Chronis Kokkinos-Development opportunities of Greek Ports and Contribution to the Greek Economy
Development Opportunities of Greek Ports &Contribution to the Greek EconomyPresentation to the European Maritime Week ConferenceMay 23rd, 2013
- 1 -Development opportunities and challenges vary depending on the type of demand:Transit TrafficTraffic from / to other countries transported to / from the port using landtransportation.The relevant economies affect the size of the market and thecompetitiveness of each port (including access) its own market share.TransshipmentTrafficTraffic that reaches the port on large / smaller vessels and get reloadedto smaller / large vessels to be forwarded to the final destination.The geographic proximity of the port to the main shipping routes is akey parameter affecting transshipment potential.Domestic TrafficDomestic traffic originating from the country or with a final destination inthe country.The market is affected by the country’s economy while portcompetitiveness affects the relevant market shares.
- 2 -Also, each type of demand has very different economic impact in terms of jobcreation and GDP growth.TransshipmentDemandImport / ExportDemandTransit Demand• Mainly in-port impact• In-port impact• Local warehousingand inland transport• In-port impact• Logistics Centers• International transport• Multi-modality
- 3 -Transit traffic, which would have the largest value added, is very small in Greekports and represents possibly the largest untapped opportunity for growth.DomesticDemand1.0 mnTransitDemand0.05 mnTransshipmentTraffic2.0 mnTotal Traffic 20123.1 mn TEUs**Small discrepancies due to rounding – sourcecompany published dataOutlook Comments?Domestic economic conditions /level of containerization of exports.Geographic position and investmentprogram, especially at Piraeus.Possibly the largest growthopportunity
- 4 -Greece has an advantageous geographical position for its ports to serve the Asia –South East Europe trade.Market estimatedat about 1 – 2.5mn TEUs
- 5 -Overall trends are supportive of this effort, as the Europe – Asia trade is increasingand Mediterranean ports are strengthening their position as gateways to Europe.27%41%48%73%59%52%0%20%40%60%80%100%1990 2000 2011European and Mediterraneancontainer trafficMediterranean North Europemarketshareintheregion05101520251995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011Maritime Container trade on East -WestRoutesTranspacific Europe-Far East TransatlanticmillionTEUsSource: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD),Review of Maritime Transport 2012Source: Containerization International, National Bank of Greece Sector Report 4/2013
- 6 -To exploit these opportunities, land transport infrastructure is critical and, giventhe current situation of both Greece and of other countries on the route to CentralEurope, significant investments may be needed.CountryRoad InfrastructureScore (rank)Rail InfrastructureScore (rank)Greece 4.0 (71) 2.5 (69)Bulgaria 2.5 (129) 3.0 (56)FYROM 3.0 (108) 1.9 (93)Serbia 2.7 (122) 1.7 (102)Romania 1.9 (142) 2.2 (83)Slovenia 5.0 (38) 3.1 (54)Hungary 4.0 (69) 3.5 (42)Croatia 5.3 (29) 3.2 (49)Italy 4.3 (57) 3.6 (40)France 6.5 (1) 6.3 (4)Spain 5.9 (13) 5.7 (8)Quality of Transportation Infrastructure in Selected CountriesSource: World Economic Forum, Global Competitiveness Report 2012-2013. Rank is out of 144 countries.
- 7 -In essence, Greece could play the same role for SE Europe as Northern Europeanports do for North Europe. Based on the provision of integrated services, theseports have become major contributors to GDP and employment.PortValueAdded(€ bn)Value Added as% of Region’sGDPValue Added as% of NationalGDPEmploymentPort ClusterRegionLe Havre / Rouen 7.0 21.3% 0.4% 55,000 Seine-MaritimeAntwerp 9.8 15.5% 2.9% 65,000 AntwerpenRotterdam 12.8 10.3% 2.2% 75,000 Zuid-HollandAmsterdam 1.9 1.9% 0.3% 15,000 Noord-HollandZeebrugge 0.9 2.7% 0.3% N/A West-VlaanderenSource: Merck, O., et al (2011), “The Competitiveness of Global Port-Cities: the Case of the Seine Axis (Le Havre,Rouen, Paris, Caen) – France”, OECD Regional Development Working Papers, 2011/07, OECD Publishing.
- 8 -ConclusionsGreece has the potential to become a major logistics hub for SouthEast Europe.Driven by the ports, this development would create a dynamic portcluster as per the ones of the Northern European ports. The transportsector will be a major value contributor.Such a development would not only support economic growth butwould also increase the overall importance of Greece in the regionpossibly starting a virtuous growth cycle.
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