A combined reading of equitable and reasonable utilisation, and ecosystem services
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A combined reading of equitable and reasonable utilisation, and ecosystem services, by Dr. Alistair Rieu-Clarke, Senior Lecturer, IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science under the auspices ...

A combined reading of equitable and reasonable utilisation, and ecosystem services, by Dr. Alistair Rieu-Clarke, Senior Lecturer, IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science under the auspices of UNESCO, University of Dundee, Scotland.

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  • 13. <0D97-b6gh!"3%T#AB8/4>7-4.?O-4C2.4>7- MP  34/-092B0C-$/4/-CCG4778./G-800-CH-9DE-/-008/208-CBD78C-4. 8./-0.4D2.4754/-092B0C-8.4.-AB8/4>7-4.?0-4C2.4>7- =4..-0P(.H40D9B74064.8./-0.4D2.4754/-092B0C-CG477>-BC-? 4.??-E-72H-?>:54/-092B0C-$/4/-C58/G4E8-5/24X48.8.@ 2HD=474.?CBC/48.4>7-BD78C4D2./G-0-214.?>-.-^/C /G-0-102=6/4F8.@8./24992B.//G-8./-0-C/C21/G-54/-092B0C- $/4/-C92.9-0.-?692.C8C/-./58/G4?-AB4/-H02/-9D2.21/G- 54/-092B0C-P KP  34/-092B0C-$/4/-CCG477H40D98H4/-8./G-BC-6?-E-72H=-./4.? H02/-9D2.214.8./-0.4D2.4754/-092B0C-8.4.-AB8/4>7-4.? 0-4C2.4>7-=4..-0P$B9GH40D98H4D2.8.97B?-C>2/G/G-08@G//2 BD78i-/G-54/-092B0C-4.?/G-?B/:/2922H-04/-8./G- H02/-9D2.4.??-E-72H=-.//G-0-2164CH02E8?-?8./G-H0-C-./ %2.E-.D2.P()*+)#,*%-./0-12034/-0,456*2789:4.?$98-.9-pB.?-0/G-4BCH89-C21!"#$%& $78?-pMI
  • 14. <0/Pu6gh!"3%TO-7-E4./S49/20C;%809B=C/4.9-C MP  !D78C4D2.214.8./-0.4D2.4754/-092B0C-8.4.-AB8/4>7-4.? 0-4C2.4>7-=4..-058/G8./G-=-4.8.@2140D97-b0-AB80-C /4F8.@8./24992B./4770-7-E4./149/20C4.?9809B=C/4.9-C6 8.97B?8.@v International Water Law Research Institute [4  Z-2@04HG896G:?02@04HG896G:?0272@89476978=4D96-9272@8947 4.?2/G-0149/20C214.4/B0479G4049/-0w Sharing Transboundary Waters An Integrated Assessment of Equitable Entitlement [>  QG-C298474.?-92.2=89.--?C21/G-54/-092B0C-$/4/-C 92.9-0.-?w Law • Hydrology • Economics [9  QG-H2HB74D2.?-H-.?-./2./G-54/-092B0C-8.-49G 54/-092B0C-$/4/-w [?  QG--f-9/C21/G-BC-20BC-C21/G-54/-092B0C-C8.2.- 54/-092B0C-$/4/-2.2/G-054/-092B0C-$/4/-Cw [-  #d8CD.@4.?H2/-.D47BC-C21/G-54/-092B0C-w [1  %2.C-0E4D2.6H02/-9D2.6?-E-72H=-./4.?-92.2=:21 BC-21/G-54/-00-C2B09-C21/G-54/-092B0C-4.?/G- 92C/C21=-4CB0-C/4F-./2/G4/-f-9/w [@  QG-4E4874>878/:2147/-0.4DE-C62192=H404>7-E47B-6/24 H40D9B740H74..-?20-d8CD.@BC-P The Legal Assessment Model l Transboundary Water Resources Management: Using the Law to Develop Effective National Water Strategy IP  QG-5-8@G//2>-@8E-./2-49G149/208C/2>-?-/-0=8.-?>: Dr Patricia Wouters, Director, IWLRI Dr Sergei Vinogradov 8/C8=H20/4.9-8.92=H408C2.58/G/G4/212/G-00-7-E4./ Andrew Allan Patricia Jones Dr Alistair Rieuclarke 149/20CP(.?-/-0=8.8.@5G4/8C40-4C2.4>7-4.?-AB8/4>7- www.dundee.ac.uk/law/iwlri BC-64770-7-E4./149/20C40-/2>-92.C8?-0-?/2@-/G-04.?4 92.97BC82.0-49G-?2./G->4C8C21/G-5G27-P iii()*+)#,*%-./0-12034/-0,456*2789:4.?$98-.9-pB.?-0/G-4BCH89-C21!"#$%& $78?-pM_
