      • Lets take a look at the land the dinosaurs lived on and then take a good look at the evolution of reptiles………
    • Oldest ( reptiles )
      • Are _________ million years old
      • Many were small and squatty looking
      • A few actually walked upright
      • At first they were not huge like they became later.
    • What was it for? Some early dinosaurs had a fin on their back.
      • _________
      • _________
    • Why did the dinosaurs become so large?
      • When the climate becomes _________ , reptiles will become larger and dominate.
      • As the climate _________ , mammals will become large and dominate
    • Would there have been…….
      • more herbivores or more carnivores?
      • _________
    • Sauropods
      • Apatosaurus (Brontosaurus)
      • Brachiosaurus
      • Superiosarus
      • All had long necks, large bodies and were herbivores
    • Cretaceous
      • No grasses yet, but we already have flowering plants
      • _________ – herbivores that could chew their food.
      • _________ – could not chew their food (gizzard).
      • _________ – bird like dinosaurs including veloceraptor.
      • Reptiles radiate until they even occupy the poles.
    • Flying reptiles not dinosaurs: They were pterosaurs – flying reptiles
    • Jurassic
      • Dinosaurs split in to two groups:
      • _________
      • _________
    • What do we know about T. Rex adults?
      • Most likely a _________ because?
      • _________
      • _________ .
      • Thigh bone to long to be able to run fast. Compare to birds who are fast. T. Rex was a better _________ .
      • Great sense of _________ l.
      • _________ – optic nerve very small.
    • How did carnivores get their food?
      • _________ .
      • _________ .
      • _________ .
    • Reptiles at the poles, how is this possible?
      • _________ .
      • _________ .
    • Is it possible that…..
      • Some of the smaller dinosaurs were warm blooded.
      • If that is true, then is it possible that some of them could have evolved into :
      • _________
    • Original birds
      • has feathers, some could fly, had teeth
      • EX: _________ - could fly
      • _________
    • Dinosaur Extinction
    • What was the over all reason for dinosaur extinction ?
      • _________
      • This was caused by :
      • 1. _________
      • 2. _________
      • 3. _________
    • This directly affect the dinosaurs by?
      • 1. _________
      • 2. _________
      • 3. _________
      • 4. _________
    • Cenozoic Era
      • Age of _________ - 65 m.y.a.
      • The Cenozoic is divided into two periods :
      • Quaternary – the last 2 million years
      • Tertiary
    • Cenozoic Life
      • Mammals become the dominant form of life.
      • Angiosperms – flowering plants with covered seeds replace gymnosperms as the dominant land plant.
      • _________ influence the development of both birds and mammals.
      • _________ develop by the Tertiary period making them one of the newest plants.
      • This fostered the emergence of herbivorous mammals that later established conditions for carnivore evolution.
    • Warmblooded means:
      • 1- a constant _________
      • 2- a need to _________
      • 3- more _________ organisms
      • 4- development of _________ , more efficient _________ and lungs, _________ to nourish young
      • Mammal diversification adaptations include :
      • 1- increase in _________
      • 2- increase in _________
      • 3- specialization of _________ to better accommodate a particular diet
      • 4- specialization of _________ to better equip the animal for life in a particular environment
    • Original Mammals
      • 1. _________ :
      • ex: _________
      • _________
    • Original Mammals
      • 2. _________ :
      • pouched mammals
      • EX: _________
      • _________ _________ _________
      • _________ _________ _________
    • Original Mammals
      • 3. _________ :
      • ex: all modern mammals
    • Large Mammals and Extinction
      • Many large mammals existed until 11,000 years ago.
      • This list includes :
      • Mammoth
      • Saber-toothed cats
      • Horses
      • Giant ground sloths
      • Large beaver
      • Giant bison
      • Camels
    • Human’s Affect Other Species
      • Humans may have played a part in the extinction of the animals, but there must be a much better reason. What could it be?
      • If an animal can reproduce at a rate that is ____% higher than a competing organism, the animal with the higher birth rate will win out and survive while its competitor will become extinct.