Multimedia Learning Principles By Jackie McConaughy
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Multimedia Principle• Include both words and graphics on screen• Words are either written text (printed on the screen that an audience reads) or spoken text (speech that an audience listens to)• Graphics are static illustrations such as drawings, charts, graphs, maps, photos, videos and animations
Contiguity Principle• Coordinate printed words and graphics• Printed words and graphics should be placed near each other on the screen• Coordinate spoken words and graphics• When spoken words describe an action that is shown on screen, the spoken words and graphics should be presented at the same time
Modality Principle• Use spoken words rather than printed words when the graphic is the focus of the words and both are presented at the same time• Use spoken words instead of printed words when you are able to• When printed words and spoken words are used on the same screen, the audience tends to experience an overload of information
Redundancy Principle• Avoid using printed text that states the same points as the spoken text• When using graphics explained by narration, avoid redundant printed text presented at the same time as graphics and narrations• Audiences will pay attention to the written words and will not pay close enough attention to the graphics
Coherence Principle• Keep the presentation uncluttered• Do not add any material that does not support the instructional goal• Avoid extra background audio• Avoid extra graphics• Avoid extra words• Extra audio, graphics and words can be distracting
Personalization Principle• Use a conversation style of writing• Use virtual coaches to present the information on the screen• Virtual coaches allow for an informal conversation between the presenter and the audience Hi Everyone! My name is Elli the Elephant and I will be your guide.
Segmenting Principle• The lesson should be broken into manageable segments• Presenting too much information in one segment may be intimidating for the audience and cause information overload• Break the lesson into smaller parts that are presented one at a time
Pretraining Principle• Provide pretraining on the key concepts of the lesson• Identify and explain the important concepts prior to the lesson so students are not overwhelmed with information• Pretraining can help beginners manage the new information better
ReferencesClark, R. & Mayer, R. E. (2008). e-Learning and the Science of Instruction. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.Google images (Retrieved 5/12/11) http://www.google.comHeather’s Animations (Retrieved 5/12/11) http://www.heathersanimations.com