  • 15. <0D97-h6gh!"3%T"2$8@.8^94./)40= MP34/-092B0C-$/4/-CCG47768.BD78i8.@4.8./-0.4D2.47 54/-092B0C-8./G-80/-008/208-C6/4F-4774HH02H084/- =-4CB0-C/2H0-E-.//G-94BC8.@21C8@.8^94./G40=/2 2/G-054/-092B0C-$/4/-CP KP3G-0-C8@.8^94./G40=.-E-0/G-7-CC8C94BC-?/2 4.2/G-054/-092B0C-$/4/-6/G-$/4/-C5G2C-BC- 94BC-CCB9GG40=CG47768./G-4>C-.9-214@0--=-./ /2CB9GBC-6/4F-4774HH02H084/-=-4CB0-C6G4E8.@?B- 0-@40?120/G-H02E8C82.C2140D97-Cb4.?u68. 92.CB7/4D2.58/G/G-4f-9/-?$/4/-6/2-78=8.4/-20 =8D@4/-CB9GG40=4.?65G-0-4HH02H084/-6/2?8C9BCC /G-AB-CD2.2192=H-.C4D2.P()*+)#,*%-./0-12034/-0,456*2789:4.?$98-.9-pB.?-0/G-4BCH89-C21!"#$%& $78?-pMb
  • 16. <0/PKL6gh!"3%T#92C:C/-=*02/-9D2. 34/-092B0C- $/4/-C CG4776 8.?8E8?B477: 4.?6 5G-0- 4HH02H084/-6 c28./7:6 H02/-9/ 4.? H0-C-0E- /G- -92C:C/-=C 21 8./-0.4D2.4754/-092B0C-CP VQG- -92C:C/-= 4HH0249G 8C 4 C/04/-@: 120 /G- 8./-@04/-? =4.4@-=-./ 21 74.?6 54/-0 4.? 78E8.@ 0-C2B09-C/G4/H02=2/-C92.C-0E4D2.4.?CBC/48.4>7- BC-8.4.-AB8/4>7-54:W[%]N%&*N-98C82.xyu ()*+)#,*%-./0-12034/-0,456*2789:4.?$98-.9-pB.?-0/G-4BCH89-C21!"#$%& $78?-pMu
  • 17. #92C:C/-=4HH0249G8.Q0-4/:*049D9-•  O-@82.47 –  MggK!"#%#)-7C8.F834/-092B0C-C %2.E-.D2. –  KLLLO-E8C-?$<N%*02/29272. $G40-?34/-092B0C-$:C/-=C •  ]4C8. –  MghaZ0-4/,4F-C34/-0zB478/: <@0--=-./ –  KLLI%2.E-.D2.2./G- Y4.4@-=-./21,4F-Q4.@4.:8F4 –  KLLI*02/2927120$BC/48.4>7- N-E-72H=-./21,4F-x89/2084 –  MggbY-F2.@<@0--=-./ –  Mgg_N4.B>-%2.E-.D2. –  Mghb$/4/B/-21/G-O8E-0!0B@B4:()*+)#,*%-./0-12034/-0,456*2789:4.?$98-.9-pB.?-0/G-4BCH89-C21!"#$%& $78?-pMh
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  • 20. #92C:C/-=CC-0E89-CT94C94?-C Figure 2: The relationship between biodiversity, ecosystem function and human well being. [)48.-C+{2B.@;*2/C9G8.6KLLg()*+)#,*%-./0-12034/-0,456*2789:4.?$98-.9-pB.?-0/G-4BCH89-C21!"#$%& $78?-pKL
  • 21. S0-CG54/-0-92C:C/-=C-0E89-C !"#$%&#()* Carbon sequestration +,(-&.#%/ Floodwater detentionNutrient & contaminant transformation Food chain support ()*+)#,*%-./0-12034/-0,456*2789:4.?$98-.9-pB.?-0/G-4BCH89-C21!"#$%& $78?-pKM
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  • 24. #O!4.?#92C:C/-=$-0E89-C [4 Z-2@04HG896G:?02@04HG896G:?0272@89476 978=4D96-9272@89474.?2/G-0149/20C214 <0--92C:C/-= .4/B0479G4049/-0w [> QG-C298474.?-92.2=89.--?C21/G- C-0E89-C0-7-E4./ 54/-092B0C-$/4/-C92.9-0.-?w 149/20CB.?-0<0D97- [9 QG-H2HB74D2.?-H-.?-./2./G- 54/-092B0C-8.-49G54/-092B0C-$/4/-w u21/G-Mggh!" [? QG--f-9/C21/G-BC-20BC-C21/G- 54/-092B0C-C8.2.-54/-092B0C-$/4/-2. 34/-092B0C-C 2/G-054/-092B0C-$/4/-Cw [- #d8CD.@4.?H2/-.D47BC-C21/G- %2.E-.D2.k 54/-092B0C-w [1  %2.C-0E4D2.6H02/-9D2.6?-E-72H=-./4.? -92.2=:21BC-21/G-54/-00-C2B09-C21 /G-54/-092B0C-4.?/G-92C/C21=-4CB0-C /4F-./2/G4/-f-9/w [@ QG-4E4874>878/:2147/-0.4DE-C621 92=H404>7-E47B-6/24H40D9B740H74..-? 20-d8CD.@BC-P()*+)#,*%-./0-12034/-0,456*2789:4.?$98-.9-pB.?-0/G-4BCH89-C21!"#$%& $78?-pK_
  • 25. xPN2-C#O!;#92C:C/-= $-0E89-CY8dk
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  • 27. ]B/l8=H7-=-./4D2.0-AB80-C4??0-CC8.@IF-:AB-CD2.C [$47i=4.6QG2=HC2.6J0P;N487:6KLLM MPN25-B.?-0C/4.?-.2B@G4>2B//G- 78.F4@-C>-/5--.-92C:C/-=1B.9D2. 4.?H02E8C82.C21C-0E89-CC25-94. 5-8@G-92C:C/-==4.4@-=-./2HD2.Ck KP)2594.5--C/4>78CG4HH02H084/- 0-@B74D2.4.?8.CD/BD2.C120-92C:C/-= C-0E89-CH02E8C82.Ck IP)25?25-E47B-C-0E89-Ck()*+)#,*%-./0-12034/-0,456*2789:4.?$98-.9-pB.?-0/G-4BCH89-C21!"#$%& $78?-pKh
  • 28. MP,8.F4@-C>-/5--.-92C:C/-=1B.9D2.4.?H02E8C82.C21C-0E89-C Z-.-047 •  VS-5C/B?8-CG4E->--.4>7-/2/049- Q04.C>2B.?40:%2.C8?-04D2.C /G-92=H7-/-mH02?B9D2.9G48.R102= -9272@8947C/0B9/B0-4.?H029-CC-C •  $H4D47C947-C78F-7:/2>-4 /G02B@G/2GB=4.5-77+>-8.@W >8@@-0149/20k •  !.8AB-4HH0249G-C/2?4/4 •  V3-47C2.--?/2>-X-0B.?-0C/4.? @4/G-08.@y4.47:C8Ck /G-4HH02H084/-CH4D474.?/-=H2047 C947-C4/5G89G-9272@8947C:C/-=C 2H-04/-81/G--92C:C/-=C-0E89-C40- •  <99-CC8>878/:21C-.C8DE-?4/4 /2>-=4.4@-?58C-7:200-C/20-?81 4902CC>20?-0Ck /G-:G4E->--.?4=4@-?W [)48.-C+{2B.@;*2/C9G8.()*+)#,*%-./0-12034/-0,456*2789:4.?$98-.9-pB.?-0/G-4BCH89-C21!"#$%& $78?-pKa
  • 29. KP)2594.5--C/4>78CG4HH02H084/-0-@B74D2.4.?8.CD/BD2.C120-92C:C/-=C-0E89-CH02E8C82.Ck Z-.-047 •  ,-@47S04=-520FC Q04.C>2B.?40:%2.C8?-04D2.C •  S04@=-./4D2.217-@47 •  *02H-0/:O8@G/C 104=-520FCk •  %2./-C/-?H02H-0/:08@G/C8. •  #.4>78.@(.CD/BD2.C H049D9-k •  <0-/G-0--f-9DE-8.CD/BD2.C8. •  Z22?Z2E-0.4.9-[/04.CH40-.9:6 H749-k H40D98H4D2.64992B./4>878/: •  #f-9DE-C/4F-G27?-0H40D98H4D2. 4//G-/04.C>2B.?40:7-E-7k Vl=4.4@8.@74.?4.?54/-08./-049D2.C8C?8e9B7/>-94BC-21/G-&)6(23%18%30.$.3/"$2!*3!%,%9./"$!0"8% !"$#23"!P ,4.?G27?-0C BHC/0-4= 94. 4f-9/ 54/-0 AB4.D/: 4.? 54/-0 AB478/: ?25.C/0-4= /G02B@G /G-80 ?-98C82.C 2. 74.?+=4.4@-=-./ H049D9-C6 >B/ /G-: G4E- 78X7- 8.9-.DE- /2 92.C8?-0 /G-C- 8=H49/C >-94BC- /G-: 40- .2/ 4f-9/-? ?80-9/7:P 34/-0 BC-0C G4E- 78X7- 8.9-.DE- /2 H4: 120 8=H02E-? 54/-0CG-? C-0E89- H02E8C82.81/G-:94..2/-d97B?-.2.+H4:-0C102=-.c2:8.@/G-C->-.-^/PW[*2004C64.?2/G-0C()*+)#,*%-./0-12034/-0,456*2789:4.?$98-.9-pB.?-0/G-4BCH89-C21!"#$%& $78?-pKg
  • 30. (=H7-=-./4D2.T7-@474.?8.CD/BD2.4792.C8?-04D2.C •  ,#Z<,SO<Y#3&OU$ •  <HH02H084/-,-@47(.C/0B=-./C •  $92H-4.?%2./-./21*#$+O-74/-?,-@8C74D2. •  *O&*#OQ{O(Z)Q$ •  !.?-0C/4.?8.@*02H-0/:O8@G/C •  (=H20/4.9-21*02H-0/:O8@G/C120*#$ •  %G477-.@-C21*#$$9G-=-CO-74/-?/2*02H-0/:O8@G/C •  S8.?8.@*02H-0/:O8@G/C$27BD2.C120*#$ •  #"<],("Z("$Q(Q!Q(&"$ •  (=H20/4.9-21,454.?*2789: •  Q:H-C21(.CD/BD2.C4.?/G-80O27-C •  %G477-.@-C21]B87?8.@4$2B.?(.CD/BD2.47S04=-520F •  %&"QO<%Q($$!#$ •  *02c-9/*74. •  (?-.D^94D2.21*40D-C •  S20=4.?,-@47"4/B0-21/G-<@0--=-./ •  &>c-9DE-4.?$92H- •  O8@G/C4.?&>78@4D2.C •  *4:=-./$/0B9/B0- •  NB04D2. •  O8CF<77294D2. •  Y2.8/208.@4.?O-H20D.@ •  O-=-?8-C4.?N8CHB/-$-X7-=-./ •  Z&x#O"<"%# •  (=H20/4.9-21Z22?Z2E-0.4.9-12034/-0CG-?*#$ •  *B>789*40D98H4D2. •  Q04.CH40-.9:4.?<99-CC/2(.120=4D2. •  <992B./4>878/:4.?/G-OB7-21,45()*+)#,*%-./0-12034/-0,456*2789:4.?$98-.9-pB.?-0/G-4BCH89-C21!"#$%& $78?-pIL
  • 31. (=H7-=-./4D2.T7-@474.?8.CD/BD2.4792.C8?-04D2.C Figure 1. Major issues in the process of establishing PES Are there any significant water management problems in the river Identify problems and risks (e.g. by using No diagnostic analysis of environmental basin? problems, including analysis of rights and responsibilities of stakeholder groups). Yes - Analyse past experiences and the Can ecosystem services help to at least partly address these water effectiveness of measures (e.g. policy No management problems? Can these problems be solved or measures, laws/regulations, mitigated by means of a project such as a change in land use or economic/financial instruments) and infrastructure solutions. management practice? - Check available information, including results of scientific research. - Make use of local knowledge and habits. Yes - Quantify ecosystem services (based on biophysical analysis; hydrological models, Do the costs and benefits of the PES scheme compare favourably etc.). No with those of feasible alternative projects (e.g. an infrastructure - Carry out a valuation of ecosystem solution)? services (based on cost-benefit analysis, multi-criteria analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis). Yes !"#%#6O-92==-.?4D2.C2.*4:=-./C120 #92C:C/-=$-0E89-C6KLLh()*+)#,*%-./0-12034/-0,456*2789:4.?$98-.9-pB.?-0/G-4BCH89-C21!"#$%& $78?-pIM
  • 32. Organize dialogue about the main features of the PES mechanism and Is a PES scheme politically acceptable, or can political support be related opportunities and risks. mobilized? Conduct stakeholder analysis to Are there any potential buyers and sellers of ecosystem services? identify the main beneficiaries and service providers. No Consider an awareness-raising campaign Can negotiations between potential buyers and sellers be (e.g. to change willingness to pay and/or successfully concluded? willingness to accept). Yes PROCEED WITH THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PES - Create an effective and efficient legal and organizational framework for the operationPES schemes are not an of the PES scheme.option, at least for the - Ensure effective monitoring of contracttime being. compliance and flexible adaptation of the PES scheme to changing economic and environmental conditions. 21
  • 33. KP)2594.5--C/4>78CG4HH02H084/-0-@B74D2.4.?8.CD/BD2.C120-92C:C/-=C-0E89-CH02E8C82.Ck Z-.-047 •  ,-@47S04=-520FC Q04.C>2B.?40:%2.C8?-04D2.C •  S04@=-./4D2.217-@47 •  *02H-0/:O8@G/C 104=-520FCk •  %2./-C/-?H02H-0/:08@G/C8. •  #.4>78.@(.CD/BD2.C H049D9-k •  <0-/G-0--f-9DE-8.CD/BD2.C8. •  Z22?Z2E-0.4.9-[/04.CH40-.9:6 H749-k H40D98H4D2.64992B./4>878/: •  #f-9DE-C/4F-G27?-0H40D98H4D2. 4//G-/04.C>2B.?40:7-E-7k Vl=4.4@8.@74.?4.?54/-08./-049D2.C8C?8e9B7/>-94BC-21/G-&)6(23%18%30.$.3/"$2!*3!%,%9./"$!0"8% !"$#23"!P ,4.?G27?-0C BHC/0-4= 94. 4f-9/ 54/-0 AB4.D/: 4.? 54/-0 AB478/: ?25.C/0-4= /G02B@G /G-80 ?-98C82.C 2. 74.?+=4.4@-=-./ H049D9-C6 >B/ /G-: G4E- 78X7- 8.9-.DE- /2 92.C8?-0 /G-C- 8=H49/C >-94BC- /G-: 40- .2/ 4f-9/-? ?80-9/7:P 34/-0 BC-0C G4E- 78X7- 8.9-.DE- /2 H4: 120 8=H02E-? 54/-0CG-? C-0E89- H02E8C82.81/G-:94..2/-d97B?-.2.+H4:-0C102=-.c2:8.@/G-C->-.-^/PW[*2004C64.?2/G-0C()*+)#,*%-./0-12034/-0,456*2789:4.?$98-.9-pB.?-0/G-4BCH89-C21!"#$%& $78?-pII
  • 34. IP)25?25-E47B-C-0E89-Ck Z-.-047 •  V3-.--?4=20-92=H0-G-.C8E- B.?-0C/4.?8.@4.?-CD=4D2.[AB478/4DE-6 Q04.C>2B.?40:%2.C8?-04D2.C AB4.D/4DE-4.?4@@0-@4/-21/G-04.@-21 E47B-CH02E8?-?>:?8f-0-./-92C:C/-= C-0E89-C4.?G25/G-C-40-8./-0H0-/-?>: •  zB-CD2.217-@8D=49: ?8f-0-./C/4F-G27?-0C4/?8f-0-./C947-C[-P@P 72947EP0-@82.47P •  "--?120/G-?-E-72H=-./21>-X-0E47B4D2. •  %4./04.C>2B.?40: =-/G2?C120-92C:C/-=C-0E89-C6-P@P6=-/G2?C /G4/-=>-?4>-X-0C98-.D^9B.?-0C/4.?8.@ 8.CD/BD2.C=4F- 21-92C:C/-=1B.9D2.C4.?H029-CC-C8./2 =2.-/40:4.?.2.+=2.-/40:E47B4D2. E47B4D2.C4.?49/4C =-/G2?C64.?5G89G94.94H/B0-/G-04.@-21 C/4F-G27?-08./-0-C/CP ?-98C82.+=4F8.@120B=Ck •  3-47C2.--?=20--f-9DE-E47B4D2. =-/G2?C6/G4/94.4CC8C/?-98C82.+=4F-0C/2 ?-4758/G/G-=B7DH7-/04?-+2fC8=H7898/8./G- CBC/48.4>7-=4.4@-=-./21-92C:C/-= C-0E89-C4.?H2E-0/:477-E84D2.W[#$*<6KLMLP ()*+)#,*%-./0-12034/-0,456*2789:4.?$98-.9-pB.?-0/G-4BCH89-C21!"#$%& $78?-pI_
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